Larval Diet
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2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Pierre Marie Sovegnon ◽  
Marie Joelle Fanou ◽  
Romaric Akoton ◽  
Oswald Yédjinnavênan Djihinto ◽  
Hamirath Odée Lagnika ◽  
...  

The success achieved in reducing malaria transmission by vector control is threatened by insecticide resistance. To strengthen the current vector control programmes, the non-genetic factors underlying the emergence of insecticide resistance in Anopheles vectors and its widespread need to be explored. This study aimed to assess the effects of larval diet on some life-history traits and pyrethroid-insecticide susceptibility of Anopheles gambiae s.s. Three (3) An. gambiae strains, namely Kisumu (insecticide susceptible), AcerKis (homozygous ace-1 R G119S resistant) and KisKdr (homozygous kdr R L1014F resistant) were fed with three different diets (low, medium, and high) of TetraMin ® Baby fish food. Pre-imaginal developmental time, larval mortality, adult emergence rate and female wing length were measured. Mosquito females were exposed to insecticide-treated net (ITN) PermaNet 2.0 and PermaNet 3.0. In the three An. gambiae strains, significant differences in adult emergence rates ( F = 1054.2; df = 2; p <0.01), mosquito wing length ( F = 970.5; df = 2; p <0.01) and adult survival post insecticide exposure ( χ2 = 173; df = 2; p <0.01), were noticed among the three larval diets. Larvae fed with the low food diets took more time to develop, were smaller at emergence and displayed a short lifespan, while the specimens fed with a high regime developed faster and into big adults. Although being fed with a high diet, none of An. gambiae strain harbouring the kdr R and ace-1 R allele survived 24 hours after exposure against PermaNet 3.0. This study showed that variation in the larval diet significantly impacts An. gambiae life-history traits such as larval mortality and developmental time, adult wing length, and female susceptibility to pyrethroid insecticides. Further investigations through field-based studies would allow an in-depth understanding of the implications of these non-genetic parameters on the physiological traits of malaria vectors and consequently improve resistance management.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Audrey J Parish ◽  
Danny W Rice ◽  
Vicki M Tanquary ◽  
Jason M Tennessen ◽  
Irene LG Newton

Honey bees, the worlds most significant agricultural pollinator, have suffered dramatic losses in the last few decades. These losses are largely due to the synergistic effects of multiple stressors, the most pervasive of which is limited nutrition. The effects of poor nutrition are most damaging in the developing larvae of honey bees, who mature into workers unable to meet the needs of their colony. It is therefore essential that we better understand the nutritional landscape experienced by honey bee larvae. In this study, we characterize the metabolic capabilities of a honey bee larvae-associated bacterium, Bombella apis (formerly Parasaccharibacter apium), and its effects on the nutritional resilience of larvae. We found that B. apis is the only bacterium associated with larvae that can withstand the antimicrobial larval diet. Further, we found that B. apis can synthesize all essential amino acids and significantly alters the amino acid content of synthetic larval diet, largely by increasing the essential amino acid lysine. Analyses of gene gain/loss across the phylogeny suggest that two distinct cationic amino acid transporters were gained by B. apis ancestors, and the transporter LysE is conserved across all sequenced strains of B. apis. This result suggests that amino acid export is a key feature conserved within the Bombella clade. Finally, we tested the impact of B. apis on developing honey bee larvae subjected to nutritional stress and found that larvae supplemented with B. apis are bolstered against mass reduction despite limited nutrition. Together, these data suggest an important role of B. apis as a nutritional mutualist of honey bee larvae.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Hue Dinh ◽  
Ida Lundback ◽  
Anh The Than ◽  
Juliano Morimoto ◽  
Fleur Ponton

Nutrition is a central factor influencing immunity and resistance to infection, but the extent to which nutrition during development affects adult responses to infections is poorly understood. Our study investigated how the nutritional composition of the larval diet affects the survival, pathogen load, and food intake of adult fruit flies, Bactrocera tryoni, after bacterial septic infection. We found a sex-specific effect of larval diet composition on survival post-infection: survival rate was higher and bacterial load was lower for infected females fed sugar-rich larval diet compared with females fed protein-rich larval diet, an effect that was absent in males. Both males and females were heavier when fed a balanced larval diet compared to protein- or sugar-rich diet, while body lipid reserves were higher in the sugar-rich larval diet compared with other diets. Body protein reserve was lower for sugar-rich larval diets compared to other diets in males, but not females. Both females and males shifted their nutrient intake to ingest a sugar-rich diet when infected compared with sham-infected flies without any effect of the larval diet, suggesting that sugar-rich diets can be beneficial to fight off bacterial infection. Overall, our findings show that nutrition during early life can shape individual fitness in adulthood.


Diversity ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (12) ◽  
pp. 664
Author(s):  
Geraldo B. Freire ◽  
Thayane Silva ◽  
Hernani Oliveira ◽  
Chloe Collier ◽  
Hanna P. Rodrigues ◽  
...  

Introduction: In animals, body size is correlated with many aspects of natural history, such as life span, abundance, dispersal capacity and diet breadth. However, contrasting trends have been reported for the relationship between body size and these ecological traits. Methods: Fruit-feeding butterflies were used to investigate whether body size is correlated with species abundance, dispersal, permanence, and larval diet breadth in a Neotropical savanna in Brazil (Cerrado). We used Blomberg’s K and Phylogenetic Generalized Least Squares models (PGLS) to measure phylogenetic signal strength in species traits and to estimate size–dispersal–diet breadth associations, while also taking shared ancestry into account. Results: 539 individuals from 27 species were captured, and 190 individuals were recaptured, representing a 35% recapture rate. We found body size to be negatively associated with butterfly abundance, and positively associated with dispersal level, distance traveled, number of traps visited, individual permanence, and diet breadth. These results indicate that larger butterflies are more likely to disperse over longer distances. Moreover, larger butterflies have more generalized larval diets, based on the number of host plant families, genera, and phylogenetic diversity of the host plants they consume as larvae. Smaller butterflies rely on fewer resources, which is reflected in their higher survival in small patches and may explain their lower dispersal ability and higher diet specialization. Nevertheless, lower dispersal ability may, if not compensated by large population sizes, threaten small-bodied species inhabiting environments, such as the Cerrado, which have intense deforestation rates. Conclusions: Body size is positively associated with dispersal and diet breadth for the fruit-feeding butterflies collected in this study.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Juliano Morimoto ◽  
Anh The Than ◽  
Binh Nguyen ◽  
Ida Lundback ◽  
Hue Dinh ◽  
...  

Habitat quality early in life determines individual fitness, with possible long-term evolutionary effects on groups and populations. In holometabolous insects, larval ecology plays a major role in determining the expression of traits in adulthood, but how ecological conditions during larval stage interact to shape adult life-history and fitness, particularly in non-model organisms, remains subject to scrutiny. Consequently, our knowledge of the interactive effects of ecological factors on insect development is limited. Here, using the polyphagous fly Bactrocera tryoni, we conducted a fully-factorial design where we manipulated larval density and larval diet (protein-rich, standard, and sugar-rich) to gain insights into how these ecological factors interact to modulate adult fitness. As expected, a protein-rich diet resulted in faster larval development, heavier and leaner adults that were more fecund compared with standard and sugar-rich diets, irrespective of larval density. Females from the protein-rich larval diet had overall higher reproductive rate (i.e., eggs per day) than females from other diets, and reproductive rate decreased linearly with density for females from the protein-rich but non-linearly for females from the standard and sugar-rich diets over time. Surprisingly, adult lipid reserve increased with larval density for adults from the sugar-rich diet (as opposed to decreasing, as in other diets), possibly due to a stress-response to an extremely adverse condition during development (i.e., high intraspecific competition and poor nutrition). Together, our results provide insights into how ecological factors early in life interact and shape the fate of individuals through life-stages in holometabolous insects.


Insects ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (10) ◽  
pp. 923
Author(s):  
Katerina Nikolouli ◽  
Fabiana Sassù ◽  
Spyridon Ntougias ◽  
Christian Stauffer ◽  
Carlos Cáceres ◽  
...  

The Spotted-Wing Drosophila fly, Drosophila suzukii, is an invasive pest species infesting major agricultural soft fruits. Drosophila suzukii management is currently based on insecticide applications that bear major concerns regarding their efficiency, safety and environmental sustainability. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an efficient and friendly to the environment pest control method that has been suggested for the D. suzukii population control. Successful SIT applications require mass-rearing of the strain to produce competitive and of high biological quality males that will be sterilized and consequently released in the wild. Recent studies have suggested that insect gut symbionts can be used as a protein source for Ceratitis capitata larval diet and replace the expensive brewer’s yeast. In this study, we exploited Enterobacter sp. AA26 as partial and full replacement of inactive brewer’s yeast in the D. suzukii larval diet and assessed several fitness parameters. Enterobacter sp. AA26 dry biomass proved to be an inadequate nutritional source in the absence of brewer’s yeast and resulted in significant decrease in pupal weight, survival under food and water starvation, fecundity, and adult recovery.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (2) ◽  
pp. 158-165
Author(s):  
Adha Sari ◽  
Damayanti Buchori ◽  
Ihsan Nurkomar

Effect of host-larval diet on the host acceptance and host suitability of the egg parasitoid Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) on Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The life history of parasitoids is an important factor that can determine their ability to attack a host. The type of food consumed by the host can affect the ability of parasitoids such as host searching behavior, host suitability and host acceptance. In this research, we evaluate the effect of the S. frugiperda larvae diet on its suitability of the eggs produced by the adults for the egg parasitoid Telenomus remus. The research was studied on two types of egg masses of S. frugiperda that obtained from the moths that fed with natural or artificial diet during their larval stages. Parasitoid was reared from both types of hosts. An egg mass consisting of 50 S. frugiperda eggs from both types of hosts was exposed to one egg parasitoid female for 24 hours. S. frugiperda eggs then were reared until the parasitoid adult emerged. Each experiment was repeated 20 times. Host acceptance was observed through the host parasitism rate and its parasitization. Meanwhile, the host suitability was observed through the sex ratio of the emerging parasitoids. The results showed that S. frugiperda eggs reared using artificial diet had a higher parasitism rate (99.33%) than those of natural diet (82.53%). In contrast, the level of parasitization of S. frugiperda eggs reared using natural diet was higher (78.30%) than those of artificial diet (48.34%) because the number of emerging T. remus from S. frugiperda eggs reared using natural diet was also higher than those of artificial diet. However, the sex ratio (F:M) of emerging T. remus from S. frugiperda eggs reared using both of diet was female biased.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Hannah J. MacLeod ◽  
George Dimopoulos ◽  
Sarah M. Short

The midgut microbiota of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti impacts pathogen susceptibility and transmission by this important vector species. However, factors influencing the composition and size of the microbiome in mosquitoes are poorly understood. We investigated the impact of larval diet abundance during development on the composition and size of the larval and adult microbiota by rearing Aedes aegypti under four larval food regimens, ranging from nutrient deprivation to nutrient excess. We assessed the persistent impacts of larval diet availability on the microbiota of the larval breeding water, larval mosquitoes, and adult mosquitoes under sugar and blood fed conditions using qPCR and high-throughput 16S amplicon sequencing to determine bacterial load and microbiota composition. Bacterial loads in breeding water increased with increasing larval diet. Larvae reared with the lowest diet abundance had significantly fewer bacteria than larvae from two higher diet treatments, but not from the highest diet abundance. Adults from the lowest diet abundance treatment had significantly fewer bacteria in their midguts compared to all higher diet abundance treatments. Larval diet amount also had a significant impact on microbiota composition, primarily within larval breeding water and larvae. Increasing diet correlated with increased relative levels of Enterobacteriaceae and Flavobacteriaceae and decreased relative levels of Sphingomonadaceae. Multiple individual OTUs were significantly impacted by diet including one mapping to the genus Cedecea, which increased with higher diet amounts. This was consistent across all sample types, including sugar fed and blood fed adults. Taken together, these data suggest that availability of diet during development can cause lasting shifts in the size and composition of the microbiota in the disease vector Aedes aegypti.


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