The rheological properties of fresh plaster mortars, with varied contents of porous fillers and polymer admixtures, have been studied. The quantities of fine limestone and expanded perlite, and dosages of methyl hydroxy ethyl cellulose and ethylene vinyl acetate were varied in the experiment. Effective viscosity (at a shear rate from 0.045 to 5.705 s−1) and the thixotropy of the mixes were determined with rotational viscometer for 18 compositions (according to the design of the experiment). Each of the 18 viscosity curves were described with the Ostwald–de-Waele equation. The Experimental–Statistical models describing the dependencies of the parameters of the rheological model and of mix thixotropy on the composition factors were built on the obtained data. ES-models have allowed the individual and synergetic effects of mix components on the rheological characteristics to be evaluated. The expanded perlite powder can increase the viscosity by two times, probably due to its pozzolanic effect increasing the content of the CSH phase during cement hydration. The thixotropy can be increased by the quantity of limestone. The computational experiments with ES-models have made it possible for the information set, without a noticeable interrelation between rheological characteristics, to be stratified into subsets, in which such interrelations differ significantly.
Abstract. The results of experimental studies are presented, the purpose of which was to study the influence of variable formulation and technological factors on the rheological characteristics of the foam concrete mixture, in particular, the structural strength. This is preceded by an analysis of the process of structure formation of cellular concrete. As a result, it is shown that the properties of cellular concrete are determined by the nature of the distribution of the solid component. The structure of the solid phase is formed at the earliest stages of the formation of cellular products and depends on the rheological characteristics of the mortar and cellular mixture. In the technology of cellular concrete, it is important to synchronize the processes of pore formation and the growth of plastic (structural) strength, which is also associated with a change in the rheological properties of the mixture. Using the methods of mathematical statistics, the influence of the content of the filler in the mixture with cement, the content of the complex additive, and the effect of mechanical chemical activation on the kinetics of the plastic strength of the foam concrete mixture were studied. The kinetic dependences of the plastic strength of the foam concrete mixture in the range of 6 ... 24 hours from the moment of manufacture have been constructed. Each of the 15 curves is maximized by a 3rd-degree polynomial. Based on the obtained dependences, they are differentiated between the first and second derivatives. As a result, the equations of the speed and intensity (acceleration) of the plastic strength of the foam concrete mixture were obtained. According to the results of the previous experiment, carried out according to a three-factor plan, a 4-factor plan was synthesized, in which the aging period of the foam concrete mixture was taken as the fourth factor. The calculated theoretical values of the characteristics of the structural strength of the foam concrete mixture were entered into the matrix. As a result, mathematical models of plastic strength, speed, and intensity of plastic strength of the foam concrete mixture were calculated and the influence of variable factors studied on the isosurfaces of these properties was visualized. The analysis of these dependencies made it possible to determine the characteristic recipe and technological conditions for obtaining a foam concrete mixture with the required values of plastic strength.
Chocolate glaze is a large-tonnage component of various branches of food technology, which also performs important technological tasks, namely: helps to slow down oxidation processes; improving emulsifying and dispersing properties; prevents hardening of certain types of products; prevents the ingress of moisture, which increases the shelf life of the confectionery, etc. At the first stage, the main problems of production of the confectionery industry are determined - they require a scientific justification for the choice of competitive components of production technology, taking into account quality-cost indicators. Next, for the specified parameters of the production technology determine the components of the formulation of chocolate glazes. As an example, the results of studies of selected technological parameters of some compositions of chocolate glazes, a comparative analysis of their effectiveness on the rheological properties of compositions based on cocoa butter: alternative surfactants – standard lecithin – alternative surfactants - monoglycerides and a mixture of mono-, di- and triglycerides from palm oil by glycerolysis in the presence of an alkaline catalyst. Analysis of the system of results and calculation equations allowed to offer recommendations for the intensification of production processes: effectively reduces the viscosity of compositions based on cocoa butter, which, in turn, makes it possible to use them for partial replacement of lecithin in the manufacture of confectionery.
The paper considers the effect of mineral additives on the rheological characteristics of a binder for foam concrete. The compositions in the study were divided into two groups: based on nanostructured binder (NB) and based on cement. For the compositions of the first group portland cement is proposed as a modifying additive,for the compositions of the second group NB and anhydrite were used as modifying additives. It has been shown that the introduction of cement into NB increases the viscosity due to an increase in the concentration of large-sized particles, while the combined use of nanostructured binder and anhydrite as modifiers of the cement system helps to reduce the viscosity of the cement mortar and increase its mobility, which reduces the amount of mixing water. From a technological point of view, this will make it possible to obtain materials with a rational pore structure by optimizing porosity processes.