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Lauren G. Staples ◽  
Nick Webb ◽  
Lia Asrianti ◽  
Shane Cross ◽  
Daniel Rock ◽  

Digital mental health services (DMHSs) deliver mental health information, assessment, and treatment, via the internet, telephone, or other digital channels. The current study compares two DMHSs operating in Western Australia (WA)—The Practitioner Online Referral System (PORTS) and MindSpot. Both provide telephone and online psychological services at no cost to patients or referrers. However, PORTS is accessed by patients via referral from health practitioners, and is designed to reach those who are financially, geographically, or otherwise disadvantaged. In contrast, MindSpot services are available to all Australian residents and patients can self-refer. This observational study compares characteristics and treatment outcomes for patients of PORTS and MindSpot in WA. Eligible patients were people who resided in WA and registered with either clinic from January 2019 to December 2020. Results showed that PORTS patients were more likely to be older, male, and unemployed. They were less likely to report a tertiary education and were more likely to live in areas with higher levels of socioeconomic disadvantage. Despite these differences, treatment outcomes were excellent for patients from both clinics. Results provide further evidence for the accessibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of DMHSs regardless of referral pathway or patient characteristics.

2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Christine Kettle ◽  
Lauren McKay ◽  
Anthony M. Cianciolo ◽  
Stephen M. Kareha ◽  
Cara E. Ruggeri

Abstract Context Movement of the human body is essential for the interaction of an individual within their environment and contributes to both physical and emotional quality of life. Movement system disorders (MSDs) are kinesiopathologic conditions that result from either altered movement patterns, trauma, or pathology. A screening tool may facilitate earlier diagnosis and treatment of acute MSDs. This tool could prevent progression to chronic conditions, leading to better patient outcomes and quality of life. Objectives Our study evaluated whether a screening tool would be able to accurately screen individuals for MSDs, explore comorbidities that may predict the prevalence of MSDs, and identify why people do not discuss these problems with their primary care provider (PCP). Methods A multisite, observational study in a primary care setting. Data were analyzed to determine the psychometric properties of the screening question. Logistic regression was performed to explore the relationship of comorbidities with MSDs. Thematic analysis was performed to explore why patients do not discuss these issues with their PCP. Results The point prevalence of MSDs was determined to be 78%. The sensitivity of the screening question was determined to be good (70%). Arthritis, obesity, sleep disorders, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) were significant predictors for an MSD. Thematic analysis regarding why patients do not discuss the MSD with their physician revealed: (1) the perceived lack of importance of the problem; (2) the lack of access to healthcare, and (3) the acuity of the problem. Conclusions Screening for an MSD and associated comorbidities could prevent the transition of acute conditions to chronic conditions. If PCPs can identify predictors and factors associated with an MSD, they may be able to screen for MSDs more effectively. Earlier identification of MSDs may facilitate earlier treatment and prevent costs associated with resulting chronic disorders and persistent pain and disability.

2022 ◽  
Mayer B. Davidson

For primary care providers, using insulin can present challenges that can be met by a straightforward approach using the following principles. Depending on when it is injected, each component of the insulin regimen has a maximal effect on a specific period of the 24-hour cycle (e.g., overnight, morning, afternoon, or evening). The glucose pattern in that period determines whether the dose of that component of the insulin regimen requires adjusting. Regarding which insulin types and insulin regimens to use, human insulin (NPH and regular) is as effective as analog insulins, and a two-injection intensified insulin regimen is as effective as a four-injection regimen.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 01-07
Oya Dirican ◽  
Özge Abacı Bozyel ◽  
Dilek Öztaş

Objectives: Primary healthcare workers are the main drivers of the population-oriented health education programs. In this work, we aim to offer an account of the conditions that lead to mobbing in Primary Health Care Employees, and of the ways to address this problem and its consequences. Methods: This study has been conducted on the medical staff in primary health care units in the province of Antalya, with the permission of the Provincial Health Directorate and the approval of the ethics board of the Antalya Education and Research Hospital. It was planned as a cross-sectional study; survey forms were filled out by 752 employees during an internal training for primary health care in 2017. After informing the subjects regarding the aims of the study, we gave them a survey of 21 questions. The average time for the individuals to answer the questions was 30 minutes. The survey was designed to ask the individuals their age, gender, educational background and occupation, whether they know of any case of mobbing, whether they were subjected to mobbing themselves and for how long, the position and the gender of the perpetrator, and whether and how they addressed the issue. The answers of the participants were analyzed with descriptive statistical analysis, the frequencies were determined and chi-square test was used. Results: 72.2% (543) of the participants declare that they heard the words "mobbing" or "psychological harassment" before. In our study, the rate of exposure to mobbing was found to be 30.4% among primary care providers. We have found that mobbing exposure was significantly higher among females and midwives and nurses. Our study reveals that in every occupational group perpetrators are mostly in management positions; that 36-45 age group was the most victimized group by both genders; that the most common method in order to handle mobbing is the loss of communication which is a new problem between the perpetrator and the victim and that the most common response to mobbing is to share it with friends; and our study finds that the period of mobbing in the midwife-nurse group is mostly 19 months and more, while this period takes to 9-12 months in the case of doctors. Discussion: One of the most important steps in preventing mobbing is to take timely measures in organizations and to prevent the problem from harming the organization and employees. Educating employees about emotional assault within their working environment is proposed as an important solution for them to protect themselves when they are subjected to harassment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Danilo Pena ◽  
Jessika Suescun ◽  
Mya Schiess ◽  
Timothy M. Ellmore ◽  
Luca Giancardo ◽  

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. It is one of the leading sources of morbidity and mortality in the aging population AD cardinal symptoms include memory and executive function impairment that profoundly alters a patient’s ability to perform activities of daily living. People with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) exhibit many of the early clinical symptoms of patients with AD and have a high chance of converting to AD in their lifetime. Diagnostic criteria rely on clinical assessment and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Many groups are working to help automate this process to improve the clinical workflow. Current computational approaches are focused on predicting whether or not a subject with MCI will convert to AD in the future. To our knowledge, limited attention has been given to the development of automated computer-assisted diagnosis (CAD) systems able to provide an AD conversion diagnosis in MCI patient cohorts followed longitudinally. This is important as these CAD systems could be used by primary care providers to monitor patients with MCI. The method outlined in this paper addresses this gap and presents a computationally efficient pre-processing and prediction pipeline, and is designed for recognizing patterns associated with AD conversion. We propose a new approach that leverages longitudinal data that can be easily acquired in a clinical setting (e.g., T1-weighted magnetic resonance images, cognitive tests, and demographic information) to identify the AD conversion point in MCI subjects with AUC = 84.7. In contrast, cognitive tests and demographics alone achieved AUC = 80.6, a statistically significant difference (n = 669, p < 0.05). We designed a convolutional neural network that is computationally efficient and requires only linear registration between imaging time points. The model architecture combines Attention and Inception architectures while utilizing both cross-sectional and longitudinal imaging and clinical information. Additionally, the top brain regions and clinical features that drove the model’s decision were investigated. These included the thalamus, caudate, planum temporale, and the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. We believe our method could be easily translated into the healthcare setting as an objective AD diagnostic tool for patients with MCI.

BMJ Open ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. e053222
Manbinder Sidhu ◽  
Jack Pollard ◽  
Jon Sussex

ObjectivesTo understand the rationale, implementation and early impact of vertical integration between primary care medical practices and the organisations running acute hospitals in the National Health Service in England and Wales.Design and settingA qualitative, cross-comparative case study evaluation at two sites in England and one in Wales, consisting of interviews with stakeholders at the sites, alongside observations of strategic meetings and analysis of key documents.ResultsWe interviewed 52 stakeholders across the three sites in the second half of 2019 and observed four meetings from late 2019 to early 2020 (further observation was prevented by the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic). The single most important driver of vertical integration was found to be to maintain primary care local to where patients live and thereby manage demand pressure on acute hospital services, especially emergency care. The opportunities created by maintaining local primary care providers—to develop patient services in primary care settings and better integrate them with secondary care—were exploited to differing degrees across the sites. There were notable differences between sites in operational and management arrangements, and in organisational and clinical integration. Closer organisational integration was attributed to previous good relationships between primary and secondary care locally, and to historical planning and preparation towards integrated working across the local health economy. The net impact of vertical integration on health system costs is argued by local stakeholders to be beneficial.ConclusionsVertical integration is a valuable option when primary care practices are at risk of closing, and may be a route to better integration of patient care. But it is not the only route and vertical integration is not attractive to all primary care physicians. A future evaluation of vertical integration is intended; of patients’ experience and of the impact on secondary care service utilisation.

Ryan Bonner ◽  
Jessica Stewart ◽  
Ashish Upadhyay ◽  
R. Douglas Bruce ◽  
Jessica L. Taylor

Identifying candidates for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a barrier to improving PrEP uptake in priority populations. Syphilis infection is an indication for PrEP in all individuals and can be easily assessed by primary care providers (PCP) and health systems. This retrospective study evaluated the impact of a multidisciplinary provider outreach intervention on PrEP uptake in patients with a positive syphilis test result in a safety-net hospital-based primary care practice. The PCPs of PrEP-eligible patients with a positive syphilis result were notified via the electronic medical record (EMR) about potential PrEP eligibility and institutional HIV PrEP resources. Rates of PrEP offers and prescriptions were compared in the pre (8/1/2018-12/31/2018, n = 60) and post (1/1/2019-5/31/2019, n = 86) intervention periods. Secondary analyzes evaluated receipt of appropriate syphilis treatment and contemporaneous screening for HIV, gonorrhea, and chlamydia. No significant differences in the overall proportion of patients offered (15% vs 19%) and prescribed (7% vs 5%) PrEP were observed between the pre- and post-periods. Overall, 7% of positive tests represented infectious syphilis. The rate of appropriate syphilis treatment was equivalent (57% vs 56%) and contemporaneous screening for other sexually transmitted infections was suboptimal across the entire study period. Although any positive syphilis test may be an easily abstracted metric from the EMR, this approach was inclusive of many patients without current HIV risk and did not increase PrEP uptake significantly. Future research into population health approaches to increase HIV prevention should focus on patients with infectious syphilis and other current risk factors for incident HIV infection.

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