Pest Species
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2021 ◽  
Vol 31 (1) ◽  
Mürşide Yağcı ◽  
Tuğba Akdeniz Fırat ◽  
F. Dolunay Erdoğuş ◽  
Müge Şahin

Abstract Background Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae) (Mediterranean fruit fly), is one of the important polyphagous pest species in the world that harms almost all fruits causing significant yields losses. Control of this pest which is on the quarantine list of many countries is highly important. Due to the negative effects of chemical control on the environment and human health, biological control approaches have gained importance. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are a potential biological control agent that can be used for effectively controlling the Medfly. Results In this study, effects of four EPNs species on larvae, pupae and adults of Medfly were investigated under laboratory conditions. Four different concentrations of EPNs species were used against each stage of the pest. It pest showed different sensitivity to different concentrations of each of the tested EPNs. High mortality rate of 94% was caused by Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (11 KG),, followed by H. bacteriophora (TOK-20) with 91%, Steinernema carpocapsae (85%) and S. feltiae (Tokat-Emir) with 71% at highest concentration (200 IJ/larvae. The highest effect on adult mortality (100%) was recorded by the species S. feltiae (Tokat-Emir) at the highest concentration (200 IJ/adult) in the trials, followed by H. bacteriophora (11 KG) with 92%, H. bacteriophora (TOK-20) with 91% and S. carpocapsae (Tokat-Bakışlı05) with 87.37% mortality rates at the same concentrations. Conclusions It was determined that the EPNs tested in this study had insecticidal properties and they might be used in biological control programs against the Medfly.

EDIS ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 (5) ◽  
Katherine Carroll ◽  
Adam Dale

The Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), is an insect native to South America, but an invasive species in many parts of the world. It is globally distributed. Linepithema humile is considered a pest species, primarily due to its feeding habits of tending and protecting honeydew producing insects, such as scale insects, which are often damaging to crops and ornamental plants. This aggressive, populous ant species also has a negative effect on native ant species. Linepithema humile colonies have multiple queens, allowing colonies to grow and spread rapidly. Under certain conditions, the argentine ant may also become a household pest if it finds a way into homes. Linepithema humile has been designated as a tramp ant species, meaning that it has an incredible ability to spread and establish in new areas and is difficult to control. Linepithema humile, like other tramp species, can establish in new locations quickly due to the multi-queen nature of the colonies, their abitlity to forage and find resources, and the extensive network of interrelated colonies they are able to form. This document provides an in-depth synopsis of the insect's life history, biology, and management.

2021 ◽  
Alyssa T Pyke ◽  
Martin A Shivas ◽  
Jonathan M Darbro ◽  
Michael B Onn ◽  
Petrina H Johnson ◽  

Abstract The Australian backyard mosquito, Aedes notoscriptus, is a highly urbanized pest species that has invaded New Zealand and the United States. Importantly, Ae. notoscriptus has been implicated as a vector of Ross River virus, a common and arthritogenic arbovirus in Australia, and is a laboratory vector of numerous other pathogenic viruses, including West Nile, yellow fever and Zika viruses. To further explore live viruses harboured by field populations of Ae. notoscriptus and, more specifically, assess the genetic diversity of its virome, we processed 495 pools, comprising a total of 6,674 female Ae. notoscriptus collected across fifteen suburbs in Brisbane, Australia, between January 2018 and May 2019. Nine virus isolates were recovered and characterised by metagenomic sequencing and phylogenetics. The principal viral family represented was Flaviviridae. Known viruses belonging to the genera Flavivirus, Orbivirus, Mesonivirus and Nelorpivirus were identified together with two novel virus species, including a divergent Thogoto-like orthomyxovirus and an insect-specific flavivirus. Among these, we recovered three Stratford virus (STRV) isolates and an isolate of Wongorr virus (WGRV), which for these viral species, is unprecedented for the geographical area of Brisbane. Thus, the documented geographical distribution of STRV and WGRV, both known for their respective medical and veterinary importance, has now been expanded to include this major urban centre. Phylogenies of the remaining five viruses, namely, Casuarina, Ngewotan, the novel Thogoto-like virus, and two new flavivirus species, suggested they are insect-specific viruses (ISVs). None of these viruses have been previously associated with Ae. notoscriptus or been reported in Brisbane. These findings exemplify the rich genetic diversity and viral abundance within the Ae. notoscriptus virome and further highlight this species as a vector of concern with the potential to transmit viruses impacting human or animal health. Considering it is a common pest and vector in residential areas, and is expanding its global distribution, ongoing surveillance, and ecological study of Ae. notoscriptus, together with mapping of its virome and phenotypic characterization of isolated viruses, is clearly warranted. Immanently, these initiatives are essential for future understanding of both the mosquito virome and the evolution of individual viral species.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Eileen Knorr ◽  
Andre Billion ◽  
Elane Fishilevich ◽  
Linda Tenbusch ◽  
Meghan L. F. Frey ◽  

RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising next generation technology for the development of species-specific pest management. The key to successful RNAi based-plant protection is dependent in part on data-driven target gene selection, a challenging task due to the absence of laboratory strains and the seasonality of most pest species. In this study, we aimed to identify novel target genes by performing a knowledge-based approach in order to expand the spectrum of known potent RNAi targets. Recently, the protein-coding genes ncm, Rop, RPII-140, and dre4 have been identified as sensitive RNAi targets for pest control. Based on these potent RNAi targets, we constructed an interaction network and analyzed a selection of 30 genes in the model beetle Tribolium castaneum via injection of dsRNA synthesized by in vitro transcription. Nineteen of these targets induced significant mortality of over 70%, including six that caused 100% lethality. Orthologs of active T. castaneum RNAi targets were verified in the economically important coleopteran pests Diabrotica virgifera virgifera and Brassicogethes aeneus. Knockdown of D. v. virgifera genes coding for transcription factor Spt5, Spt6, and RNA polymerase II subunit RPII-33 caused over 90% mortality in larval feeding assays. Injection of dsRNA constructs targeting RPII-215 or the pre-mRNA-processing factor Prp19 into adult B. aeneus resulted in high lethality rates of 93 and 87%, respectively. In summary, the demonstrated knowledge-based approaches increased the probability of identifying novel lethal RNAi target genes from 2% (whole genome) to 36% (transcription- and splicing-related genes). In addition, performing RNAi pre-screening in a model insect increased also the probability of the identification essential genes in the difficult-to-work-with pest species D. v. virgifera and B. aeneus.

Syed Ahmad Syarifah-Zulaikha ◽  
Madihah Halim ◽  
Ameyra Zuki Aman ◽  
Salmah Yaakop

The sawtoothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis, is a secondary pest that damages rice products and other stored grains. Analysis based on the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences data, the number of haplotypes (Hap) (n), haplotype diversity (Hd), haplotype network, genetic distance, and phylogeny between O. surinamensis populations from four regions (small-scale), viz. the northern area (Seberang Perai), middle area (Klang), southern area (Pasir Gudang), and east coast (Kuantan) of Peninsular Malaysia, as model sampling locations, were obtained. A total of five haplotypes were detected in all the test populations, two shared (Haplotype 1 and Haplotype 3) and three unique haplotypes (Haplotype 2, Haplotype 4, and Haplotype 5) with haplotype diversity value, Hd = 0.6789 were recorded. Furthermore, the neighbour-joining (NJ), maximum parsimony (MP), and Bayesian inference (BI) trees showed a mixture of individuals from all regions in Peninsular Malaysia (Haplotype 1 to Haplotype 4), except Haplotype 5, which was grouped with foreign populations that inherited similar haplotype with those of the European samples. This study assumed a mixture of populations presumably due to human activities and related explicitly to the exportation and importation of rice products across regions. This information is vital for strategising the control management of this pest species to reduce rice storage losses.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Peter T. Mee ◽  
Shani Wong ◽  
Karen Brown ◽  
Stacey E. Lynch

Abstract Background Aedes vigilax is one of the most significant arbovirus vector and pest species in Australia’s coastal regions. Occurring in multiple countries, this mosquito species occurs as a species complex which has been separated into three clades with two detected in Australia. Until recently, Ae. vigilax has largely been absent from Victoria, only occasionally caught over the years, with no reported detections from 2010 to 2016. Complicating the detection of Ae. vigilax is the shared sympatric distribution to the morphologically similar Ae. camptorhynchus, which can exceed 10,000 mosquitoes in a single trap night in Victoria. Currently, there are no molecular assays available for the detection of Ae. vigilax. We aim to develop a quantitative PCR (qPCR) for the detection of Ae. vigilax, with the specificity and sensitivity of this assay assessed as well as a method to process whole mosquito traps. Methods Trapping was performed during the 2017–2020 mosquito season in Victoria in two coastal areas across these 3 consecutive years. A qPCR assay was designed to allow rapid identification of Ae. vigilax as well as a whole mosquito trap homogenizing and processing methodology. Phylogenetic analysis was performed to determine which clade Ae. vigilax from Victoria was closest to. Results Aedes vigilax was successfully detected each year across two coastal areas of Victoria, confirming the presence of this species. The qPCR assay was proven to be sensitive and specific to Ae. vigilax, with trap sizes up to 1000 mosquitoes showing no inhibition in detection sensitivity. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Ae. vigilax from Victoria is associated with clade III, showing high sequence similarity to those previously collected in New South Wales, Queensland and Western Australia. Conclusions Aedes vigilax is a significant vector species that shares an overlapping distribution to the morphologically similar Ae. camptorhynchus, making detection difficult. Here, we have outlined the implementation of a specific and sensitive molecular screening assay coupled with a method to process samples for detection of Ae. vigilax in collections with large numbers of non-target species. Graphical abstract

Zootaxa ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 5023 (4) ◽  
pp. 537-554

Ten species from Australia in or related to the genus Gynaikothrips are discussed. Variation among specimens of the pest species on Ficus trees, the ficorum/uzeli complex, is examined with the conclusion that recognition of these two species remains questionable. Two species related to this complex are newly recorded from Australia, insulsus Priesner and luzonensis Priesner, and edentatus Priesner is placed as a syn.n. of ficorum. Two new Gynaikothrips are described, jasmini sp.n. and platypodae sp.n., and additamentus Karny is transferred from Gynaikothrips to Eilapinothrips gen.n. A new species of Agynaikothrips is described as the third known member of this genus, lorieni sp.n., and Liothrips umbratus Hood comb.rev. is returned to this original genus from Gynaikothrips. Two species described in Gynaikothrips from the Philippines, capitulatus Reyes and pedanus Reyes, are transferred to the genus Teuchothrips. The monobasic genus, Aiganothrips Bhatti, is considered a syn.n. of Gynaikothrips, and the monobasic genus, Jennythrips Bhatti, is considered a syn.n. of Liothrips.  

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Kengo Yoshida ◽  
Masayoshi Uefune ◽  
Rika Ozawa ◽  
Hiroshi Abe ◽  
Yuka Okemoto ◽  

Prohydrojasmon (PDJ), an analog of jasmonic acid (JA), was found to induce direct and indirect defenses against herbivores in non-infested plants. To test whether PDJ can be used for pest control in crop production, we conducted experiments in pesticide-free Japanese radish fields from October 4 to December 12 in 2015. Twenty-four Japanese radish plants in three plots were treated with a 100 times-diluted commercial formulation (5%) of PDJ (treated plants), and 24 plants in three different plots were treated with water (control plants) until November 29 every week. Throughout the observation period, the number of aphids, leaf-mining fly larvae, vegetable weevils, and thrips was significantly lower on the treated plants than on the control plants. In contrast, the number of lepidopteran larvae was not significantly different between the treated and control plants throughout the study period. Parasitized aphids (mummies) were also observed in both plots. Poisson regression analyses showed that a significantly higher number of mummies was recorded on the treated plants as compared to that on the control plants when the number of aphids increased. This suggested that PDJ application to Japanese radish plants attracted more parasitoid wasps on the treated plants than on the control plants. We also identified eight terpenoids and methyl salicylate as the PDJ-induced plant volatiles in the headspace of the treated plants. Some of these volatiles might be responsible for attracting aphid-parasitoid wasps in the field. However, for other insect pests, we did not find any natural enemies. Interestingly, the genes of the JA and salicylic acid signaling pathways were differentially upregulated in the treated plants. We also observed that the PDJ treatments induced the expression of the genes related to glucosinolate biosynthesis and the subsequent isothiocyanate formation. Additionally, the weights of both the aboveground and belowground parts of the treated plants were significantly lower than those of the respective parts of the control plants. These results indicated that the treatment of Japanese radish plants with a 100 times-diluted commercial formulation of PDJ induced their direct and indirect defenses against several insect pest species to reduce their numbers, and negatively affected their biomass.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (8) ◽  
pp. e0255372
Bewketu Takele Wondifraw ◽  
Mesele Yihune Tamene ◽  
Afework Bekele Simegn

This study was conducted in Farta district, south Gondar from 2019 to 2020 cropping years to identify rodent pest species and estimate damage caused on barley crops. Four independent barley crop fields (40 x 40 m each) were sampled randomly to estimate the loss. Two were located near Alemsaga Priority State Forest and the other two were away from the forest. Four (2 x 2 m) rodent exclusion plots were established at 10 m interval as control units in each selected experimental barley fields using fine wire mesh. Rodent pest species were collected using both Sherman and snap traps throughout the different crop growing stages. The damaged and undamaged barley tillers by pest rodents were counted on five 1 x 1 m randomly sampled quadrats for each selected experimental fields. Variations on pest rodent population between cropping years and sites were analyzed using Chi square test. The mean crop damages between cropping years and experimental field sites were analyzed using two way ANOVA. Arvicanthis abyssinicus, Mastomys natalensis, Arvicanthis dembeensis, Mus musculus, Lophuromys simensis, Tachyoryctes splendens and Hystrix cristata were identified as pest rodents in the study area. A total of 968 individual rodents (427 in 2019 and 541 in 2020) were trapped during the study period. There was a statistical variation (χ2 = 13.42, df = 1 and P<0.05) between trapped individuals of the two successive years. The crop fields near the forest were more vulnerable than away from the forest during both cropping years. Statistical variations was observed on mean crop losses between cropping years and experimental barley crop sites. The highest crop damage was seen at maturity stage and the lowest during sowing in all experimental plots and cropping years. The percentage of barley yield loss due to rodent pests was 21.7 kg ha-1. The monetary value of this yield loss was equivalent to 4875 Birr (121.9 US$ h-1). Alemsaga Forest as shelter and conservation strategies like free of farmland from livestock and terracing for soil conservation have great role for the high rodent pest populations in the study area. Field sanitation, trapping and using restricted rodenticides like zinc phosphide are the possible recommendation to local farmers against rodent pests.

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