nutritional stress
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2022 ◽  
Vol 507 ◽  
pp. 119987
J. Touche ◽  
C. Calvaruso ◽  
P. De Donato ◽  
MP. Turpault

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 163
Laura Ellen Walls ◽  
José L. Martinez ◽  
Leonardo Rios-Solis

The recent technological advancements in synthetic biology have demonstrated the extensive potential socio-economic benefits at laboratory scale. However, translations of such technologies to industrial scale fermentations remains a major bottleneck. The existence and lack of understanding of the major discrepancies in cultivation conditions between scales often leads to the selection of suboptimal bioprocessing conditions, crippling industrial scale productivity. In this study, strategic design of experiments approaches were coupled with state-of-the-art bioreactor tools to characterize and overcome nutritional stress for the enhanced production of precursors to the blockbuster chemotherapy drug, Taxol, in S. cerevisiae cell factories. The batch-to-batch variation in yeast extract composition was found to trigger nutritional stress at a mini-bioreactor scale, resulting in profound changes in cellular morphology and the inhibition of taxane production. The cells shifted from the typical budding morphology into striking pseudohyphal cells. Doubling initial yeast extract and peptone concentrations (2×YP) delayed filamentous growth, and taxane accumulation improved to 108 mg/L. Through coupling a statistical definitive screening design approach with the state-of-the-art high-throughput micro-bioreactors, the total taxane titers were improved a further two-fold, compared to the 2×YP culture, to 229 mg/L. Filamentous growth was absent in nutrient-limited microscale cultures, underlining the complex and multifactorial nature of yeast stress responses. Validation of the optimal microscale conditions in 1L bioreactors successfully alleviated nutritional stress and improved the titers to 387 mg/L. Production of the key Taxol precursor, T5αAc, was improved two-fold to 22 mg/L compared to previous maxima. The present study highlights the importance of following an interdisciplinary approach combining synthetic biology and bioprocessing technologies for effective process optimization and scale-up.

2022 ◽  
Audrey J Parish ◽  
Danny W Rice ◽  
Vicki M Tanquary ◽  
Jason M Tennessen ◽  
Irene LG Newton

Honey bees, the worlds most significant agricultural pollinator, have suffered dramatic losses in the last few decades. These losses are largely due to the synergistic effects of multiple stressors, the most pervasive of which is limited nutrition. The effects of poor nutrition are most damaging in the developing larvae of honey bees, who mature into workers unable to meet the needs of their colony. It is therefore essential that we better understand the nutritional landscape experienced by honey bee larvae. In this study, we characterize the metabolic capabilities of a honey bee larvae-associated bacterium, Bombella apis (formerly Parasaccharibacter apium), and its effects on the nutritional resilience of larvae. We found that B. apis is the only bacterium associated with larvae that can withstand the antimicrobial larval diet. Further, we found that B. apis can synthesize all essential amino acids and significantly alters the amino acid content of synthetic larval diet, largely by increasing the essential amino acid lysine. Analyses of gene gain/loss across the phylogeny suggest that two distinct cationic amino acid transporters were gained by B. apis ancestors, and the transporter LysE is conserved across all sequenced strains of B. apis. This result suggests that amino acid export is a key feature conserved within the Bombella clade. Finally, we tested the impact of B. apis on developing honey bee larvae subjected to nutritional stress and found that larvae supplemented with B. apis are bolstered against mass reduction despite limited nutrition. Together, these data suggest an important role of B. apis as a nutritional mutualist of honey bee larvae.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Redin A. Spann ◽  
Christopher D. Morrison ◽  
Laura J. den Hartigh

Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a hormone that is involved in the regulation of lipid, glucose, and energy metabolism. Pharmacological FGF21 administration promotes weight loss and improves insulin sensitivity in rodents, non-human primates, and humans. However, pharmacologic effects of FGF21 likely differ from its physiological effects. Endogenous FGF21 is produced by many cell types, including hepatocytes, white and brown adipocytes, skeletal and cardiac myocytes, and pancreatic beta cells, and acts on a diverse array of effector tissues such as the brain, white and brown adipose tissue, heart, and skeletal muscle. Different receptor expression patterns dictate FGF21 function in these target tissues, with the primary effect to coordinate responses to nutritional stress. Moreover, different nutritional stimuli tend to promote FGF21 expression from different tissues; i.e., fasting induces hepatic-derived FGF21, while feeding promotes white adipocyte-derived FGF21. Target tissue effects of FGF21 also depend on its capacity to enter the systemic circulation, which varies widely from known FGF21 tissue sources in response to various stimuli. Due to its association with obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, the metabolic effects of endogenously produced FGF21 during the pathogenesis of these conditions are not well known. In this review, we will highlight what is known about endogenous tissue-specific FGF21 expression and organ cross-talk that dictate its diverse physiological functions, with particular attention given to FGF21 responses to nutritional stress. The importance of the particular experimental design, cellular and animal models, and nutritional status in deciphering the diverse metabolic functions of endogenous FGF21 cannot be overstated.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (24) ◽  
pp. 13511
Jean-Paul Decuypere ◽  
Dorien Van Giel ◽  
Peter Janssens ◽  
Ke Dong ◽  
Stefan Somlo ◽  

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is mainly caused by deficiency of polycystin-1 (PC1) or polycystin-2 (PC2). Altered autophagy has recently been implicated in ADPKD progression, but its exact regulation by PC1 and PC2 remains unclear. We therefore investigated cell death and survival during nutritional stress in mouse inner medullary collecting duct cells (mIMCDs), either wild-type (WT) or lacking PC1 (PC1KO) or PC2 (PC2KO), and human urine-derived proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTEC) from early-stage ADPKD patients with PC1 mutations versus healthy individuals. Basal autophagy was enhanced in PC1-deficient cells. Similarly, following starvation, autophagy was enhanced and cell death reduced when PC1 was reduced. Autophagy inhibition reduced cell death resistance in PC1KO mIMCDs to the WT level, implying that PC1 promotes autophagic cell survival. Although PC2 expression was increased in PC1KO mIMCDs, PC2 knockdown did not result in reduced autophagy. PC2KO mIMCDs displayed lower basal autophagy, but more autophagy and less cell death following chronic starvation. This could be reversed by overexpression of PC1 in PC2KO. Together, these findings indicate that PC1 levels are partially coupled to PC2 expression, and determine the transition from renal cell survival to death, leading to enhanced survival of ADPKD cells during nutritional stress.

Jorge Hernández-Rodríguez ◽  
Graciela Chagoya-Guzmán ◽  
José A. Mondragón-Herrera ◽  
Alfonso Boyzo-Montes de Oca ◽  
Rosalío Mercado-Camargo ◽  

2021 ◽  
William Bruno Silva Araújo ◽  
Gelza Carliane Marques Teixeira ◽  
Renato de Mello Prado ◽  
Antonio Márcio Souza Rocha

Abstract Forages are one of the most cultivated crops in the world. However nutritional deficiency is common, specifically in N, P and Ca in many forages growing regions. Silicon (Si) can attenuate the stress caused by nutritional deficiency, but studies on the effects of Si supply on in forages plants are still scarce. This research was carried out to evaluate whether the Si supply can mitigate the effects of N, P and Ca deficiencies of two forages and the physiological and nutritional mechanisms involved. Two experiments were carried out with two forage species (Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu and Megathyrsus maximum cv. Massai). Was used nutrient solution under balanced nutrition conditions and nutritional stress due to the lack of N, P and Ca combined with the -Si and +Si. The deficiencies of N, P and Ca in both forages cultivation caused damage to physiological and nutritional variables, hence decreasing the plant dry matter. However, in both species forages the addition of Si to the nutrient solution decreased the extravasation of cellular electrolytes and increased the content of phenolic compounds, the green color index, the quantum efficiency of photosystem II, the efficiencies of use of N, P and Ca and the production of shoot dry mass. The beneficial effects of Si were evidenced in stressed and non-stressed plants. The research emphasized the advantage of using Si for the growth of U. brizantha and M. maximum under N, P and Ca deficiency, contributing to their sustainable cultivation.

PLoS Genetics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (11) ◽  
pp. e1009932
Kelly Voo ◽  
Jeralyn Wen Hui Ching ◽  
Joseph Wee Hao Lim ◽  
Seow Neng Chan ◽  
Amanda Yunn Ee Ng ◽  

Organisms adapt to environmental changes in order to survive. Mothers exposed to nutritional stresses can induce an adaptive response in their offspring. However, the molecular mechanisms behind such inheritable links are not clear. Here we report that in Drosophila, starvation of mothers primes the progeny against subsequent nutritional stress. We found that RpL10Ab represses TOR pathway activity by genetically interacting with TOR pathway components TSC2 and Rheb. In addition, starved mothers produce offspring with lower levels of RpL10Ab in the germline, which results in higher TOR pathway activity, conferring greater resistance to starvation-induced oocyte loss. The RpL10Ab locus encodes for the RpL10Ab mRNA and a stable intronic sequence RNA (sisR-8), which collectively repress RpL10Ab pre-mRNA splicing in a negative feedback mechanism. During starvation, an increase in maternally deposited RpL10Ab and sisR-8 transcripts leads to the reduction of RpL10Ab expression in the offspring. Our study suggests that the maternally deposited RpL10Ab and sisR-8 transcripts trigger a negative feedback loop that mediates intergenerational adaptation to nutritional stress as a starvation response.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (11) ◽  
pp. 987
Muhammad Luqman Nasaruddin ◽  
Khaizurin Tajul Arifin

This scoping review is aimed at the application of the metabolomics platform to dissect key metabolites and their intermediates to observe the regulatory mechanisms of starvation-induced autophagy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Four research papers were shortlisted in this review following the inclusion and exclusion criteria. We observed a commonly shared pathway undertaken by S. cerevisiae under nutritional stress. Targeted and untargeted metabolomics was applied in either of these studies using varying platforms resulting in the annotation of several different observable metabolites. We saw a commonly shared pathway undertaken by S. cerevisiae under nutritional stress. Following nitrogen starvation, the concentration of cellular nucleosides was altered as a result of autophagic RNA degradation. Additionally, it is also found that autophagy replenishes amino acid pools to sustain macromolecule synthesis. Furthermore, in glucose starvation, nucleosides were broken down into carbonaceous metabolites that are being funneled into the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. The ribose salvage allows for the survival of starved yeast. Moreover, acute glucose starvation showed autophagy to be involved in maintaining ATP/energy levels. We highlighted the practicality of metabolomics as a tool to better understand the underlying mechanisms involved to maintain homeostasis by recycling degradative products to ensure the survival of S. cerevisiae under starvation. The application of metabolomics has extended the scope of autophagy and provided newer intervention targets against cancer as well as neurodegenerative diseases in which autophagy is implicated.

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