Epidural Space
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Tanya Mital ◽  
Manoj Kamal ◽  
Mritunjay Kumar ◽  
Rakesh Kumar ◽  
Pradeep Bhatia ◽  

Background: Epidural block placement in pediatric patients is technically challenging for anesthesiologists. The use of ultrasound (US) for the placement of an epidural catheter has shown promise. We compared landmark-guided and US-guided lumbar or lower thoracic epidural needle placement in pediatric patients.Methods: This prospective, randomized, comparative trial involved children aged 1–6 years who underwent abdominal and thoracic surgeries. Forty-five children were randomly divided into two groups using a computer-generated random number table, and group allocation was performed by the sealed opaque method into either landmark-guided (group LT) or real-time ultrasound-guided (group UT) epidural placement. The primary outcome was a comparison of the procedure time (excluding US probe preparation). Secondary outcomes were the number of attempts (re-insertion of the needle), bone contacts, needle redirection, skin-to-epidural distance using the US in both groups, success rate, and complications.Results: The median (interquartile range [IQR]) time to reach epidural space was 105.5 (297.0) seconds in group LT and 143.0 (150) seconds in group UT; P = 0.407). While the first attempt success rate was higher in the UT group (87.0% in UT vs. 40.9% in LT; P = 0.004), the number of bone contacts, needle redirections, and procedure-related complications were significantly lower. Conclusions: The use of US significantly reduced needle redirection, number of attempts, bone contact, and complications. There was no statistically significant difference in the time to access the epidural space between the US and landmark technique groups.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (14) ◽  
Yasufumi Ohtake ◽  
Makoto Senoo ◽  
Mamoru Fukuda ◽  
Yuuki Ishida ◽  
Ryunosuke Yoshihara ◽  

BACKGROUND Idiopathic spinal cord herniation (ISCH) is very rare. Some reports have described postoperative ventral cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collections in patients with ISCH; however, such collections are asymptomatic in most patients, and there is no consensus regarding whether they are part of the natural history or a complication. OBSERVATIONS A 30-year-old man with ISCH underwent direct closure of a duplicated dura mater. Eight months postoperatively, he developed reworsening of right lower limb paresis and new severe right arm pain and paresis. Three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging revealed ventral CSF collections, which the authors judged as the responsible lesions. The authors initially considered these collections to be present in the epidural space, extradurally compressing the dural sac and resulting in myelopathy. An epidural blood patch failed; however, a CSF drainage test resulted in dramatic improvement. The authors therefore determined that the CSF collections were located in the interdural space, not the epidural space. A lumboperitoneal (LP) shunt was performed to reduce the CSF pressure. The patient’s symptoms improved immediately postoperatively. He had developed no recurrence of symptoms 6 months after surgery. LESSONS Ventral interdural CSF collections after ISCH surgery can cause reworsening of myelopathy and may be cured by a LP shunt to control CSF pressure.

Trials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Swagata Tripathy ◽  
P. Bhaskar Rao

Abstract Objectives We aim to study the effect of epidural morphine as a means to reduce high respiratory drive in COVID 19 patients on non-invasive ventilation (NIV)—primary end point—and to study its effect on respiratory parameters, subjective patient comfort, rates of endotracheal intubation, duration of mechanical ventilation and mortality. Trial design Parallel group, randomised, double blind, single centre placebo control trial. Allocation ratio 1:1, superiority trial Participants Trial site and population—COVID ICU patients in the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India Inclusion and exclusion criteria Inclusion criteria Adult patients on NIV with COVID-19 Exclusion criteria Metabolic acidosis HCO3-< 16 and pH < 7.2. Severe hypoxemia warranting cessation of NIV and intubation, non-acceptance of NIV and proven sepsis. Technical difficulty for epidural catheterization, coagulation abnormalities, low respiratory drive and EOL orders. Sources or methods of recruitment—daily discussion at 8 am of new admissions to COVID ICU on NIV—consenting adult patients with COVID19 on NIV and high respiratory drive; not meeting exclusion criteria will be recruited for the trial and randomised. Intervention and comparator Patients of both groups will be turned to a lateral or sitting position (as comfortable), and an injection of local anaesthetic be given at lumbar 2–3/3–4 space. In the intervention group, an epidural catheter will be inserted using aseptic technique and fixed to the skin. The control group will have a sham catheter fixed exactly like in the intervention group, but not entering the epidural space. The intervention group will be administered injection morphine sulphate once every 18–24 h into the epidural space. The doses will be escalated daily (5–10 mg), titrated to effect: escalation limited by hypoventilation resulting in respiratory acidosis (pH < 7.2). The intervention will continue for a minimum of 2 doses and a maximum of 5 doses (96 h) of morphine. It will be stopped if the epidural catheter gets dislodged before the second dose or the patient is weaned off non-invasive ventilation to high flow mask for a continuous period of 24 h or requires endotracheal intubation. The patient will be followed up till death or 28 days after ICU discharge. Main outcomes Primary outcome—diaphragm thickening index fraction (average of minimum 3 readings) Secondary outcomes—ventilator parameters, sedation and pain scores, subjective comfort and dyspnoea scores, time to intubation, length of stay on NIV and 28-day mortality Timing of outcome assessment—every 8th hour assessment for 24 h after the last dose of epidural morphine or 120 h whichever is greater Randomisation A central random number list will be kept with the study research assistant. She will randomise according to the numbers available in the list using an allocation ratio of 1:1. An opaque sealed envelope concealing the allotted randomisation code will be dispatched to the ICU team. Blinding (masking) The assessor, patient, nurses and physicians will be blind to group allocation. One member of the team not involved in research will administer the intervention. Numbers to be randomised (sample size) Twenty-five patients per group; 50 patients total Trial status Protocol version 1. Not recruiting yet. Recruitment to begin by 24 July 2021 and end by 31 August 2022 Trial registration Central Trials Registry India CTRI CTRI/2021/07/035093. Registered on 23 July 2021. Prospectively registered Full protocol The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest of expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (3) ◽  
pp. 361-366
Anshu Gupta ◽  
Akhilesh Gupta ◽  
Farhat Singh ◽  
Rajani Mandhyan

Lumbar epidural block is a commonly used procedure for providing anaesthesia, post-operative analgesia in all groups of patients irrespective of age, sex, weight and height of the patients. The knowledge of posterior space is important in view of the fact that this is the space where drugs for epidural anaesthesia/ analgesia are used. The knowledge of variability of this space with physical parameters of the patient, help us in reducing the incidence of total spinal anaesthesia.Two hundred adult patients in the age group of 20-60 years requiring subarachnoid block were chosen for the study. Using 22G Quincke spinal needle, epidural space was identified and skin epidural distance was measured. Proceeding the spinal needle further, causes needle to lie in subarachnoid space. The skin subarachnoid distance was measured. The difference between skin-subarachnoid distance and skin epidural distance denoted the posterior epidural space width. Its correlation with physical parameters was studied.Mean skin epidural distance was 4.30 ±0.57 in lateral position and 4.05 ± 0.57 in sitting position, the difference being statistically significant. (P= 0.002). There was positive correlation between skin epidural distance with weight, BMI and abdominal girth of the patient. Mean posterior epidural space depth was 0.468+14 cm in lateral position and 0.459+0.14 cm in sitting position, the difference being statistically insignificant. There was a positive correlation between posterior epidural space depth and height of the patient.The skin epidural distance varies with weight, BMI, abdominal girth and position of the patient. The posterior epidural space depth varies with the height of the patients.

2021 ◽  
pp. 20210105
Kieran Kusel ◽  
Richard Warne ◽  
Rahul Lakshmanan ◽  
Michael Mason ◽  
Michael Bynevelt ◽  

Hirayama disease is a rare cervical myelopathy characterised by asymmetrical upper limb weakness and muscle atrophy in the forearm and hand. MRI of the cervical spine plays an essential role in diagnosis, however, the characteristic findings are often only seen when the patient is imaged with the neck in flexion. We present a case of a 15-year-old male who presented with left forearm and hand weakness with muscle wasting. An MRI of the cervical spine with the neck in a neutral position demonstrated atrophy of the spinal cord with intrinsic signal abnormality between C5 and C7. Further imaging with the patient’s neck in flexion demonstrated the hallmark features of Hirayama disease. There was anterior displacement of the thecal sac and spinal cord, and an enlarged, crescent-shaped dorsal epidural space which enhanced following i.v. gadolinium administration. The atrophic segment of cord contacted the posterior vertebral bodies when the neck was in full flexion. This case highlights the importance of imaging patients suspected of having this entity with the neck in full flexion in order to make a diagnosis.

2021 ◽  
pp. 327-329
Anshul Singh ◽  
Nishant Patel

Eisenmenger’s syndrome results from certain uncorrected congenital abnormalities of the heart facilitating left to right shunt and chronic volume overload of the pulmonary vasculature, leading to irreversible changes in the pulmonary vasculature. Pregnancy in the patients of this syndrome is associated with a high risk of cardiovascular decompensation, thromboembolic complications, and sudden cardiac death. We present the case of a 25-year-old pregnant woman with Eisenmenger’s syndrome who delivered through the vaginal route at 37 weeks of gestation, under labor epidural anesthesia. A healthy male baby was delivered within 40 min of drug deposition in the epidural space. The postpartum period was essentially uneventful with successful maternal and neonatal outcomes.

Tomozo Moritani ◽  
Yusuke Akazawa ◽  
Takashi Higaki ◽  
Mariko Eguchi

2021 ◽  
YJ Kim ◽  
H Kim ◽  
H-J Kim ◽  
WU Koh

Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (9) ◽  
pp. 2567
Valentina Stenger ◽  
Stephan Zeiter ◽  
Tim Buchholz ◽  
Daniel Arens ◽  
Claudia Spadavecchia ◽  

Peripheral nerve blocks are commonly used in human and veterinary medicine. The aim of the study was to compare the analgesic efficacy of a combined block of the femoral and sciatic nerves with an epidural injection of ropivacaine in experimental sheep undergoing orthopaedic hind limb surgery. Twenty-five sheep were assigned to two groups (peripheral nerve block; sciatic and femoral nerves (P); epidural analgesia (E)). In group P 10 mL ropivacaine 0.5% was injected around the sciatic and the femoral nerves under sonographic guidance and 10 mL NaCl 0.9% into the epidural space while in group E 10 mL ropivacaine 0.5% was injected into the epidural space and 10 mL NaCl 0.9% to the sciatic and the femoral nerves. During surgery, heart rate, respiratory rate and mean blood pressure were used as indicators of nociception. In the postoperative phase, nociception was evaluated every hour by use of a purposefully adapted pain score until the animal showed painful sensation at the surgical site. The mean duration of analgesia at the surgical wound was 6 h in group P and 8 h in group E. Mean time to standing was 4 h in group P and 7 h in group E. In conclusion time to standing was significantly shorter in group P while the duration of nociception was comparable in both groups. The peripheral nerve block can be used as an alternative to epidural analgesia in experimental sheep.

2021 ◽  
Arda H. Ceylan ◽  
Can Özütemiz ◽  
Haitao Huang ◽  
Christopher Luedemann ◽  
Nathan Rubin ◽  

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