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2022 ◽  
Vol 248 ◽  
pp. 117129
Kyuya Nakagawa ◽  
Hiroki Kamisaki ◽  
Tetsuo Suzuki ◽  
Noriaki Sano

Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 282
Katarzyna Klimek ◽  
Marta Tarczynska ◽  
Wieslaw Truszkiewicz ◽  
Krzysztof Gaweda ◽  
Timothy E. L. Douglas ◽  

The purpose of this pilot study was to establish whether a novel freeze-dried curdlan/whey protein isolate-based biomaterial may be taken into consideration as a potential scaffold for matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation. For this reason, this biomaterial was initially characterized by the visualization of its micro- and macrostructures as well as evaluation of its mechanical stability, and its ability to undergo enzymatic degradation in vitro. Subsequently, the cytocompatibility of the biomaterial towards human chondrocytes (isolated from an orthopaedic patient) was assessed. It was demonstrated that the novel freeze-dried curdlan/whey protein isolate-based biomaterial possessed a porous structure and a Young’s modulus close to those of the superficial and middle zones of cartilage. It also exhibited controllable degradability in collagenase II solution over nine weeks. Most importantly, this biomaterial supported the viability and proliferation of human chondrocytes, which maintained their characteristic phenotype. Moreover, quantitative reverse transcription PCR analysis and confocal microscope observations revealed that the biomaterial may protect chondrocytes from dedifferentiation towards fibroblast-like cells during 12-day culture. Thus, in conclusion, this pilot study demonstrated that novel freeze-dried curdlan/whey protein isolate-based biomaterial may be considered as a potential scaffold for matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation.

Grant A. Rybnicky ◽  
Radeen A. Dixon ◽  
Robert M. Kuhn ◽  
Ashty S. Karim ◽  
Michael C. Jewett

Metabolites ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 75
Nur Shafinaz Mohamad Salin ◽  
Wan Mazlina Md Saad ◽  
Hairil Rashmizal Abdul Razak ◽  
Fatimah Salim

Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) consists of high moisture content and is favoured for its juice products. The popular fruit has a tempting taste, sweet aroma and attractive flesh colour. It is enriched with phytochemicals and antioxidant properties that are beneficial to human health. Due to convenience, the majority of individuals are likely to consume watermelon juice. However, little is known about the fruit juice storage and temperatures that may affect its beneficial properties. This study investigated the effect of storage temperature at room temperature, refrigerator cold, refrigerator freeze and freeze-dried, and analyzed the juice physico-chemicals (weight loss, pH, ash, moisture, total soluble solid, browning and turbidity), phytochemicals (total phenolic, total flavonoid, lycopene and β-carotene) and antioxidant scavenging activities during 9 days of storage. The results showed that watermelon juice was affected by storage temperatures and conditions with significant changes in physico-chemical appearance and decrease in total phytochemical content, thus consequently affecting their antioxidant activities during 9 days of storage. Although fresh watermelon juice can be consumed for its high nutritional values, freeze-drying is the preferable technique to retain its benefits and to delay juice degradation.

Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 178
Roksana Kruszakin ◽  
Paweł Migdal

So far, larval rearing in vitro has been an important method in the assessment of bee toxicology, particularly in pesticide risk assessment. However, natural products are increasingly used to control honey bee pathogens or to enhance bee immunity, but their effects on honey bee larvae are mostly unknown. In this study, laboratory studies were conducted to determine the effects of including selected aqueous plant infusions in the diet of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) larvae in vitro. The toxicity of infusions from three different plant species considered to be medicinal plants was evaluated: tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.), greater celandine (Chelidonium majus L.), and coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.). The impact of each on the survival of the larvae of honey bees was also evaluated. One-day-old larvae were fed a basal diet consisting of distilled water, sugars (glucose and fructose), yeast extract, and freeze-dried royal jelly or test diets in which distilled water was replaced by plant infusions. The proportion of the diet components was adjusted to the age of the larvae. The larvae were fed twice a day. The experiment lasted seven days. Significant statistical differences in survival rates were found between groups of larvae (exposed or not to the infusions of tansy, greater celandine, and coriander). A significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the survival rate was observed in the group with the addition of a coriander herb infusion compared to the control. These results indicate that plant extracts intended to be used in beekeeping should be tested on all development stages of honey bees.

Plants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 193
Molelekwa Arthur Moroole ◽  
Simeon Albert Materechera ◽  
Wilfred Otang-Mbeng ◽  
Rose Hayeshi ◽  
Cor Bester ◽  

The use of medicinal plants for contraception remains a common practice among South African ethnic groups. The present study assessed the phytochemical profile, cytotoxicity, acute oral toxicity and efficacy of a herbal mixture used for contraception by the Batswana of South Africa. An aqueous extract was prepared from equal quantities (in terms of weight) of Bulbine frutescens (roots), Helichrysum caespititium (leaves) and Teucrium trifidum (leaves) based on a recipe used by traditional health practitioners. The phytochemical profiles of the freeze-dried herbal mixture were analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition, cytotoxicity was determined using an MTT assay on Vero cells and in vivo contraceptive efficacy was evaluated using seven Sprague Dawley rats per control and treatment groups. The control group received distilled water while test groups received 5, 50 and 300 mg/kg of the herbal mixture, which was administered orally once a day for three consecutive days. Subsequently, female rats were paired 1:1 with males for 3 days. Their weights were measured weekly and incidence of pregnancy was recorded. The GC-MS chromatogram revealed the presence of 12 identified and 9 unidentified compounds. In terms of safety, the herbal mixture had an IC50 value of 755.2 μg/mL and 2000 mg/kg, which was the highest tested dose that caused no mortality or morbidity in the rats. A contraceptive efficacy of 14.5% was exerted with 50 mg/kg herbal mixture extract while other doses had no effects given that all the rats were pregnant. Based on a chi-square test (p < 0.05), there was no correlation between the tested herbal mixture doses and contraception, nor on the weight of the rats. Overall, the herbal mixture extract was found to be safe but had limited contraceptive efficacy at the tested doses. In future studies, exploring increased dose range, solvent extract types and hormonal analysis will be pertinent.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Yu Bai ◽  
Xingjian Zhou ◽  
Jinbiao Zhao ◽  
Zhenyu Wang ◽  
Hao Ye ◽  

Effects of different dietary fiber (DF) sources on short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) production and absorption in the hindgut of growing pigs were studied by an in vivo–vitro (ileal cannulated pigs and fecal inoculum-based fermentation) method. Thirty-six cannulated pigs (body weight: 48.5 ± 2.1 kg) were randomly allocated to 6 treatments containing the same DF content (16.5%), with either wheat bran (WB), corn bran (CB), sugar beet pulp (SBP), oat bran (OB), soybean hulls (SH), or rice bran (RB) as DF sources. Pigs were allowed 15 days for diet adaptation, and then, fresh ileal digesta and feces were collected to determine SCFA concentration which was normalized for food dry matter intake (DMI) and the hindgut DF fermentability. Fecal microbiota was inoculated into the freeze-dried ileal digesta samples to predict the ability of SCFA production and absorption in the hindgut by in vitro fermentation. The SH group had the largest concentration of total SCFA and propionate in ileal digesta and fecal samples of growing pigs (p &lt; 0.05). Nonetheless, the predicted acetate, total SCFA production, absorption in the SBP group were the highest (p &lt; 0.01), but the lowest in the OB group (p &lt; 0.01) among all groups. Even SBP and OB group had a similar ratio of soluble DF (SDF) to insoluble DF (IDF). The CB group had high determined ileal and fecal butyrate concentration but the lowest butyrate production and absorption in the hindgut (p &lt; 0.01). Overall, the source of DF had a great impact on the hindgut SCFA production and absorption, and SBP fiber had a great potential to increase hindgut SCFA production and absorption.

Life ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 95
Iara Baldim ◽  
Andressa M. Oliveira ◽  
Eliana B. Souto ◽  
Wanderley P. Oliveira

Biological activity of essential oils (EOs) has been extensively reported; however, their low aqueous solubility, high photosensitivity, and volatility compromise a broad industrial use of these compounds. To overcome these limitations, we proposed a nanoencapsulation approach to protect EOs, that aims to increase their stability and modulate their release profile. In this study, drug-in-cyclodextrin-in-liposomes encapsulating two essential oils (Lippia sidoides and Syzygium aromaticum) and their respective major compounds (thymol and eugenol) were produced by ethanol injection and freeze-dried to form proliposomes and further physicochemically characterized. Liposomes showed high physical stability over one month of storage at 4 °C, with slight changes in the mean size, polydispersity index (PDI), and zeta potential. Reconstituted proliposomes showed a mean size between 350 and 3300 nm, PDI from 0.29 to 0.41, and zeta potential between −22 and −26 mV. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction of proliposomes revealed a less-ordered crystalline structure, leading to high retention of the major bioactive compounds (between 73% and 93% for eugenol, and 74% and 84% for thymol). This work highlights the advantages of using drug-in-cyclodextrin-in-liposomes as delivery systems to retain volatile compounds, increasing their physicochemical stability and their promising potential to be utilized as carriers in products in the pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries.

Jonathan A. Stefely ◽  
John P. Manis

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