Adjustment Disorders
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Author(s):  
L. I. Wasserman ◽  
O. Yu. Shchelkova ◽  
E. A. Dubinina ◽  
M. A. Berebin ◽  
V. A. Mikhailov ◽  
...  

Summary. The current biopsychosocial paradigm in medicine and medical psychology ensures the development of the theory and methodology of medical psychodiagnostics as a comprehensive study of psychological and psychosocial factors underlying mental adaptation. The diagnostic of prenosological and initial manifestations of borderline spectrum disorders designated as adjustment disorders in ICD-10 (F43.2), requires the criteria qualification of real or potential stressogenic social functioning conditions, thus, an arsenal of adequate methods of clinical and medical-psychosocial psychodiagnostics is required. The questionnaire «Social Frustration Level» represents one of such methods. The study of social frustration phenomenon as a predictor of emotional tension and stress resistance allows to characterize personality traits in relation to environmental influence and assess the specificity and pathogenic significance of socially frustrating factors. The article substantiates theoretical and methodological foundations of the questionnaire, its attributive characteristics — the phenomena of external and internal social frustration identified in medical psychodiagnostics for the first time. Socio-diagnostic criteria are illustrated by examples of the practical use in medical psychodiagnostics of social frustration in teachers of mass schools, the military and in patients with focal epilepsy. The specified research contingent is united by the problem of stress resistance in crisis situations (including a disease situation and the attitude to the disease). The questionnaire «Social Frustration Level» can be considered as a necessary form of psychosocial diagnostics of stress genesis, a source of information in screening psychoprophylactic studies, as well as in the forming of indications for psycho- and sociotherapy.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 181-200
Author(s):  
Ulla Rantakeisu ◽  
Lena Ede

In the Western world mental health problems are increasing and in Sweden these problems are the most common reason for sick leave. Diagnoses of adjustment disorders and reactions to severe stress are increasing the fastest out of all mental health problems. The aim of this study is to contribute new insights into employees’ experiences and management of being on sick leave with a stress-related psychiatric diagnosis. The empirical material consisted of individual interviews with 26 employees who were on sick leave from at least part-time employment because of a stress-related diagnosis. The grounded theory method was used to analyse the results. In the generated model, we propose that sick-listed employees engage in enhancing credibility in relation to themselves and others, here attempting to come across as credible and, thus, avoiding disbelief and the negative attributions of being on sick leave with a psychiatric diagnosis. The interviewees shared the general concern that being perceived as either healthier or sicker than the case may be, as well as greater sensitivity to what others might think, which was manifested as being on guard and controlling their behaviour and emotional display. To return to work, the sick-listed employees tended to re-evaluate their previous performance at work and saw the illness as self-inflicted and as the result of not having been capable of drawing the line between work and leisure.


2021 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Author(s):  
Madeline Ward ◽  
Isabel Benjamin ◽  
Mark Zimmerman

The present report from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) Project compares patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) in an outpatient practice (n = 390) and a partial hospital setting (n = 358) on diagnostic comorbidities, symptoms experienced, suicidality, and occupational impairment. The patients in the partial program were diagnosed with significantly more psychiatric disorders and were more frequently diagnosed with dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder, alcohol and substance use disorders, adjustment disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Those at the partial hospital had significantly higher levels of suicidal ideation than those in the outpatient practice. The samples did not differ on utilization of disability or suicide attempts. Treatment setting may have implications in the recognition of the disorder in clinical practice, the development and support of etiological theories, identification of core deficits, and evaluation of psychosocial morbidity associated with BPD.


2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (2-3) ◽  
Author(s):  
Karina Oclaudya ◽  
Rr Indah Ria Sulistyarini

This study presents an experimental Single Case-Single Subject ABA design of a 17-year-old female patient suffering from Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) and Pulmonary Tuberculosis (TB) who experience adjustment disorders. The purpose of this study is to reduce adjustment disorders in the patient with SLE and pulmonary TB by using art therapy. The assessment methods are observation, interviews, and psychological testing tools. Data analysis was carried out using the qualitatively and quantitatively. Quantitative analysis is performed using visual inspection by looking at the comparison of Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) scores. Initial measurements using DASS showed a level of depression with a score of 26 (severe), anxiety score at 23 (very severe), and stress score at 19 (moderate). Art therapy is given as a therapeutic intervention for the patient. After the therapy was given, there was a decrease in the DASS score with a depression score to 20 (moderate), anxiety score at 19 (severe), and stress score at 17 (mild). The patient also felt moreable to express and control emotions more precisely. These results indicate that art therapy is one of the interventions that can overcome psychological problems in the patient with adjustment disorders.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (2) ◽  
pp. 884-895
Author(s):  
Anastasia Ngobe ◽  
Sebua Semenya ◽  
Tholene Sodi

Background: Evidence suggests that South African traditional healers (THs) treat various mental complaints. However, there is little literature on Swati THs’ accounts on this subject. The current study therefore, sought to address this gap. Methods: Data was gathered using qualitative research methods, namely semi-structured interviews with 10 purposely sampled Swati THs practicing in the Kanyamazane peri-urban township (Mpumalanga Province, South Africa). Data was thematically analysed. Results: Results showed that THs treat seven psychological aliments, viz. adjustment disorders, depression, mental illness due to ancestral calling, mental illness due to bewitchment, mental illness due to breaking of taboos, psychotic disturbance and substance induced mental illness. Generally, an integrated treatment protocol was utilised by THs to treat and manage these disorders. Most of these procedures are acceptable from either folkloric or scientific viewpoint, and have demonstrat- ed certain level of efficacy in treating mental illness. Conclusion: Taken together, the evidence presented indicates that Swati THs use different traditional methods to manage various mental complaints. In doing so, they carry a large share of the community caseload for mental health, whilst admit- ting patients in their homes for extended periods of time, and also referring some (patients) for additional care within the Western health sector. Keywords: Mental illness; Mpumalanga; Swati; traditional healers; treatment methods; psychological ailments.


2021 ◽  
Vol 31 ◽  
pp. S33-S42
Author(s):  
Jouhayna Bajjani-Gebara ◽  
Sherrie L. Wilcox ◽  
John W. Williams ◽  
Andrzej S. Kosinski ◽  
Rhonda J. Allard ◽  
...  

Cytokine ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 146 ◽  
pp. 155646
Author(s):  
Kristina Sundquist ◽  
Ashfaque A. Memon ◽  
Karolina Palmér ◽  
Jan Sundquist ◽  
Xiao Wang

2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Gricel Orellana ◽  
Andrea Slachevsky ◽  
Fernando Henriquez

Abstract Background: Dysexecutive syndrome is a prominent and functionally significant cognitive feature of schizophrenia. This study assesses and correlates executive function deficits and dysexecutive behavior in first-episode schizophrenia patients and healthy participants.Methods: We evaluated 22 FES patients (aged 17−29 years, history of single episode of schizophrenia, treated with atypical antipsychotics) and 20 controls matched for gender, age, and education. EF was evaluated using the Modified Six Elements Test, Modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Frontal Assessment Battery. DB was evaluated using the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX) and Behavioral Dysexecutive Syndrome Inventory (BDSI).Results: FES patients had marked executive function impairments and dysexecutive behavior as compared to controls. Our findings suggest that executive function scores on standardized neuropsychological tests may be ecologically valid predictors of dysexecutive behavior.Conclusions: Dysexecutive behavior is common during first-episode schizophrenia and may be a primary impairment throughout disease progression. The present results inform clinical practice by providing insight into first-episode schizophrenia specific features of dysexecutive behavior. Understanding the associations between executive function and dysexecutive behavior helps to explain the social adjustment disorders associated with schizophrenia. This knowledge may be used to improve diagnostic and therapeutic tools; for example, clarifying the implications of specific DEX and BDSI dimensions could increase the efficacy of individual or familial psychotherapy interventions.


Author(s):  
О.В. Котова ◽  
Н.Л. Зуйкова ◽  
А.В. Палин ◽  
В.И. Фролова ◽  
Е.В. Гушанская ◽  
...  

Одними из наиболее важных для уровня социального функционирования и адаптации составляющих клинической картины хронической ишемии мозга (дисциркуляторная энцефалопатия, болезнь малых сосудов) являются психопатологические симптомокомплексы: тревожные, смешанные тревожно-депрессивные, органоневротические (соматоформные), нозогенные расстройства, расстройства приспособительных реакций, неврастения, соматогенная астения. Раннее начало терапии хронической ишемии мозга (ХИМ) является важной задачей по предупреждению прогрессирования не только церебрально-сосудистой патологии, но и широкого круга коморбидных психопатологических расстройств. К пациентам с ХИМ необходим индивидуальный подход с учетом патогенетических факторов и выраженности как когнитивных, так и психопатологических расстройств с привлечением широкого круга средств, включая нейропротекторы. С этой целью в клинической практике используются для самостоятельного или комбинированного применения этилметилоксипиридина сукцинат и цитиколин. На фоне приема этих препаратов пациенты с различными формами ХИМ отмечают субъективное улучшение своего состояния в виде уменьшения утомляемости, общей слабости, эмоциональной лабильности, симптомов психической и соматической тревоги, а также повышения активности и мотивации деятельности, улучшения памяти, внимания и способности концентрироваться, что положительно отражается на их профессиональной деятельности. Anxiety, depression, somatoform disorders, nosogenic reactions, adjustment disorders, neurasthenia, somatogenic asthenia in patient with chronic cerebral ischemia (dyscirculatory encephalopathy, cerebrovascular disease) (CCI) are very important for the level of social functioning and adaptation. Early initiation of CCI therapy is an important task in preventing the progression not only of cerebrovascular pathology, but also a wide range of comorbid psychopathological disorders. Treatment of patients with CCI requires an individual approach taking into account pathogenetic factors and severity of both cognitive and psychopathological disorders. It should involve a wide range of drugs, including neuroprotectors. For this purpose the neuroprotective agents ethylmethyloxypyridine succinate and citicoline can be used for independent or combined use. Patients with various forms of CCI noticed subjective improvement during treatment which includes decreasing fatigability and general weakness, reduction of symptoms of psychic and somatic anxiety, fatigability, emotional lability, increasing activity and motivation, improvement of memory, attention, ability to concentrate that positively influences their professional activity.


Author(s):  
Carla Gramaglia ◽  
Eleonora Gambaro ◽  
Debora Marangon ◽  
Camilla Vecchi ◽  
Chiara Airoldi ◽  
...  

Abstract Aim Migration can lead to an increase in stress rates and can impact mental health, especially in certain migrant groups. Nonetheless, mental health needs and the importance of public health are not well captured in most studies using national samples. This study aimed to show the correlation between mental disorders, socio-demographic and cultural aspects among migrants. Subject and methods One hundred nineteen migrants, applying for assessment to the Mental Health Operational Unit of the National Institute for Health, Migration and Poverty (NIHMP) in Rome, were recruited. Results Migrants frequently reported mood disorders (mainly women). Men reported PTSD, somatization and adjustment disorders. Conclusions Over time, diverse factors may produce a decline in an initially healthy migrant status. The research unveils a new focus on the psychopathology of migrants accessing the NIHMP, with important implications for migrants’ mental health treatment and prevention.


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