bacterial community composition
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Insects ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 98
Author(s):  
Ronalds Krams ◽  
Dita Gudra ◽  
Sergejs Popovs ◽  
Jonathan Willow ◽  
Tatjana Krama ◽  
...  

Bumblebees are key pollinators in agricultural landscapes. However, little is known about how gut microbial communities respond to anthropogenic changes. We used commercially produced colonies of buff-tailed bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) placed in three habitats. Whole guts (midgut, hindgut, and rectum) of B. terrestris specimens were dissected from the body and analyzed using 16S phylogenetic community analysis. We observed significantly different bacterial community composition between the agricultural landscapes (apple orchards and oilseed rape (Brassica napus) fields) and forest meadows, whereas differences in gut communities between the orchards and oilseed rape fields were nonsignificant. Bee-specific bacterial genera such as Lactobacillus, Snodgrassella, and Gilliamella dominated gut communities of B. terrestris specimens. In contrast, the guts of B. terrestris from forest meadows were dominated by fructose-associated Fructobacillus spp. Bacterial communities of workers were the most diverse. At the same time, those of males and young queens were less diverse, possibly reflecting greater exposure to the colony’s inner environment compared to the environment outside the colony, as well as bumblebee age. Our results suggest that habitat quality, exposure to environmental microbes, nectar quality and accessibility, and land use significantly affect gut bacterial composition in B. terrestris.


Author(s):  
Quanju Xiang ◽  
Juntao Zhang ◽  
Xiying Huang ◽  
Menggen Ma ◽  
Ke Zhao ◽  
...  

Silage fermentation, a sustainable way to use vegetable waste resources, is a complex process driven by a variety of microorganisms. We used lettuce waste as the main raw material for silage, analyzed changes in the physico-chemical characteristics and bacterial community composition of silage over a 60-day fermentation, identified differentially abundant taxa, predicted the functional profiles of bacterial communities, and determined the associated effects on the quality of silage. The biggest changes occurred in the early stage of silage fermentation. Changes in the physico-chemical characteristics included a decrease in pH and increases in ammonia nitrogen to total nitrogen ratio and lactic acid content. The numbers of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) increased and molds, yeasts and aerobic bacteria decreased. The bacterial communities and their predicted functions on day 0 were clearly different from those on day 7 to day 60. The relative abundances of phylum Firmicutes and genus Lactobacillus increased. Nitrite ammonification and nitrate ammonification were more prevalent after day 0. The differences in the predicted functions were associated with differences in pH and amino acid, protein, carbohydrate, NH3-N, ether extract and crude ash contents.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Antonia Cristi ◽  
Génesis Parada-Pozo ◽  
Felipe Morales-Vicencio ◽  
César A. Cárdenas ◽  
Nicole Trefault

Sponge-associated microorganisms are essential for sponge survival. They play an important role in recycling nutrients and, therefore, in the maintenance of the ecosystem. These microorganisms are diverse, species-specific, and different from those in the surrounding seawater. Bacterial sponge symbionts have been extensively studied in the tropics; however, little is known about these microorganisms in sponges from high-latitude environments. Sponges can cover up to 80% of the benthos in Antarctica and are crucial architects for the marine food web. In this study, we present analyses of the bacterial symbionts of three sponges: Haliclona (Rhizoniera) sp., Hymeniacidon torquata, and Isodictya kerguelenensis from the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) with the aim to determine variations on the specificity of the bacteria–sponge interactions and potential signatures on their predicted functional profiles. We use high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing of 30 sponge individuals inhabiting South Bay (Palmer Archipelago, WAP) to describe their microbiome taxonomy and diversity and predict potential functional profiles based on this marker gene. Our work shows similar bacterial community composition profiles among the same sponge species, although the symbiotic relationship is not equally conserved among the three Antarctic sponges. The number of species-specific core operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of these Antarctic sponges was low, with important differences between the total abundance accounted for these OTUs. Only eight OTUs were shared between the three sponge species. Analyses of the functional potential revealed that despite the high host–symbiont specificity, the inferred functions are conserved among these microbiomes, although with differences in the abundance of specific functions. H. torquata showed the highest level of intra-specificity and a higher potential of pathways related to energy metabolism, metabolisms of terpenoids and polyketides, and biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites. Overall, this work shows variations in the specificity of the sponge-associated bacterial communities, differences in how hosts and symbionts establish their relations, and in their potential functional capabilities.


2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yinghan Zhao ◽  
Tian Li ◽  
Pengshuai Shao ◽  
Jingkuan Sun ◽  
Wenjing Xu ◽  
...  

Soil microorganisms play the important role in driving biogeochemical cycles. However, it is still unclear on soil microbial community characteristics and microbial driving mechanism in rhizosphere and bulk soils of different halophyte species. In this study, we analyzed bacterial communities in the rhizosphere and bulk soils of three typical halophytes in the Yellow River Delta, i.e., Phragmites communis, Suaeda salsa, and Aeluropus sinensis, by high-throughput sequencing. The contents of total carbon, total nitrogen, and available phosphorus in rhizosphere soils of the three halophytes were significantly higher than those in bulk soils, which suggested a nutrient enrichment effect of the rhizosphere. Rhizosphere soil bacterial α-diversity of P. communis was higher than that in bulk soil, whereas bacterial α-diversity in rhizosphere soil of S. salsa and A. sinensis was lower than those in bulk soil. The dominant bacterial phyla were Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Bacteroidetes, which accounted for 31, 20.5, 16.3, and 10.3%, respectively. LDA effect size (LEfSe) analysis showed that the bacterial species with significant differences in expression abundance was obviously different in the rhizosphere and bulk soil of three halophytes. The principal component analysis (PCoA) showed that bacterial community composition was greatly different between rhizosphere and bulk soils of P. communis and S. salsa, while no difference in A. sinensis. Changed bacterial community composition was mainly ascribed to salinity in rhizosphere and bulk soils. Additionally, salinity was positively correlated with Bacteroidetes and negatively correlated with Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria. Our study clarified the variation in bacterial community structure between rhizosphere and bulk soils with soil physicochemical properties, which proved a biological reference to indicate the characteristics of saline and alkaline land.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Raven L Bier ◽  
Máté Vass ◽  
Anna J Székely ◽  
Silke Langenheder

Understanding processes that determine community membership and abundance is important for many fields from theoretical community ecology to conservation. However, spatial community studies are often conducted only at a single timepoint despite the known influence of temporal variability on community assembly processes. Here we used a spatiotemporal study to determine how environmental fluctuation differences induced by mesocosm volumes (larger volumes were more stable) influence assembly processes of aquatic bacterial metacommunities along a press disturbance gradient. By combining path analysis and network approaches, we found mesocosm size categories had distinct relative influences of assembly process and environmental factors that determined spatiotemporal bacterial community composition, including dispersal and species sorting by conductivity. These processes depended on, but were not affected proportionately by, mesocosm size. Low fluctuation, large mesocosms primarily developed through the interplay of species sorting that became more important over time and transient priority effects as evidenced by more time-delayed associations. High fluctuation, small mesocosms had regular disruptions to species sorting and greater importance of ecological drift and dispersal limitation indicated by lower richness and higher taxa replacement. Together, these results emphasize that environmental fluctuations influence ecosystems over time and its impacts are modified by biotic properties intrinsic to ecosystem size.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Fengyuan Yang ◽  
Yanping Wang ◽  
Shanshan Zhao ◽  
Changsong Feng ◽  
Xiaomiao Fan

The aim of this study was to investigate effects of wilting and Lactobacillus plantarum inoculation on the dynamics of the fermentation products, residual non-structural carbohydrates, and bacterial communities in alfalfa silage. Fresh and wilted alfalfa were ensiled with and without L. plantarum for 10, 30, 60, and 90 days. A high-throughput sequencing method for absolute quantification of 16S rRNA was adopted to determine the bacterial community composition at different ensiling periods. For the wilted silage, the bacterial community, pH value, and ammonia nitrogen concentration remained stable in the silage at 30 days. L. plantarum inoculation accelerated lactic acid fermentation and altered the predominant genus in the wilted silage as compared with the non-inoculated group. For the non-wilted group, fast consumption of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSCs) was observed at 10 days in the non-inoculated silage along with rapid growth of undesirable Hafnia. L. plantarum inoculation inhibited growth of Hafnia at 10 days in the non-wilted silage. Clostridia fermentation occurred in the non-wilted silage at 90 days, as indicated by an increased pH, formation of butyric acid (BA), and apparent abundance of genera belonging to Clostridia. L. plantarum inoculation inhibited BA accumulation and growth of Garciella in the non-wilted silage at 90 days as compared with the non-wilted silage without inoculation, but had little effect on the growth of Clostridium sensu stricto. Overall, the high moisture content of the non-wilted alfalfa silage led to rapid consumption of WSCs and growth of harmful microorganisms at the early stage of ensiling, resulting in poor fermentation quality. Wilting and L. plantarum inoculation both improved fermentation quality and inhibited the growth of spoilage microorganisms in alfalfa silage, while L. plantarum inoculation alone failed to achieve optimum fermentation quality of non-wilted alfalfa silage.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Leah Cuthbertson ◽  
Jonathan Ish-horowicz ◽  
Imogen Felton ◽  
Phillip James ◽  
Elena Turek ◽  
...  

Background: Cystic fibrosis (CF) and non-CF bronchiectasis (BX) are lung diseases characterised by severe chronic infections. Fungal and bacterial components of infection are both recognized. Recent molecular investigation of sputum from patients with CF and BX has revealed a complex mycobiome. However, little is known about how fungal and bacterial organisms interact or whether the interactions impact on disease outcomes. Methods: Quantitative PCR and next generation sequencing of ITS2 and 16S rRNA gene was carried out on 107 patients with CF and BX and defined clinical fungal infection status. Fungal and bacterial communities were explored using supervised and unsupervised machine learning to understand associations between fungal and bacterial communities and their relationship to disease. Results: Fungal and bacterial communities both had significantly higher biomass and lower diversity in CF compared to BX patients. Random forest modelling demonstrated that the fungal and bacterial communities were distinct between CF and BX patients. Within the CF group, bacterial communities contained no predictive signal for fungal disease status. Neither bacterial nor fungal community composition were predictive of the presence of CF pulmonary exacerbation (CFPE). Intra-kingdom correlations were far stronger than those between the two kingdoms. Dirichlet mixture components analysis identified two distinct clusters of bacteria related to the relative abundance of Pseudomonas. Fungal community composition contained no predictive signal for bacterial clusters. Conclusions: Clear changes in diversity were observed between patients with different clinical disease status. Although our results demonstrate that bacterial community composition differs in the presence of fungal disease, no direct relationship between bacterial and fungal OTUs was found.


Fermentation ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 24
Author(s):  
Zhi-Yuan Ma ◽  
Emilio Ungerfeld ◽  
Zhu Ouyang ◽  
Xiao-Ling Zhou ◽  
Xue-Feng Han ◽  
...  

Sweet corn is a feed resource with a high content of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) available for ruminant production. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of inoculation with Lactobacillus plantarum on fermentation and nutritional quality of sweet corn silage. Sweet corn whole plant (WP) and sweet corn stover (CS) were ensiled in mini silos with or without inoculation of L. plantarum. Proximate composition and fermentation variables, and composition of the bacterial community, were evaluated before ensiling and at the end of the first, second, and third month after ensiling. There was fiber degradation in CS silage after three months of ensilage, but not in WP silage. Inoculation of WP silage, but not of CS silage, with L. plantarum, increased starch content. The relative abundance of genus Lactobacillus was increased by inoculation with L. plantarum by 14.2% and 82.2% in WP and CS silage, respectively. Inoculation with L. plantarum was not necessary to achieve adequate fermentation of either WP or CS silage, as the abundance of native lactic acid bacteria in both materials seemed suitable for adequate fermentation. That said, increased starch content in WP resulting from inoculation with L. plantarum can increase the nutritive value of WP for ruminants.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Juanita C. Rodríguez-Rodríguez ◽  
Yves Bergeron ◽  
Steven W. Kembel ◽  
Nicole J. Fenton

The composition of ecologically important moss-associated bacterial communities seems to be mainly driven by host species, but may also be shaped by environmental conditions related with tree-canopy dominance. The moss phyllosphere has been studied in coniferous forests while broadleaf forests remain understudied. To determine if host species or environmental conditions defined by tree-canopy dominance drives the bacterial diversity in the moss phyllosphere, we used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to quantify changes in bacterial communities as a function of host species (Pleurozium schreberi and Ptilium crista-castrensis) and forest type (coniferous black spruce versus deciduous broadleaf trembling aspen) in eastern Canada. Forest type, not host species, was the main factor affecting moss phyllosphere bacterial community composition, though the interaction of both variables was significant. Bacterial α-diversity was highest in spruce forests, while there was greater turnover (β-diversity) and higher γ-diversity in aspen forests. Unexpectedly, Cyanobacteria were much more relatively abundant in aspen than in spruce forests, with the bacterial family Nostocaceae (Cyanobacteria) differing the most between both forest types. Our results suggest that the increasing change in dominance from coniferous to broadleaf trees due to natural and anthropic disturbances is likely to affect the composition of moss-associated bacteria in boreal forests.


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