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Agriculture ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 1189
Author(s):  
Olutosin A. Otekunrin ◽  
Oluwaseun A. Otekunrin ◽  
Barbara Sawicka ◽  
Piotr Pszczółkowski

Hunger and food insecurity take center stage in most debates in Africa, and in recent times with serious concerns about Nigeria. This study assessed food insecurity among farming households in rural Oyo State, Nigeria, using cross-sectional datasets from 211 farming households through a multi-stage sampling procedure. The Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) module was employed in assessing food insecurity status of farming households, and the ordered logit model (OLM) was used to analyze factors influencing food insecurity among farming households. The results revealed that 12.8% of the farming households were food secure while 87.2% had varying levels of food insecurity. The OLM results indicated that age, household head’s years of schooling, gender, farm size, farm experience, non-farm income, food expenditure, and access to extension service significantly influenced food insecurity among farming households. Based on the findings, efforts should be geared towards promoting households’ education-related intervention programs in order to improve their nutrition-related knowledge that can enhance their food security status. Additionally, there should be provision of rural infrastructural facilities such as piped water, rural electrification, and healthcare service that promote healthy living and enhance households’ agricultural productivity.


Agriculture ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 1184
Author(s):  
Zhaoyang Li ◽  
Rui Zong ◽  
Tianyu Wang ◽  
Zhenhua Wang ◽  
Jinzhu Zhang

Jujube tree yields in dryland saline soils are restricted by water shortages and soil salinity. Converting traditional flood irrigation to drip irrigation would solve water deficit and salt stress. The root distribution reacts primarily to the availability of water and nutrients. However, there is little information about the response of jujube roots to the change from flood irrigation to drip irrigation. In this context, a two–year experiment was carried out to reveal the effects of the change from long–term flood irrigation to drip irrigation on soil water, root distribution, fruit yield, and water use efficiency (WUE) of jujube trees. In this study, drip irrigation amounts were designed with three levels, i.e., 880 mm (W1), 660 mm (W2), 440 mm (W3), and the flood irrigation of 1100 mm was designed as the control (CK). The results showed that replacing flood irrigation with drip irrigation significantly altered soil water distribution and increased soil moisture in the topsoil (0–40 cm). In the drip irrigation treatments with high levels, soil water storage in the 0–60 cm soil layer at the flowering and fruit setting, and fruit swelling stages of jujube trees increased significantly compared with the flood irrigation. After two consecutive years of drip irrigation, the treatments with higher irrigation levels increased root length density (RLD) in 0–60 cm soil depth but decreased that in the 60–100 cm depth. In the horizontal direction, higher irrigation levels increased RLD in the distance of 0–50 cm, while reducing RLD in the distance of 50–100 cm. However, the opposite conclusion was obtained in W3 treatment. Additionally, in the second year of drip irrigation, W2 treatment (660 mm) significantly improved yield and WUE, with an increasing of 7.6% for yield and 60.3% for WUE compared to the flood irrigation. In summary, converting flood irrigation to drip irrigation is useful in regulating root distribution and improving WUE, which would be a promising method in jujube cultivation in arid regions.


Agriculture ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 1185
Author(s):  
Jia He ◽  
Yi Li ◽  
Lianjun Zhang ◽  
Junyin Tan ◽  
Chuanhao Wen

Ecological compensation (EC) is an important way to solve the imbalance of cross-regional economic development and realize regional coordinated development. How to quantify the standard of EC has become a hot research topic. Firstly, this paper selected the Three Gorges Reservoir Region (TGRR) as the study area, and constructed a cross-regional spillover ecological value measurement model based on the extended emergy analysis. From the perspective of the “ecology–economy–society” complex ecosystem, this paper used emergy to reflect the social, economic, and ecological function and service value of the TGRR, and estimated the ecosystem emergy supply and consumption in the TGRR. Then, comparing the watershed ecosystem emergy supply and consumption, we can judge the status of the ecological surplus and deficit of the TGRR, and transfer the spillover ecological emergy to spillover ecological value (SEV) by using the emergy currency ratio (ECR). Finally, combined with different actual payment level coefficient, we can obtain a relatively objective and robust compensation standard. The results show that the SEV of the TGRR in 2016 is 2.70 × 1011 USD, which indicates that the TGRR is in the state of ecological surplus. The TGRR should get EC about 2.85 × 1011 USD according to the ECR. Based on the research results, it is suggested to expand the transfer payment to the TGRR. At the same time, it is suggested to formulate different ecological compensation standard (ECS) according to regional differences, which has important practical significance to establish the allocation standard of EC, and provides a typical case basis for other large reservoir areas or typical reservoir areas.


Agriculture ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 1188
Author(s):  
Tianyao Meng ◽  
Xi Chen ◽  
Jialin Ge ◽  
Xubin Zhang ◽  
Guisheng Zhou ◽  
...  

The past three decades have seen a pronounced development of conventional japonica rice from the 1990s, although little information is available on changes regarding grain yield and nutrient use efficiency during this process. Nine conventional japonica rice released during the 1990s, 2000s, and 2010s were grown under a reduced nitrogen rate, with increased planting density (RNID) and local cultivation practice (LCP) in 2017 and 2018. The rice from the 2010s had 3.6–5.5% and 7.0–10.1% higher (p < 0.05) grain yield than the 2000s and the 1990s, respectively, under RNID and LCP. The harvest index contributed more to genetic yield gain from the 1990s to the 2000s; whereas from the 2000s to 2010s, yield increase contributed through shoot biomass. Genetic improvement increased total nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) accumulation, and their use efficiencies. The rice from the 2010s showed a similar grain yield, whereas the 1990s and 2000s’ rice exhibited a lower (p < 0.05) grain yield under RNID relative to LCP. RNID increased N, P, and K use efficiencies, particularly the N use efficiency for the grain yield (NUEg) of the 2010s’ rice, compared with LCP. For three varietal types, RNID increased the panicles per m2, the filled-grain percentage, and the grain weight (p < 0.05) while decreasing spikelets per panicle of the 2010s’ rice. Compared with LCP, RNID reduced non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) content and shoot biomass, at heading and maturity, while increasing the remobilization of NSC and the harvest index, especially for the 2010s’ rice. Our results suggested the impressive progressive increase in grain yield and nutrient use efficiency of conventional japonica rice since the 1990s in east China. RNID could facilitate grain yield and NUEg for modern conventional japonica rice.


Agriculture ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 1181
Author(s):  
Renata Bažok ◽  
Jamie O’Keeffe ◽  
Ivana Jurada ◽  
Zrinka Drmić ◽  
Martina Kadoić Balaško ◽  
...  

Colorado potato beetle (CPB) is the most notorious and problematic insect defoliator pest of potato. It is well known for its ability to develop resistance to chemical insecticides, so novel treatment methods must be developed. A possible solution is the application of newer groups of insecticides (biotechnical and biological insecticides) which are more selective and to which resistance has not yet been recorded. This work investigated the use of ecologically acceptable insecticide treatments: azadirachtin, spinosad and spinetoram, and their combinations against CPB larvae in laboratory and field conditions. Reduced dosing and combinational treatments were used to determine if effective protection against CPB could be achieved while also improving economic results. Our results from laboratory trials showed that combinations of low-dose azadirachtin (25%) and low-dose spinetoram (5%) are suitable for use in CPB integrated pest management. The results of the field trial showed that the use of 50% reduced dosage of spinosad and spinetoram resulted in high efficacy (89–99%) and can be recommended as a treatment method that provides effective control of CPB, improved economic results, and a positive environmental impact. Based on the advantages that these treatments offer compared to chemical insecticides, further work is recommended to determine if these combinational treatments used in other dosages or in combinations with some other ecologically acceptable insecticides can provide satisfactory control of CPB.


Agriculture ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 1182
Author(s):  
Alessandra Durazzo
Keyword(s):  

There is a close link between food and territory [...]


Agriculture ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 1180
Author(s):  
Meng Li ◽  
Ronghao Chu ◽  
Xiuzhu Sha ◽  
Feng Ni ◽  
Pengfei Xie ◽  
...  

The scale effect problem is one of the most challenging issues in remote sensing studies. However, the research on the methodology and theory of the scale effect is scarcely applied in practice. To this end, in this study, 3 years of field experimental data of continuous water stresses on summer maize were used for this purpose. Furthermore, the Prospect and Sail models were employed to investigate the scale effects of reflectance characteristics and vegetation indexes. The results indicated that the spectral characteristics of canopy and leaf of summer maize were similar under continuous water stresses at various stages. The reflectance at the canopy level was distinct from that at the leaf level, considering the soil background differences. From leaf to canopy scales, with the increase in the leaf area index (LAI), the spectral reflectance of all treatments in the visible band decreased, but increased in the near-infrared band, and the reflectance was saturated when LAI increased to 5. The reflectance difference caused by LAI variation was enlarged as the drought stress intensified in the short-wave infrared band. The spectral reflectance in the near-infrared band was susceptible to leaf inclination angle (LIA) variation and changed significantly, especially in the closed canopy. With the increase in LAI, the difference vegetation index (DVI) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values under each treatment showed a gradually increasing trend. With the increase in LIA, the DVI value decreased gradually, and the DVI value under the saturated canopy was significantly higher than that under the unclosed canopy. However, the NDVI values of all treatments did not change with LIA, mostly under the closed canopy. Overall, the results demonstrated that LAI had a more significant influence on canopy reflectance than LIA. In addition, NDVI was not able to capture the LAI and LIA information when the canopy was closed, but DVI performed better.


Agriculture ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 1179
Author(s):  
Jia Quan Goh ◽  
Abdul Rashid Mohamed Shariff ◽  
Nazmi Mat Nawi

The quality of palm oil depends on the maturity level of the oil palm fresh fruit bunch (FFB). This research applied an optical spectrometer to collect the reflectance data of 96 FFB from unripe, ripe, and overripe classes for the maturity level classification. The spectrometer scanned the FFB from different parts, including apical, front equatorial, front basil, back equatorial, and back basil. Principal component analysis was carried out to extract principal components from the reflectance data of each of the parts. The extracted principal components were used in an ANOVA test, which found that the reflectance data of the front equatorial showed statistically significant differences between the three maturity groups. Then, the collected reflectance data was subjected to machine learning training and testing by using the K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM). The front equatorial achieved the highest accuracy, of 90.6%, by using SVM as classifiers; thus, it was proven to be the most optimal part of FFB that can be utilized for maturity classification. Next, the front equatorial dataset was divided into UV (180–400 nm), blue (450–490 nm), green (500–570 nm), red (630–700 nm), and NIR (800–1100 nm) regions for classification testing. The UV bands showed a 91.7% accuracy. After this, representative bands of 365, 460, 523, 590, 623, 660, 735, and 850 nm were extracted from the front equatorial dataset for further classification testing. The 660 nm band achieved an 89.6% accuracy using KNN as a classifier. Composite models were built from the representative bands. The combination of 365, 460, 735, and 850 nm had the highest accuracy in this research, which was 93.8% with the use of SVM. In conclusion, these research findings showed that the front equatorial has the better ability for maturity classification, whereas the composite model with only four bands has the best accuracy. These findings are useful to the industry for future oil palm FFB classification research.


Agriculture ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 1183
Author(s):  
Vítor João Pereira Domingues Martinho

Food markets have, at least, two dimensions. One is related to supply, where food marketing, for example, plays a determinant role, namely to promote healthy and balanced consumption. The other dimension is associated with demand, where it is important to understand and bring insights about consumer attitudes, because they have implications on patterns of food consumption. In this framework, the main objective of this research is to suggest an alternative approach for conducting systematic reviews based on bibliometric analysis and implement it on topics about food and consumer attitudes. For this purpose, the most important bibliographic items (authors, sources, organizations, countries and documents) were identified and later the most relevant documents were reviewed. In addition, 908 documents were selected on 11 December 2020 from the Web of Science Core Collection, for the topics “food” and “consumer attitude*”, and analyzed through bibliometric analysis with the support of the VOSviewer and Gephi software. These documents were also benchmarked with those available in the Scopus scientific database. The approach presented here made it possible to highlight the main insights from the scientific literature related to consumer attitudes to food and bring about further contributions to a literature review supported by bibliometric analysis. This proposal may be known as MB2MBA2 (Methodology Based on Benchmarking of Metadata, from scientific databases, and Bibliometric Assessment and Analysis). This systematic review highlights that organic foods, food neophobia, climate change, marketing strategies and interrelationships between motivations–consumer attitudes–perceptions–purchase intentions–purchase decisions (MAPID) deserved special attention. In addition, MAPID interactions are impacted, among other dimensions, by labelling, branding and trust in the information provided. Future research should further address impacts on consumer attitudes towards food, such as those related to climate-smart agriculture, food 4.0, food security and protection, and climate change and malnutrition. 


Agriculture ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 1176
Author(s):  
Kari L. Harding ◽  
Thien Vu ◽  
Rebecca Wysocky ◽  
Ramon Malheiros ◽  
Kenneth E. Anderson ◽  
...  

The abundance of peanut and poultry production within the state of North Carolina and the US Southeast, led us to conduct a layer feeding trial to determine the utilization of whole-in-shell high-oleic peanuts (WPN) and/or unblanched high-oleic peanuts (HOPN) as an alternative feed ingredient for poultry. To meet this objective, we randomly assigned 576 shaver hens to 4 dietary treatments (4 rep/trt). The dietary treatments consisted of a conventional control diet (C1), a diet containing 4% WPN, an 8% HOPN diet, and a control diet containing soy protein isolate (C2). Feed and water were provided for 6 weeks ad libitum. Pen body weights (BW) were recorded at week 0 and week 6 (wk6), and feed weights were recorded bi-weekly. Shell eggs were collected daily and enumerated. Bi-weekly 120 eggs/treatment were collected for quality assessment and egg weight (EW), while 16 eggs/treatment were collected for chemical analysis. There were no significant differences in BW or EW at week 6. Hens fed the C2 produced more total dozen eggs relative to C1 hens over the feeding trial (p < 0.05). Hens fed the C1 diet consumed less total feed relative to the other treatments with the best feed conversion ratio (p < 0.05). Most eggs produced from each treatment were USDA grade A, large eggs. There were no differences in egg quality, with the exception of yolk color, with significantly higher yolk color scores in eggs produced from the C1 and C2 treatments relative to the other treatments (p < 0.05). Eggs produced from the HOPN treatment had significantly reduced stearic and linoleic fatty acid levels relative to the other treatments (p < 0.05). Eggs produced from hens fed the WPN diet had significantly greater β-carotene content relative to eggs from the other treatment groups (p < 0.05). In summary, this study suggests that WPN and/or HOPN may be a suitable alternative layer feed ingredient and a dietary means to enrich the eggs produced while not adversely affecting hen performance.


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