root growth
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2022 ◽  
Vol 177 ◽  
pp. 114472
Le Zhang ◽  
Lili Mao ◽  
Xiaoyu Yan ◽  
Chengmin Liu ◽  
Xianliang Song ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 295 ◽  
pp. 110866
Ruirui Xu ◽  
Minggang Gao ◽  
Ming Li ◽  
Steven-A Whitham ◽  
Shizhong Zhang ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 176 ◽  
pp. 114362
Chuanbao Yang ◽  
Keru Yan ◽  
Changnian Ma ◽  
Li Xie ◽  
Wei Wang ◽  

Horticulturae ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 78
Gangqiang Cao ◽  
Wenjing Jiang ◽  
Gongyao Shi ◽  
Zhaoran Tian ◽  
Jingjing Shang ◽  

PARP proteins are highly conserved homologs among the eukaryotic poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases. After activation, ADP-ribose polymers are synthesized on a series of ribozymes that use NAD+ as a substrate. PARPs participate in the regulation of various important biological processes, such as plant growth, development, and stress response. In this study, we characterized the homologue of PARP1 in B. rapa using RNA interference (RNAi) to reveal the underlying mechanism responding to drought stress. Bioinformatics and expression pattern analyses demonstrated that two copy numbers of PARP1 genes (BrPARP1.A03 and BrPARP1.A05) in B. rapa following a whole-genome triplication (WGT) event were retained compared with Arabidopsis, but only BrPARP1.A03 was predominantly transcribed in plant roots. Silencing of BrPARP1 could markedly promote root growth and development, probably via regulating cell division, and the transgenic Brassica lines showed more tolerance under drought treatment, accompanied with substantial alterations including accumulated proline contents, significantly reduced malondialdehyde, and increased antioxidative enzyme activity. In addition, the findings showed that the expression of stress-responsive genes, as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging related genes, was largely reinforced in the transgenic lines under drought stress. In general, these results indicated that BrPARP1 likely responds to drought stress by regulating root growth and the expression of stress-related genes to cope with adverse conditions in B. rapa.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Wenbo Fu ◽  
Yanshuo Pan ◽  
Yuhua Shi ◽  
Jieyin Chen ◽  
Daozhi Gong ◽  

In this study, the capacity to tune root morphogenesis by a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium, Streptomyces lincolnensis L4, was investigated from various aspects including microbial physiology, root development, and root endophytic microbial community. Strain L4 was isolated from the root-associated soil of 7-year plantation of Artemisia annua. Aiming at revealing the promotion mechanism of Streptomyces on root growth and development, this study first evaluated the growth promotion characters of S. lincolnensis L4, followed by investigation in the effect of L4 inoculation on root morphology, endophytic microbiota of root system, and expression of genes involved in root development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Streptomyces lincolnensis L4 is able to hydrolyze organic and inorganic phosphorus, fix nitrogen, and produce IAA, ACC deaminase, and siderophore, which shaped specific structure of endophytic bacterial community with dominant Streptomyces in roots and promoted the development of roots. From the observation of root development characteristics, root length, root diameter, and the number of root hairs were increased by inoculation of strain L4, which were verified by the differential expression of root development-related genes in A. thaliana. Genomic traits of S. lincolnensis L4 which further revealed its capacity for plant growth promotion in which genes involved in phosphorus solubilization, ACC deamination, iron transportation, and IAA production were identified. This root growth-promoting strain has the potential to develop green method for regulating plant development. These findings provide us ecological knowledge of microenvironment around root system and a new approach for regulating root development.

2022 ◽  
Lisa Petzoldt ◽  
Bärbel Kroschewski ◽  
Timo Kautz

Abstract Aims Biopores offer favorable chemical, biological and physical properties for root growth in untilled soil layers. There they are considered as nutrient “hotspots” with preferential root growth. However, the literature lacks a quantification of metabolic activity due to nutrient acquisition of main crops while growing in the biopore sheath. Methods A pot experiment was performed to map the metabolic activity of roots, as indicated by pH change. The roots of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), spring oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and faba bean (Vicia faba L.) were growing through the biopore sheath influenced by an earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris L.) or a taproot (Cichorium intybus L.), in comparison to subsoil without a pore (bulk soil). pH sensitive planar optodes were applied in order to image a planar section of the sheath, while preserving an intact biopore sheath during the experiment. Results Roots were first found in the field of view in worm biopore then root biopore and bulk soil. At time of the first measurement the pH value was highest in worm biopore sheath (LS-Mean±SEM: 7.16a±0.11), followed by root biopore sheath (6.99ab±0.12) and bulk soil (6.61b±0.12). In spring oilseed rape a significant alkalization (+0.80 Δ pH) was found over time in bulk soil. Faba bean significantly acidified the root biopore sheath (-0.73 Δ pH). Spring barley showed no significant pH changes. Conclusions The results of the current study reveal a trend of faster root growth through biopores and a higher initial pH value in the biopore sheaths compared to the bulk soil. Biopores serve not only as an elongation path for roots, but their sheaths also provide an environment for root activity in the subsoil.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 5
Nina Kemp ◽  
Vasileios Angelidakis ◽  
Saimir Luli ◽  
Sadegh Nadimi

Vegetation alters soil fabric by providing biological reinforcement and enhancing the overall mechanical behaviour of slopes, thereby controlling shallow mass movement. To predict the behaviour of vegetated slopes, parameters representing the root system structure, such as root distribution, length, orientation and diameter, should be considered in slope stability models. This study quantifies the relationship between soil physical characteristics and root growth, giving special emphasis on (1) how roots influence the physical architecture of the surrounding soil structure and (2) how soil structure influences the root growth. A systematic experimental study is carried out using high-resolution X-ray micro-computed tomography (µCT) to observe the root behaviour in layered soil. In total, 2 samples are scanned over 15 days, enabling the acquisition of 10 sets of images. A machine learning algorithm for image segmentation is trained to act at 3 different training percentages, resulting in the processing of 30 sets of images, with the outcomes prompting a discussion on the size of the training data set. An automated in-house image processing algorithm is employed to quantify the void ratio and root volume ratio. This script enables post processing and image analysis of all 30 cases within few hours. This work investigates the effect of stratigraphy on root growth, along with the effect of image-segmentation parameters on soil constitutive properties.

2022 ◽  
Vol 26 (1) ◽  
pp. 17-34
Hongyu Li ◽  
Yi Luo ◽  
Lin Sun ◽  
Xiangdong Li ◽  
Changkun Ma ◽  

Abstract. Plant root–soil water interactions are fundamental to vegetation–water relationships. Soil water availability and distribution impact the temporal–spatial dynamics of roots and vice versa. In the Loess Plateau (LP) of China, where semi-arid and arid climates prevail and deep loess soil dominates, drying soil layers (DSLs) have been extensively reported in artificial forestland. While the underlying mechanisms that cause DSLs remain unclear, they hypothetically involve root–soil water interactions. Although available root growth models are weak with respect to simulating the rooting depth, this study addresses the hypothesis of the involvement of root–soil water interactions in DSLs using a root growth model that simulates both the dynamic rooting depth and fine-root distribution, coupled with soil water, based on cost–benefit optimization. Evaluation of field data from an artificial black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) forest site in the southern LP positively proves the model's performance. Further, a long-term simulation, forced by a 50-year climatic data series with varying precipitation, was performed to examine the DSLs. The results demonstrate that incorporating the dynamic rooting depth into the current root growth models is necessary to reproduce soil drying processes. The simulations revealed that the upper boundary of the DSLs fluctuates strongly with infiltration events, whereas the lower boundary extends successively with increasing rooting depth. Most infiltration was intercepted by the top 2.0 m layer, which was the most active zone of infiltration and root water uptake. Below this, the percentages of fine roots (5.0 %) and water uptake (6.2 %) were small but caused a persistently negative water balance and consequent DSLs. Therefore, the proposed root–water interaction approach succeeded in revealing the intrinsic properties of DSLs; their persistent extension and the lack of an opportunity for recovery from the drying state may adversely affect the implementation of artificial afforestation in this region as well as in other regions with similar climates and soils.

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