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Akikazu Yago ◽  
Yu Ohkura ◽  
Masaki Ueno ◽  
Kentoku Fujisawa ◽  
Yusuke Ogawa ◽  

Summary Background The long-term outcomes after esophagectomy for esophageal cancer remain uncertain and the optimal surveillance strategy after curative surgery remains controversial. Methods In this study, the clinicopathological characteristics of patients who underwent curative thoracic esophagectomy between 1991 and 2015 at Toranomon Hospital were retrospectively analyzed and reviewed until December 2020. We evaluated the accumulated data regarding the pattern and rates of recurrence and second malignancy. Results A total of 1054 patients were eligible for inclusion in the study. Of these, 97% were followed up for 5 years, and the outcomes after 25 years could be determined in 65.5%. Recurrence was diagnosed in 318 patients (30.2%), and the most common pattern was lymph node metastasis (n = 168, 52.8%). Recurrence was diagnosed within 1 year in 174 patients (54.7%) and within 3 years in 289 (90.9%). Second malignancy possibly occurred through the entire study period after esophagectomy even in early-stage cancer, keeping 2%–5% of the incidental risk. There was no significant difference in the prognosis between 3-year survivors with and without a second malignancy. Conclusions Most recurrences after resection of esophageal cancer occurred within 3 years regardless of disease stage. However, these patients have an ongoing risk of developing a second malignancy after esophagectomy. Further consideration is required regarding the efficacy of long-term surveillance.

Povilas Kavaliauskas ◽  
Audrius Dulskas ◽  
Inga Kildusiene ◽  
Rokas Arlauskas ◽  
Rimantas Stukas ◽  

Background: Pancreatic cancer is one of the deadliest cancers worldwide, and its incidence is increasing. The aim of this study was to examine the time trends in the incidence and mortality rates of pancreatic cancer for the period of 1998–2015 for the first time in Lithuania by sex, age, subsite, and stage. Methods: This study was based on all cases (deaths) of pancreatic cancer diagnosed between 1998 and 2015. Age-standardized incidence (mortality) rates and group-specific rates were calculated for each sex using the direct method (European Standard). TNM classification-based information reported to the cancer registry was grouped into three categories: (1) localized cancer: T1-3/N0/M0; (2) cancer with regional metastasis: any 1-3/N+/M0; (3) advanced cancer: any T/any N/M+. Joinpoint regression was used to provide annual percentage changes (APCs) and to detect points in time where statistically significant changes in the trends occurred. Results: Overall, 8514 pancreatic cancer cases (4364 in men and 3150 in women) were diagnosed and 7684 persons died from cancer of the pancreas. Pancreatic cancer incidence rates were considerably lower for women than for men, with a female:male ratio of 1:2. Incidence rates changed during the study period from 14.2 in 1998 to 15.0/100,000 in the year 2015 in men, and from 6.7 to 9.8/100,000 in women. Incidence rates over the study period were stable for men (APC = 0.1%) and increasing for women by 1.1% per year. Similarly, mortality rates increased in women by 0.9% per year, and were stable in men. During the study period, incidence and mortality rates of pancreatic cancer were close. For the entire study period, rates increased significantly in the 50–74 years age group; only cancer of the head of pancreas showed a decline by 0.9%, while tail and not-specified pancreatic cancer incidence increased by 11.4% and 4.51%, respectively. Conclusions: The increasing pancreatic cancer incidence trend in the Lithuanian population may be related to the prevalence of its main risk factors (smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, diet, and diabetes).

M. D. H. Nurhadi ◽  
A. Cahyono

Abstract. Population data, despite their significance, are often missing or difficult to access, especially in cities/regencies not belonging to the metropolitan areas or centers of various human activities. This hinders practices that are contingent on their availability. In this study, population estimation was carried out using nighttime light imagery generated by the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument. The variable illuminated area was integrated with the population data using linear regression based on an allometric formula so as to produce a regression value, correlation coefficient (r), and coefficient of determination (r2). The average r2 between the illuminated area and the total population was 0.86, indicating a strong correlation between the two variables. Validation using samples of population estimates from three different years yielded an average error of 73% for each city and 7% for the entire study area. The estimation results for the number of residents per city/regency cannot be used as population data due to the high percent error, but for the population on a larger regional scale, in this case, the island of Java, they have a much smaller percent error and can be used as an initial picture of the total population.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 349
Samira Alfayumi-Zeadna ◽  
Rena Bina ◽  
Drorit Levy ◽  
Rachel Merzbach ◽  
Atif Zeadna

This study assessed prevalence of perinatal depression symptoms (PNDS) during the COVID-19 pandemic among Arab and Jewish women in Israel and identified COVID-19-related risk factors for PNDS, while comparing Arab and Jewish women. Sample included 730 perinatal women (604 Jewish and 126 Arab) aged 19–45 years, who filled out an online self-report questionnaire. The questionnaire assessed several areas: perinatal experiences and exposure to COVID-19, social support, and financial and emotional impact. PNDS was measured by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Prevalence of PNDS (EPDS ≥ 10) in the entire study population was 40.0%. Prevalence among Arab women was significantly higher compared to Jewish women (58% vs. 36%, PV < 0.001). Higher PNDS were significantly associated with anxiety symptoms (GAD ≥ 10) (PV < 0.001), stress related to COVID-19 (PV < 0.001), adverse change in delivery of healthcare services (PV = 0.025), and unemployment (PV = 0.002). PNDS has elevated more than twofold during COVID-19 in Israel. Such high rates of PNDS may potentially negatively impact women, and fetal and child health development. This situation requires special attention from public health services and policy makers to provide support and mitigation strategies for pregnant and postpartum women in times of health crises.

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 169
Kaytee L. Pokrzywinski ◽  
West M. Bishop ◽  
Christopher R. Grasso ◽  
Brianna M. Fernando ◽  
Benjamen P. Sperry ◽  

A 72 h small-scale trial was conducted in enclosed mesocosms in the Lake Okeechobee waterway to evaluate the effectiveness of a USEPA-registered peroxide-based algaecide (formulated as sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate) for controlling a natural cyanobacteria population. Mesocosms were initially subjected to either no algaecide or the maximum label rate of 10 mg H2O2·L−1. A subset of mesocosms were then subjected to a sequential application of 5 mg H2O2·L−1 at 48 h after initial treatment. Following application, peroxide concentrations rapidly decreased and were undetectable by 48 h. At 24 h after treatment, significant decreases in all biomass indicators were observed (compared to untreated mesocosms), including extracted chlorophyll a, microscopic counts (total phytoplankton and total cyanobacteria), and cyanobacteria-specific 16S rRNA gene copies by over 71%. Although peroxide treatment reduced cyanobacteria biomass, there was no change in overall community structure and the remaining population was still dominated by cyanobacteria (>90%). After 48 h exposure, some biomass recovered in single application mesocosms resulting in only a 32–45% reduction in biomass. Repeated peroxide dosing resulted in the greatest efficacy, which had a sustained (60–91%) decrease in all biomass indicators for the entire study. While a single application of the peroxide was effective in the first 24 h, a sequential treatment is likely necessary to sustain efficacy when using this approach to manage cyanobacteria in the field. Results of this study support that this peroxide-based algaecide is a strong candidate to continue with scalable field trials to assess its potential future utility for operational management programs in the Lake Okeechobee waterway.

Vascular ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 170853812110687
Zeki Yüksel Günaydın ◽  
Emre Yılmaz

Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the association between blood groups and severity of peripheral artery disease (PAD) using TASC II classification. Methods The patients who were diagnosed with PAD were retrospectively analyzed. The patients with 50% or more stenosis in the aorto-iliac or femoro-popliteal region detected by conventional or CT angiography were included in the study. These patients were divided into TASC II A, B, C, and D groups considering the severity of PAD. All patients’ blood groups were recorded and compared between TASC II groups. Results While 38% of the study population was O blood group, 61% were non-O group. On the other hand, 90% of the entire study population were RH positive and 10% were RH negative. Non-O blood ratio was found to be significantly higher in patients with higher TASC II groups. (TASC IIA 51.6% vs. TASC IIB 57.9% vs. TASC IIC 61.3% vs. TASC IID 76.6%, p< .001) However, the frequencies of Rh types were similar in all groups. Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied for determining the predictors of severity and complexity of PAD (TASC II C and TASC II D lesions) Conclusions Our study results revealed a clear association between ABO blood groups and severity of peripheral arterial disease. Non-O blood group was found to be the independent predictor of severe and complex PAD.

Healthcare ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 114
Dusko Terzic ◽  
Svetozar Putnik ◽  
Emilija Nestorovic ◽  
Vladimir Jovicic ◽  
Dejan Lazovic ◽  

The aim of this study was to examine the incidence and significance of right heart failure (RHF) in the early and late phase of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation with the identification of predictive factors for the development of RHF. This was a prospective observational analytical cohort study. The study included 92 patients who underwent LVAD implantation and for whom all necessary clinical data from the follow-up period were available, as well as unambiguous conclusions by the heart team regarding pathologies, adverse events, and complications. Of the total number of patients, 43.5% died. The median overall survival of patients after LVAD implantation was 22 months. In the entire study population, survival rates were 88.04% at one month, 80.43% at six months, 70.65% at one year, and 61.96% at two years. Preoperative RHF was present in 24 patients, 12 of whom died and 12 survived LVAD implantation. Only two survivors developed early RHF (ERHF) and two late RHF (LRHF). The most significant predictors of ERHF development are brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), pre-surgery RHF, FAC < 20%, prior renal insufficiency, and total duration of ICU stay (HR: 1.002, 0.901, 0.858, 23.554, and 1.005, respectively). RHF following LVAD implantation is an unwanted complication with a negative impact on treatment outcome. The increased risk of fatal outcome in patients with ERHF and LRHF after LVAD implantation results in a need to identify patients at risk of RHF, in order to administer the available preventive and therapeutic methods.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Domenico Corica ◽  
Giorgia Pepe ◽  
Tommaso Aversa ◽  
Monica Currò ◽  
Selenia Curatola ◽  

Asprosin physiologically increases in fasting conditions and decreases with refeeding and has been implicated in glucose homeostasis. An alteration of meal-related circadian oscillation of asprosin has been suggested in adults affected by type 2 diabetes mellitus.Aims of this study were to test the hypothesis of an alteration in the meal-related variation of asprosin levels in non-diabetic children and adolescents with obesity and to assess which metabolic variables condition this variation in non-diabetic children and adolescents with obesity. This is a cross-sectional study which included 79 children and adolescents with obesity. Children underwent clinical and biochemical assessments, including oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and liver ultrasound evaluation. Asprosin serum levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at a fasting state and at the 120-minute OGTT timepoint (2h-postprandial asprosin). Fasting and 2h-postprandial asprosin serum levels did not significantly differ in the entire study population (374.28 ± 77.23 vs 375.27 ± 81.26;p=0.837). 55.7% of patients had a significant increase in 2h-postprandial asprosin compared with fasting levels. The asprosin level increase condition was significantly associated with HOMA-IR (OR,1.41; 95%CI,1.005-1.977; p=0.047), fasting glycaemia (OR,1.073; 95%CI,1.009-1.141;p=0.024) and HOMA-B (OR,0.99; 95%CI,0.984-0.999; p=0.035). Moreover, the IFG condition was associated with the increase in asprosin levels (OR, 3.040; 95%CI, 1.095-8.436; p=0.033), even after adjustment for HOMA-IR, BMI SDS, sex and pubertal stage. Insulin resistance and IFG influence meal-related changes of asprosin serum levels in our study population of obese, non-diabetic, children. Alteration of asprosin circadian secretion might be an early biomarker of impaired glucose regulation in obese children with insulin resistance.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261721
Majid Khan ◽  
Sanaullah Khan ◽  
Mehrunnisa Fatima Gondal ◽  
Safia Bibi ◽  
Bakht Tarin Khan ◽  

Background Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) is one of the most common human infectious agents, and the mutations in its genome may cause chronic hepatitis (CH), liver cirrhosis (LC), and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study was designed to characterize the enhancer-II (Enh-II) region of X gene in HBV positive patients to assess the association of such mutations with CH, LC, and HCC. Methods HBV positive samples (N = 200) with patients’ demographic and clinical data were collected from different regions of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. The Enh-II region of the HBx gene was sequenced and zanalyzed for polymorphism associated with advanced liver disease. Univariate and logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate potent mutations associated with a risk for LC and HCC. Results HBV Enh-II region sequences analysis revealed 25 different mutations. The highest frequency of mutations S101F (62.2%), A102V/R/G/I (56.25%), M103L/A (68.75%)were found in HCC, followed in LC and CH patients as 57.1%, 42.8%, 28.52% 16%, 15.2% and 18.4% respectively. H94 deletion in the α-box of the Enh-II region, associated with a high risk of HCC was found in half of the HCC patients. This deletion was present in 28.5% of LC and 6.5% of CH patients. Importantly, the high frequency of some notable mutations such as E109A/Y, A110S/K, Y111D/E, and F112L was first time reported in the entire study population. The frequencies of these mutations were high in HCC (43.75%, 37.5%, 50% and 43.75% respectively) as compared to LC (14.28%, 14.28%, 28.2% and 42.8%) and CH patients (12.8%, 15.2%, 16.8% and 16% respectively). Conclusion Mutations associated with LC and HCC are prevalent in the Enh-II region in Pakistani HBV isolates. The mutations found are alarming in CH patients as these may progress to LC and HCC in a large number of patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Debananda Roy ◽  
Woosik Jung ◽  
Jayun Kim ◽  
Minjoo Lee ◽  
Joonhong Park

Multiplicity and complexity in sources account for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil and health risk levels in industrial zones. In the present study, cancer risks (CR) for soil-bound carcinogenic PAHs were estimated and compared for the first time in seven different land-use areas adjacent to an industrial zone (Ulsan) in Korea. The entire study area has been recognized as a “low CR” zone (10−6 &lt; value &lt; 10−4). Hence, all land-use areas were found to have significant (&gt;10−6) CR levels, except for an area used to store ore and iron scraps. Estimated CR levels were highest in the railroad area (RA) and traffic area (TA), followed by those in the industrial area (IA). In addition, exposure through dermal absorption (61–70%) and ingestion (21–39%) were the most common factors for CR levels in the study area. Among all health parameters, exposure duration, body weight, and open skin surface area were distinguished as most sensitive to total CR levels. Moreover, among all carcinogenic PAHs, indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene were most sensitive to CR levels. Creosote, which was utilized in railroad ties in RA and vehicular exhaust emission in TA, was classified as a source of soil-bound carcinogenic PAHs. Therefore, CR levels resulting from transportation activities were found to be two to three times higher than those obtained from industrial processes. Transportation activities in urban areas mostly serve to provide rapid and comfortable carriage for commuters. However, these facilities were mostly responsible for potential carcinogen exposure. This study directly challenges the conventional perception that industrial zones are the most polluted areas, especially when compared to transportation zones in urban areas. These findings can help local and national governments to better manage resources and maintain an economic balance.

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