The regeneration of myelin is known to restore axonal conduction velocity after a demyelinating event. Remyelination failure in the central nervous system contributes to the severity and progression of demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Remyelination is controlled by many signaling pathways, such as the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway, as shown by the canonical activation of its key effector Smoothened (Smo), which increases the proliferation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells via the upregulation of the transcription factor Gli1. On the other hand, the inhibition of Gli1 was also found to promote the recruitment of a subset of adult neural stem cells and their subsequent differentiation into oligodendrocytes. Since Smo is also able to transduce Shh signals via various non-canonical pathways such as the blockade of Gli1, we addressed the potential of non-canonical Smo signaling to contribute to oligodendroglial cell maturation in myelinating cells using the non-canonical Smo agonist GSA-10, which downregulates Gli1. Using the Oli-neuM cell line, we show that GSA-10 promotes Gli2 upregulation, MBP and MAL/OPALIN expression via Smo/AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) signaling, and efficiently increases the number of axonal contact/ensheathment for each oligodendroglial cell. Moreover, GSA-10 promotes the recruitment and differentiation of oligodendroglial progenitors into the demyelinated corpus callosum in vivo. Altogether, our data indicate that non-canonical signaling involving Smo/AMPK modulation and Gli1 downregulation promotes oligodendroglia maturation until axon engagement. Thus, GSA-10, by activation of this signaling pathway, represents a novel potential remyelinating agent.
Background: Neuroinflammation plays a crucial role in initiating and sustaining lumbar radicular pain (LRP). Protectin DX (PDX) has been experimentally verified to possess pro-resolving properties and anti-inflammatory effects. This study aimed to observe the analgesic effects of PDX and its potential mechanisms in LRP rats with non-compressive lumbar disc herniation (NCLDH).Method: Only male rats were selected to avoid gender-related interferences. Rat models of NCLDH were established, and rats were randomly divided into four groups: the sham group, the vehicle group, the PDX (10 ng PDX) group, and the PDX (100 ng PDX) group. Changes in the mechanical withdrawal threshold and thermal withdrawal latency were observed for 7 days. The mRNAs of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators were evaluated via real-time polymerase chain reaction, whereas western blot and immunohistochemistry were separately conducted to assess the expression levels of autophagy-related proteins and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling.Results: Intrathecal delivery of PDX reduced interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β mRNA levels and facilitated mRNA transcription of transforming growth factor-β1, with attenuation of mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in LRP rat models. With the application of nucleus pulposus to the dorsal root ganglion, autophagy flux and AMPK signaling were severely disrupted in the spinal dorsal horns, and intrathecal treatment with PDX could dose-dependently restore the dysfunction of autophagy flux and AMPK signaling.Conclusion: These data suggest that PDX possesses pro-resolving properties and exerts potent analgesic effects in LRP by affecting autophagy flux via AMPK signaling.
Beef is an important dietary source of quality animal proteins and amino acids in human nutrition. The fatty acid composition is one of the indispensable indicators affecting nutritional value of beef. However, a comprehensive understanding of the expression changes underlying fatty acid composition in representative beef cuts is needed in cattle. This study aimed to characterize the dynamics of fatty acid composition using comparative transcriptomic analysis in five different type of beef cuts. We identified 7545 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) among 10 pair-wise comparisons. Co-expression gene network analysis identified two modules, which were significantly correlated with 2 and 20 fatty acid composition, respectively. We also identified 38 candidate genes, and functional enrichment showed that these genes were involved in fatty acid biosynthetic process and degradation, PPAR, and AMPK signaling pathway. Moreover, we observed a cluster of DEGs (e.g., SCD, LPL, FABP3, and PPARD) which were involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism and adipocyte differentiation. Our results provide some valuable insights into understanding the transcriptome regulation of candidate genes on fatty acid composition of beef cuts, and our findings may facilitate the designs of genetic selection program for beneficial fatty acid composition in beef cattle.
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD), as a life-threatening global disease, is receiving worldwide attention. Seeking novel therapeutic strategies and agents is of utmost importance to curb CVD. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activators derived from natural products are promising agents for cardiovascular drug development owning to regulatory effects on physiological processes and diverse cardiometabolic disorders. In the past decade, different therapeutic agents from natural products and herbal medicines have been explored as good templates of AMPK activators. Hereby, we overviewed the role of AMPK signaling in the cardiovascular system, as well as evidence implicating AMPK activators as potential therapeutic tools. In the present review, efforts have been made to compile and update relevant information from both preclinical and clinical studies, which investigated the role of natural products as AMPK activators in cardiovascular therapeutics.
Objective: Obesity caused by a high-fat diet (HFD) will expand adipose tissue and cause chronic low-grade systemic inflammation, leading to osteoporosis. Folic acid (FA) is a water-soluble vitamin that plays an essential role in regulating blood lipids and antioxidants. However, the effects and underlying mechanisms of FA in osteoporosis induced by an HFD remain poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the effect of FA on bone health by using HFD-induced osteoporosis mice.Materials and Methods: Mice were fed a normal diet, HFD or an HFD supplemented with FA (20 μg/ml in drinking water) for 16 weeks. Throughout the 16 weeks study period, the rats were weighed once every week. GTT, ITT and lipid indexes were detected to evaluate the effects of FA on lipid metabolism in the HFD-fed mice. Morphological and structural changes of the femur and tibial bone were observed using micro-CT, HE staining and bone conversion parameters. The expression of MDA, SOD and inflammatory factors were detected to evaluate the effects of FA on oxidative stress and inflammatory response in the HFD-fed mice. Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot (WB) were used to investigate the AMPK signaling pathway.Results: After the intervention of FA, the body fat rate of obese mice was reduced, and related metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, and systemic inflammation were alleviated. In correlation with those modifications, FA attenuated bone loss and improved bone microarchitecture, accompanied the number of osteoclasts and adipocytes decreased. Furthermore, FA promoted the phosphorylation of AMPK, thereby promoting the expression of Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) and antioxidant enzymes.Conclusion: These findings suggest that FA may modulate lipid metabolism and oxidative stress responses activating the AMPK signaling pathway, thereby alleviating HFD-induced osteoporosis. The results from our study provide experimental evidence to prevent HFD-induced osteoporosis.