developmental issues
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2022 ◽  
pp. 097491012110643
Author(s):  
Tolulope Osinubi ◽  
Ajayi Adedoyin ◽  
Osinubi Olufemi ◽  
Folorunsho Ajide

Following the failure to achieve Millennium Development Goals by most countries in the world, Sustainable Development Goals are now at the center of developmental issues. Consequently, this study aims to examine if tourism can be an ally to sustainable development in MINT (Mexico, Indonesia, Nigeria, Turkey) countries between 1995 and 2018. The study uses adjusted net saving and international tourism receipts in these countries as measures of sustainable development and tourism, respectively. In achieving its objectives, the study employs the augmented mean group (AMG) estimation technique to estimate the long-run parameters. Besides, mean group (MG) and common correlated effects MG techniques are employed to check the robustness of the estimates obtained via the AMG approach. The results from the three estimators show that tourism is indeed an ally to sustainable development in MINT countries since there is a significant positive relationship between tourism and sustainable development. In other words, tourism can put the MINT countries on the path to sustainable development. This implies that any policy that will enhance the performance of the tourism industry will ensure sustainable development in MINT countries. Thus, the governments of MINT countries should focus basically on achieving sustainable tourism development, as this will translate to sustainable development in their countries.


2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (2) ◽  
pp. 307-322
Author(s):  
Ruvarashe Chigiya Mujeni

 Background: The concept of devolution has always presented significant controversy in African unitary states. It is often viewed with inherent suspicion and skepticism based on the lack of mutual trust between the people and the government. While proponents see it as a form of empowerment, resistant groups in society view the decentralization of government powers and responsibilities as a gateway to success. Despite the devolution agenda being a major component of local governance in the Zimbabwean Constitution of 2013, it would not be practically implemented until the new dispensation that rose into power in 2018. However, the coming in of the COVID-19 pandemic has significantly marred the take-off of devolution implementation in Zimbabwe. Whilst COVID-19 cases continue to escalate on the globe, African countries continue to battle not only with the second wave of the pandemic but also with the new COVID-19 variants. Already fragile economies of these countries, the governments were forced to prioritize the national budgets in response to the pandemic; consequently, other social and developmental issues were left behind. Objective: This study discusses the contemporary status of devolution in Zimbabwe to ascertain the extent of implementation; provide supportive legislation for devolution structures through recommendations; analyze devolution disbursements from 2019 before COVID-19 to date; assess the local authorities’ initial requests versus the disbursements in 2019 and 2020. Method: The researcher carried out a desk review and followed the principles of case study design by analyzing financial statements, reports and data coming in from the Councils and relevant Government ministries. The meaning was also derived by critically reviewing, organizing and interpreting related information from books and articles published in newspapers and journals. Result: Despite Section 264(1) of the Constitution providing for devolution of power to the three tiers of the Government, there is no supporting legislature in place as yet to actualize this key element. The Government Budgetary Allocation of 5% is not meeting local authority demands. Conclusion: The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in late 2019 reduced the pace of the devolution process because the funds were channeled to fight against the virus. If properly practiced, devolution may be one of the solutions to the development of the Zimbabwean economy since the devolution program is largely founded on the principle of empowering provincial government councils and Local Authorities to spearhead economic and social development projects in their areas by leveraging on local resources. It may also solve issues of corruption in many local councils in Zimbabwe by improving accountability mechanisms, especially where sub governments are permitted to progressively compete with each other to establish innovative ways of delivering public services efficiently and inexpensively. Implications: The findings imply that the Government policies can affect the social and economic well-being of citizens, however, the COVID-19 pandemic has far outweighing impacts. Secondly, the coronavirus outbreak has proved how much the Government of Zimbabwe is ill-prepared to deal with a pandemic of this dimension. Policymakers should ensure that finances are set in the national budget for unseen events so as not to derail other Government projects. Originality: This paper is original and not sent anywhere for publication.


Crystals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 20
Author(s):  
Shiv J. Singh ◽  
Mihai I. Sturza

The discovery of iron-based superconductors (FBS) and their superconducting properties has generated huge research interest and provided a very rich physics high Tc family for fundamental and experimental studies. The 1111 (REFeAsO, RE = Rare earth) and 1144 (AEAFe4As4, AE = Ca, Eu; A = K, Rb) families are the two most important families of FBS, which offer the high Tc of 58 K and 36 K with doping and without doping, respectively. Furthermore, the crystal growth of these families is not an easy process, and a lot of efforts have been reported in this direction. However, the preparation of high-quality and suitable-sized samples is still challenging. In this short review, we will summarize the growth of materials with their superconducting properties, especially polycrystals and single crystals, for the 1111 and 1144 families, and make a short comparison between them to understand the developmental issues.


2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (4) ◽  
pp. 31-39
Author(s):  
L.M.  Yuryeva  ◽  
A.I. Sharun

Currently, the mental health problem of students, which often leads to the creation of unfavorable foundations for the development of non-psychotic mental disorders, is particularly relevant and socially significant. The purpose of this article was to conduct a systematic literature review of the current state of the problems of students` adjustment disorders, taking into account interventions aimed at preventing and correcting them, and analyzing the results. We searched the electronic databases Oxford, Google Scholar, PubMed, Medline and Web of Science, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Cyberleninka, PsycInfo on prevalence, adverse effects, and interventions in students with adjustment disorders. Of the 25 studies published over the period from 2004 to 2020, 10 (40%) data on treatment and preventive measures are reported. The search revealed that interventions aimed at correcting and preventing adjustment disorders in students may improve various aspects of well-being, including psychological, pedagogical and medical ones. However, the evidence is limited by the relative inadequacy of long-term and reliable experimental studies. In view of this, it is advisable to further implement larger projects and conduct broader and longer-term research, which will contribute to a more reliable and in-depth study of the impact and effectiveness of such interventions. Based on a scientific search, the theoretical and methodological foundations of psychocorrection of students with adjustment disorders are substantiated, taking into account the specifics of the mental functioning of this category. While there are few works devoted to the study of developmental issues, clinical and psychopathological features, dynamics of non-psychotic mental disorders, taking into account gender and organizational factors in university students in the context of higher education reform, such issues require further study applying systemic approach in order to develop and implement in practice the early diagnosis as well as corrective and preventive measures.


Author(s):  
Fani Radebe ◽  
Michael Kyobe

Recently, South Africa has seen a surge in violence, cyberbullying by learners against peers, and online malicious acts against teachers. In response, the South African Department of Basic Education invited the social crime prevention police to intervene. This study reports on the developmental issues contributing to cyberbullying and the police response to this violence in rural schools. An extensive literature review was conducted, and a conceptual framework was developed to guide the study and development of a mobile application. This framework was tested using data collected from focus groups, 8 police officers, 9 teachers, 52 grade-10 learners, and 27 grade-12 learners. The data were analyzed using thematic and quantitative techniques. The findings reveal some developmental issues. For instance, teachers are often targeted by learners online because they fail to take prompt action when learners report cyberbullying incidents. This finding is consistent with the developmental theory which predicts that lack of support would create a permissive context for cyberbullying. In addition, the popularity of cyberbullying has a stronger influence on older, rather than younger, adolescents. Older adolescents are more concerned about gaining popularity than being socially accepted. Recommendations are made which can be useful to schools, learners, and the police force in their fight against cyberbullying.


2021 ◽  
pp. 1-3
Author(s):  
Iftah Biran, Co-editor ◽  
Richard Kessler, Co-editor ◽  
David Olds, Target Articles Editor ◽  
Daniela Flores Mosri, Managing Editor
Keyword(s):  

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (Supplement_1) ◽  
pp. 495-496
Author(s):  
Alexandra Jeanblanc ◽  
Carol Musil ◽  
Elizabeth Tracy ◽  
Jaclene Zauszniewski

Abstract In the U.S., over 2.7 million grandparents are primary caregivers to grandchildren. It is critical to understand the experiences of grandparent caregivers to design tailored, supportive programs. Our aim was to analyze 4 weeks of daily online journals of 129 grandmothers with respect to their use of a set of Resourcefulness Skills© following web-based skills training. Using a thematic analysis approach, coding was completed by a three person team using NVIVO 12. Percent agreement among coders was over 90% (Kappa = .956). Twelve cases were randomly selected for case study development. Comparative case study analysis was used to look within and across cases for instances where skills were used and how skill use changed over time. The pattern of skill use showed that grandmother caregivers used resourcefulness skills to deal with the grandchild’s behavior and developmental issues as well as within the entire family system to manage conflicted relationships with the grandchild’s parents, balance relationships with their spouse/partner, and maintain relationships with other relatives. Case studies will be presented to show skill use over the four weeks of journaling in the context of the family system, as well as the strategies used by participants who improved skill use over time and those who faced barriers to skill use. Findings highlight the use of journals as a means to assess enactment fidelity of treatment interventions and the importance of the family network in skills training program implementation and ways to help grandmothers make use of skills training in the family setting.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ketevan Inasaridze

The use of cognitive-behavioral therapy in children and adolescents has its own specifics. It is necessary to modify the methods of cognitive-behavioral therapy and adapt them to the age characteristics of children. The challenge for the practitioner is to translate abstract concepts into simple, concrete everyday examples. For involvement of children in cognitive-behavioral therapy it is neccessary to assess their basic skills, to understand developmental issues in children and adolescents, and to identify general problems of cognitive-behavioral therapy with adolescents that is described in this article.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
◽  
Jenny Yu Kuan Chiang

<p>This project aims to investigate how carers and other professionals perceive the music therapy process over time. Music therapy has been used to address a wide range of diagnoses and developmental issues of young children. The research was conducted during my clinical placement working with young children who have been referred to a child development team. The participants in this project were carers with children with special needs. The children were diagnosed with various disabilities and required different support and developmental goals. Each child attended individual music therapy sessions once a week over a period of three to nine months. It was speculated that many other changes or developmental progress could occur along with the goals and objectives set by me in the music therapy process. To understand fully what other changes or progress the children have made with the input of music therapy, the research was designed using open-ended interviews to find out what the carers and a professional witnessed during and in between the sessions. Three carers were involved in a one-on-one in-depth interview in which they were encouraged to talk about their observation and perception of music therapy. A speech-language therapist was also invited to participate in an in-depth interview. Data derived from the interviews was analysed using a thematic analysis approach. The findings compare themes generated from the clinical notes and interview data. The results showed some shared experiences amongst the participants as well as exceptions influenced by parental differences and the children's conditions. Examination of the similarities and differences between the clinical notes and the interview data helped me validate the outcome of music therapy intervention and gain more insights into effective practice.</p>


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
◽  
Jenny Yu Kuan Chiang

<p>This project aims to investigate how carers and other professionals perceive the music therapy process over time. Music therapy has been used to address a wide range of diagnoses and developmental issues of young children. The research was conducted during my clinical placement working with young children who have been referred to a child development team. The participants in this project were carers with children with special needs. The children were diagnosed with various disabilities and required different support and developmental goals. Each child attended individual music therapy sessions once a week over a period of three to nine months. It was speculated that many other changes or developmental progress could occur along with the goals and objectives set by me in the music therapy process. To understand fully what other changes or progress the children have made with the input of music therapy, the research was designed using open-ended interviews to find out what the carers and a professional witnessed during and in between the sessions. Three carers were involved in a one-on-one in-depth interview in which they were encouraged to talk about their observation and perception of music therapy. A speech-language therapist was also invited to participate in an in-depth interview. Data derived from the interviews was analysed using a thematic analysis approach. The findings compare themes generated from the clinical notes and interview data. The results showed some shared experiences amongst the participants as well as exceptions influenced by parental differences and the children's conditions. Examination of the similarities and differences between the clinical notes and the interview data helped me validate the outcome of music therapy intervention and gain more insights into effective practice.</p>


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