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2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 979
Maurizio Cellura ◽  
Maria Anna Cusenza ◽  
Sonia Longo ◽  
Le Quyen Luu ◽  
Thomas Skurk

The food sector is responsible for a considerable impact on the environment in most environmental contexts: the food supply chain causes greenhouse gas emissions, water consumption, reduction in cultivable land, and other environmental impacts. Thus, a change in food supply is required to reduce the environmental impacts caused by the food supply chain and to meet the increasing demand for sufficient and qualitative nutrition. Large herds of livestock are inappropriate to achieve these goals due to the relevant impact of meat supply chain on the environment, e.g., the land used to grow feed for animals is eight times more than that for human nutrition. The search for meat alternatives, especially for the intake of critical nutrients such as protein, is a consequent step. In the above context, this paper summarizes the health aspects of protein-rich food alternatives to meat and carries out a literature review on the life-cycle environmental impacts of this alternative food.

Phycology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 86-108
Boer Bao ◽  
Skye R. Thomas-Hall ◽  
Peer M. Schenk

Microalgae contain high-value biochemical compounds including fatty acids (FA), protein and carotenoids, and are promising bioresources to enhance nutrition of food and animal feed. Important requirements for commercial strains are rapid growth and high productivities of desirable compounds. As these traits are believed to be found in aquatic environments with fluctuating conditions, we collected microalgae from marine and freshwater environments that are subjected to eutrophication and/or tidal fluctuations. Using this directed approach, 40 monoalgal cultures were isolated and 25 identified through 18S rDNA sequencing and morphological characterization. Based on their high growth rates (0.28–0.60 day−1) and biomass productivities (0.25–0.44 g L−1day−1) in commercial fertilizer under standardized conditions, six new strains were selected. Scenedesmus sp. GW63 produced quality FA-rich biomass with high omega-3 polyunsaturated FA (28.5% of total FA (TFA)) contents, especially α-linolenic acid (ALA; 20.0% of TFA) with a very low n-6/n-3 ratio (0.4), and high FA productivity (32.6 mg L−1 day−1). A high protein productivity (34.5 mg L−1 day−1) made Desmodesmus sp. UQL1_26 (33.4% of dry weight (DW)) attractive as potential protein-rich feed and nutrition supplement. Monoraphidium convolutum GW5 displayed valuable carotenoid production (0.8% DW) with high carotenoid accumulation capability (0.8 mg L−1 day−1). This research provides a pathway for fast-tracking the selection of high-performing local microalgae from different environments for nutraceuticals, functional foods and animal feed applications.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Minghua Tang ◽  
Kinzie L. Matz ◽  
Lillian M. Berman ◽  
Kathryn N. Davis ◽  
Edward L. Melanson ◽  

Background: An urgent need exists for evidence-based dietary guidance early in life, particularly regarding protein intake. However, a significant knowledge gap exists in the effects of protein-rich foods on growth and development during early complementary feeding.Methods: This is a randomized controlled trial of infant growth and gut health (primary outcomes). We directly compare the effects of dietary patterns with common protein-rich foods (meat, dairy, plant) on infant growth trajectories and gut microbiota development (monthly assessments) during early complementary feeding in both breast- and formula-fed infants. Five-month-old infants (up to n = 300) are randomized to a meat-, dairy-, plant-based complementary diet or a reference group (standard of care) from 5 to 12 months of age, with a 24-month follow-up assessment. Infants are matched for sex, mode of delivery and mode of feeding using stratified randomization. Growth assessments include length, weight, head circumference and body composition. Gut microbiota assessments include both 16S rRNA profiling and metagenomics sequencing. The primary analyses will evaluate the longitudinal effects of the different diets on both anthropometric measures and gut microbiota. The secondary analysis will evaluate the potential associations between gut microbiota and infant growth.Discussion: Findings are expected to have significant scientific and health implications for identifying beneficial gut microbial changes and dietary patterns and for informing dietary interventions to prevent the risk of overweight and later obesity, and promote optimal health.Clinical Trial, identifier: NCT05012930.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Mehmet Sait Albayram ◽  
Garrett Smith ◽  
Fatih Tufan ◽  
Ibrahim Sacit Tuna ◽  
Mehmet Bostancıklıoğlu ◽  

AbstractMeningeal lymphatic vessels have been described in animal studies, but limited comparable data is available in human studies. Here we show dural lymphatic structures along the dural venous sinuses in dorsal regions and along cranial nerves in the ventral regions in the human brain. 3D T2-Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery magnetic resonance imaging relies on internal signals of protein rich lymphatic fluid rather than contrast media and is used in the present study to visualize the major human dural lymphatic structures. Moreover we detect direct connections between lymphatic fluid channels along the cranial nerves and vascular structures and the cervical lymph nodes. We also identify age-related cervical lymph node atrophy and thickening of lymphatics channels in both dorsal and ventral regions, findings which reflect the reduced lymphatic output of the aged brain.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Jingyang Shi ◽  
Guangyi Zhang ◽  
Hang Zhang ◽  
Fa Qiao ◽  
Jie Fan ◽  

To reveal the effects of thermal hydrolysis (TH) pretreatment (THPT) on anaerobic digestion (AD) of protein-rich substrates, discarded tofu was chosen as the object, and its batch AD tests of tofu before and after being subjected to TH at gradually increasing organic loads were carried out and the AD process characteristics were compared; furthermore, its continuous AD tests without and with THPT were also conducted and the difference of the microbial community structures was investigated. The results showed that, during AD of protein-rich tofu with increase in the organic load, inhibition from severe acidification prior to accumulation of ammonia nitrogen (AN) occurred. THPT helped overcome the acidification inhibition present in batch AD of tofu at such a high TS content of 3.6%, to obtain the maximum methane yield rate of 589.39 ml·(gVS)−1. Continuous AD of protein-rich tofu heavily depended on ammonia-tolerant hydrogenotrophic methanogens and bacteria. The continuous AD processes acclimated by HT substrates seemed to be resistant to severe organic loads, by boosting growth of ammonia-tolerant microorganisms, above all methylotrophic methanogens such as the genera RumEnM2 and methanomassiliicoccus. The process response of continuous AD of HT tofu was hysteretic, suggesting that a sufficiently long adaptation period was required for stabilizing the AD system.

Shohreh Ariaeenejad ◽  
Kaveh Kavousi ◽  
Atefeh Sheykh Abdollahzadeh Mamaghani ◽  
Rezvaneh Ghasemitabesh ◽  
Ghasem Hosseini Salekdeh

Kaustav Mukherjee

Abstract: The present study entitled “Development of protein rich flavoured bar” was conducted with the objective to develop protein rich flavoured bar using different ingredients, to assess the sensory accessibility, determine the nutritional composition and cost of developed protein bar. Protein rich flavoured bar were prepared by using three treatments i.e. T1 (dates 50g, oats 10g, flaxseeds 5g, sesame seeds 5g, pumpkin seeds 5g, peanut powder 10g, honey 5g, cocoa powder 10g), T2 (dates 45g, oats 8g, flaxseeds 5g, sesame seeds 5g, pumpkin seeds 5g, peanut powder 10g, honey 12g, guava flavour 10g) and T3 (dates 40g, oats 13g, flaxseeds 5g, sesame seeds 5g, pumpkin seeds 5g, peanut powder 10g, honey 12g, orange flavour 10g). Organoleptic evaluation of the prepared product in relation to sensory attributes was carried out using the nine point hedonic scale score card by Srilaksmi (2015). The nutrient content of the value added food products were calculated with the help of food composition table given by Gopalan et al., (2011). The cost of individual raw ingredients used in the preparation of the food product as the prevailing market price. All treatments were replicated four times and the data obtained during investigation were statistically analyzed by using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and critical difference (C.D.) techniques. On the basis of sensory acceptability it was found that T1 was scored highest in terms of colour and appearance, body and texture, flavour and taste and overall acceptability. As well as T1 shows significantly high in the nutritive value among all treatments regarding energy, protein, carbohydrates, fat, fibre, calcium and iron. The cost of the protein rich flavoured bar per 100g of dry ingredients at the prevailing cost of the raw materials was highest in T1 (Rs. 29.33) followed by T2 (Rs. 20.69) and T3 (Rs. 20.34). Dates are very good source of fibre, carbohydrate, protein and act as natural sweetener with no fat. As the bar is rich in protein, iron and other macronutrients, so it is majorly recommended for Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM), athletes and anemic patient. Daily 100g of dates intake helps to get all essential nutrients. Strictly restricted for Type-1 diabetic patients. Keywords: Protein, Nutrient content, organoleptic evaluation, nutrition bar, cost.

Chemosensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 13
Remya Radha ◽  
Rute F. Vitor ◽  
Mohammad Hussein Al-Sayah

Melamine, an industrial chemical, receives wide attention nowadays because of its unethical usage as a nitrogen enhancer in protein-rich foods and dairy products. Since most of the existing melamine detection methods are highly expensive and time-consuming, high sensitivity biosensor-based detection methods have arisen in the scientific literature as promising alternatives. This study reports the design, synthesis, and fluorescent investigations of a carbazole-based sensor (CB) for the detection of melamine in aqueous solutions. The titration studies and microplate experiments on a CB-cyanuric acid mixture (CB-CA) with melamine suggested that the novel sensor could detect melamine even at very low concentrations in both aqueous solutions and dairy samples.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 ◽  
Carrie Deans ◽  
William D. Hutchison

Spotted-wing drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii, has become one of the most widely studied insect species over the last decade, largely due to its recent invasion and rapid expansion across the Americas and Europe. Unlike other drosophilid species, which colonize rotting fruit, SWD females possess a serrated ovipositor that allows them to lay eggs in intact ripening fruit, causing significant economic problems for fruit/berry producers worldwide. Though an impressive amount of research has been conducted on SWD's ecology and physiology, aspects of their nutritional ecology remain ambiguous. This review synthesizes the research to date to provide a more comprehensive view of SWD's nutritional relationship with its fruit hosts and associated microbes. Overall, data suggest that SWD's ability to utilize novel resources is likely due to changes in their ecological, rather than physiological, niche that are largely mediated by microbial associations. Studies show that SWD's nutrient intake is comparable to other drosophilid species, indicating limited adaptation to feeding on lower-protein resources. Instead, data show that fruit protein content is a reliable predictor of host suitability and that fruit-microbe dynamics have a strong impact on protein availability. In particularly, fruit protein increases after infestation with SWD-associated microbes, suggesting that initially-suboptimal intact fruits can become protein-rich on a timeframe that is relevant for larval nutrition. This body of work suggests that microbial associations between flies and their fruit hosts can compensate for the nutritional differences between intact and rotting fruit, and that these relationships are likely responsible for SWD's expanded nutritional niche.

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