The purpose of this pilot study was to establish whether a novel freeze-dried curdlan/whey protein isolate-based biomaterial may be taken into consideration as a potential scaffold for matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation. For this reason, this biomaterial was initially characterized by the visualization of its micro- and macrostructures as well as evaluation of its mechanical stability, and its ability to undergo enzymatic degradation in vitro. Subsequently, the cytocompatibility of the biomaterial towards human chondrocytes (isolated from an orthopaedic patient) was assessed. It was demonstrated that the novel freeze-dried curdlan/whey protein isolate-based biomaterial possessed a porous structure and a Young’s modulus close to those of the superficial and middle zones of cartilage. It also exhibited controllable degradability in collagenase II solution over nine weeks. Most importantly, this biomaterial supported the viability and proliferation of human chondrocytes, which maintained their characteristic phenotype. Moreover, quantitative reverse transcription PCR analysis and confocal microscope observations revealed that the biomaterial may protect chondrocytes from dedifferentiation towards fibroblast-like cells during 12-day culture. Thus, in conclusion, this pilot study demonstrated that novel freeze-dried curdlan/whey protein isolate-based biomaterial may be considered as a potential scaffold for matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation.
The purpose of this research was to studythe ability of whey protein concentrates (WPC) and whey permeate produced with ultrafiltration of cheese whey to rehydrate. The products studied were cheese whey concentrate witha PDM percentage of 80% (WPC-80), and cheese whey permeate, both produced under the conditions of the PJSC Dairy “Voronezhsky”.WPC-80 and the whey permeate dissolution processes were studied using microscopy. Water-impermeable hydrophobic layers were formed at the boundary, preventing water penetration into dry particles. The result was a higher dissolution timeforWPC-80 compared with whey permeate. When WPC-80 came into contact with water,it initially formed an obtuse wetting angle with a slow change over time. Whey permeate reached the equilibrium wetting angle more quickly. Quickreconditioning of WPC moisture content required avoiding capillary penetration of water, which created a turbulent liquid flow. The application of these ingredients in different food industry areas can reduce the costs for finished products, contribute to cost-effectiveness, increase the total production, and reduce environmental risks.
Keywords: whey protein concentrate, whey permeate powder, water-wetting, dissolution
AbstractProbiotic microencapsulation is a promising way to produce functional food, while their stability and sensory acceptability still a challenge. This study aims to enhance the functional properties of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa, cultivar Camarosa) nectar and sensory acceptance using novel anthocyanin-colored microencapsulation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Four formulations (F1–F4) of coated materials (alginate, whey protein, and pullulan) integrated with anthocyanin pigment were used for encapsulation. The physical properties of microencapsulated probiotics (size, color, efficiency, stability, and survival rate) and quality parameters of nectar (pH, anthocyanin, and sensory acceptability) during 4 weeks of storage at 4 and 25 °C were evaluated. All formulations exhibited high encapsulation efficiency (> 89%), medium bead size (406–504 μm), and proper color (red color). The microencapsulated cells were stable in simulated gastrointestinal and processing conditions (up 7 log10 CFU mL−1) compared to free cells. F4 (alginate 2% + anthocyanin 0.1% + whey protein 2% + pullulan 2% + cocoa butter 1% + L. rhamnosus GG) showed the greatest viability in nectar during storage (6.72 log10 CFU mL−1/4 °C/4 weeks), while a significant decrease in pH (< 2) and anthocyanin (< 60 mg 100 g−1) was observed in nectar-containing free cells. The sensory scores with a difference-preference test as exploratory and preliminary responses revealed that colored probiotic microcapsules enhanced the sensory characters (up to 4 weeks) and commercially accepted (> 80% agreed) of strawberry nectar. Results demonstrated that anthocyanin-colored alginate-whey protein-pullulan matrix had the potential to enhance probiotic viability in functional nectar without negative impact.