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Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 196
Author(s):  
Daniele Zambelli ◽  
Simona Valentini ◽  
Giulia Ballotta ◽  
Marco Cunto

Total or partial vulvo-vaginectomy or vaginectomy are not routinely performed due to the complexity of the techniques and because they are considered radical treatments. Little information can be found in the literature, as the same technique is often named in a different way by different authors, confusing the reader. Therefore, the aim of this essay is to describe five different surgical techniques: partial vaginectomy, complete vaginectomy, partial vestibule-vaginectomy, vulvo-vestibule-vaginectomy and vulvo-vestibulectomy. All techniques are described on the basis of the correct identification of the anatomical nomenclature related to structures involved in surgery, in order to give a more precise and unambiguous description and execution of surgical techniques. Moreover, possible intraoperative and perioperative complications and the authors’ clinical experience in 33 dogs are described. All techniques are well tolerated and could be curative in case of benign or malignant tumours that have not yet metastasized and palliative in other cases. Moreover, they are also useful for therapeutic purposes for chronic vaginitis, severe vaginal cysts or congenital abnormalities. It is our opinion that having five different available techniques to approach vaginal disease is useful to perform the best surgery according to the clinical findings, patient’s characteristics, technique invasiveness and whether it is palliative or not.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261853
Author(s):  
Margaret G. Mills ◽  
Emily Bruce ◽  
Meei-Li Huang ◽  
Jessica W. Crothers ◽  
Ollivier Hyrien ◽  
...  

Reverse transcription–quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is used worldwide to test and trace the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). “Extraction-less” or “direct” real time–reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is a transparent and accessible qualitative method for SARS-CoV-2 detection from nasopharyngeal or oral pharyngeal samples with the potential to generate actionable data more quickly, at a lower cost, and with fewer experimental resources than full RT-qPCR. This study engaged 10 global testing sites, including laboratories currently experiencing testing limitations due to reagent or equipment shortages, in an international interlaboratory ring trial. Participating laboratories were provided a common protocol, common reagents, aliquots of identical pooled clinical samples, and purified nucleic acids and used their existing in-house equipment. We observed 100% concordance across laboratories in the correct identification of all positive and negative samples, with highly similar cycle threshold values. The test also performed well when applied to locally collected patient nasopharyngeal samples, provided the viral transport media did not contain charcoal or guanidine, both of which appeared to potently inhibit the RT-PCR reaction. Our results suggest that direct RT-PCR assay methods can be clearly translated across sites utilizing readily available equipment and expertise and are thus a feasible option for more efficient COVID-19 coronavirus disease testing as demanded by the continuing pandemic.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Anju Yadav ◽  
Udit Thakur ◽  
Rahul Saxena ◽  
Vipin Pal ◽  
Vikrant Bhateja ◽  
...  

Abstract Plant diseases significantly affect the crop, so their identification is very important. Correct identification of these diseases is crucial for establishing a good disease control strategy to avoid time and financial losses. In general, machines can greatly reduce the possibility of human error. In particular, computer vision techniques developed through deep learning have paved a way to detect and diagnose these plant diseases on the leaf. In this work, the model AFD-Net was developed to detect and identify various leaf diseases in apple trees. The dataset is from Kaggle 2020 and 2021 and was financially supported by the Cornell Initiative for Digital Agriculture. A AFD-Net was proposed for leaf disease classification in apple trees and the results of the efficiency of the model are compared with other state-of-the-art deep learning approaches. The results of the experiments in the validation dataset show that the proposed AFD-Net model achieves the highest values compared to other deep learning models in the original and extended datasets with 98.7% accuracy for Plant Pathology 2020 and 92.6% for Plant Pathology 2021.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 73
Author(s):  
Arnaud Jabet ◽  
Anne-Cécile Normand ◽  
Alicia Moreno-Sabater ◽  
Jacques Guillot ◽  
Veronica Risco-Castillo ◽  
...  

Online MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry applications, such as MSI-2, have been shown to help identify dermatophytes, but recurrent errors are still observed between phylogenetically close species. The objective of this study was to assess different approaches to reduce the occurrence of such errors by adding new reference spectra to the MSI-2 application. Nine libraries were set up, comprising an increasing number of spectra obtained from reference strains that were submitted to various culture durations on two distinct culture media: Sabouraud gentamicin chloramphenicol medium and IDFP Conidia medium. The final library included spectra from 111 strains of 20 species obtained from cultures on both media collected every three days after the appearance of the colony. The performance of each library was then analyzed using a cross-validation approach. The spectra acquisitions were carried out using a Microflex Bruker spectrometer. Diversifying the references and adding spectra from various culture media and culture durations improved identification performance. The percentage of correct identification at the species level rose from 63.4 to 91.7% when combining all approaches. Nevertheless, residual confusion between close species, such as Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton violaceum and Trichophyton soudanense, remained. To distinguish between these species, mass spectrometry identification should take into account basic morphological and/or clinico-epidemiological features.


Author(s):  
Gerrit J Jordaan ◽  
Wynand J vdM Steyn

The use of New-age (Nano) Modified Emulsions (NME) for the stabilisation of marginal materials for use in the upper-pavement layers of roads have been proven in laboratories, through Accelerated Pavement Tests (APT) and in practice. In addition, material design methods have been developed based on the scientific analysis of granular material mineralogy and the chemical interaction with the binder to design a material compatible NME stabilising agent for naturally available (often marginal) materials. However, the introduction of any new disruptive technology in a traditionally well-established industry, such as the road construction industry, is usually associated with considerable resistance. This is especially relevant when the new technology enables the use of granular materials traditionally considered to be of an unacceptable quality in combination with relatively new concepts such as New-age (Nano) Modified Emulsions (NME). In practice, few road construction projects are without any problems. The introduction of new-technologies obviously makes it an easy target to blame for any non-related problem that may arise during construction. This article aims to assist in pre-empting, recognising, preventing and resolving material or non-material related construction problems through the correct identification of the cause of the problem and recommending the best, most cost-effective way to correct any deficiencies on site.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Husam Salah ◽  
Anna Kolecka ◽  
Anna Rozaliyani ◽  
Retno Wahyuningsih ◽  
Saad J. Taj-Aldeen ◽  
...  

AbstractMatrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is widely used in clinical laboratories for routine identification of bacteria and yeasts. However, methodological difficulties are still apparent when applied to filamentous fungi. The liquid cultivation method recommended by Bruker Daltonics GmbH for identification of filamentous fungi by MALDI-TOF MS is labour intensive and time-consuming. In this study, growth of Aspergillus species on different (porous) surfaces was investigated with the aim to develop a more reliable, quicker and less laborious identification method using MALDI-TOF MS. Mycelial growth without sporulation mimicking liquid cultivation and reliable MALDI-TOF MS spectra were obtained when A. fumigatus strains were grown on and in between a polycarbonate membrane filter on Sabouraud dextrose agar. A database of in-house reference spectra was created by growing Aspergillus reference strains (mainly focusing on sections Fumigati and Flavi) under these selected conditions. A test set of 50 molecularly identified strains grown under different conditions was used to select the best growth condition for identification and to perform an initial validation of the in-house database. Based on these results, the cultivation method on top of a polycarbonate filter proved to be most successful for species identification. This method was therefore selected for the identification of two sets of clinical isolates that mainly consisted of Aspergilli (100 strains originating from Indonesia, 70 isolates from Qatar). The results showed that this cultivation method is reliable for identification of clinically relevant Aspergillus species, with 67% and 76% correct identification of strains from Indonesia and Qatar, respectively. In conclusion, cultivation of Aspergilli on top of a polycarbonate filter showed improved results compared to the liquid cultivation protocol recommended by Bruker in terms of percentage of correct identification, ease of MSP creation, time consumption, cost and labour intensity. This method can be reliably applied for identification of clinically important Aspergilli and has potential for identification of other filamentous fungi.


Plant Disease ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Xianping Zhang ◽  
Xuedong Cao ◽  
Qingqing Dang ◽  
Yongguang Liu ◽  
Xiaoping Zhu ◽  
...  

Muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) is one of the most widely cultivated and economically important fruit crops in the world. However, many pathogens can cause decay of muskmelon fruit, including Fusarium spp.. Fusarium spp. are the most important pathogen, affecting muskmelon fruit yield and quality (Wang et al. 2011). In August 2020, fruit rot symptoms were observed on ripening muskmelons (cv. Tianbao) in several fields in Jiyang District, Jinan City of Shandong Province, China. The incidences of infected muskmelon ranged from 15% to 30% and caused an average 20% yield loss. Symptoms appeared as pale brown, water-soaked lesions that were irregular in shape, with the lesion sizes ranging from a small spot (1 to 2 cm) to decay of the entire fruit. The core and surface of infected fruit were colonized and covered with white mycelia. Two infected muskmelons were collected from two fields, 3.5 km apart. Tissues removed from inside the infected fruit were surface disinfected with 75% ethanol for 30 s, and cultured on potato dextrose agar (PDA) at 25°C in the dark for 5 days. Four purified cultures were obtained using the single spore method. On carnation leaf agar (CLA), 3 to 5 septate, falcate, with a pronounced dorsiventral curvature macroconidia with tapered apical cell, and foot-shaped basal cell, measuring 20 to 40 × 3.5 to 4.5 μm. Microconidia and chlamydospores were not observed. These morphological characteristics were consistent with the description of F. luffae (Wang et al., 2019). Because these isolates had similar morphology, two representative isolates (XP11 and XP12) were selected for multilocus phylogenetic analyses. DNA was extracted from the representative isolates using a CTAB method. Nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) (White et al. 1990), calmodulin (CAM), RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2), translation elongation factor 1-α gene (TEF1) (Xia et al. 2019) were amplified using specific primers, sequenced, and deposited in GenBank (ITS: MW391509 and MW391510, CAM: MW392789 and MW392790, RPB2: MW392797 and MW392798, TEF1: MW392793 and MW392794). Alignments of a combined dataset of ITS, CAM, RPB2 and TEF1 were made using MAFFT v. 7, and phylogenetic analyses were conducted in MEGA v. 7.0 using the maximum likelihood method. The muskmelon isolates (XP11 and XP12) clustered together with the F. luffae reference strain LC12167 (99% bootstrap). To perform a pathogenicity test, 10 μl of conidial suspensions (1 × 106 conidia/ml) were injected into each muskmelon fruit using a syringe, and the control fruit was inoculated with 10 μl of sterile distilled water. There were ten replicated fruits for each treatment. The test was repeated three times. After 7 days at 25°C, the interior of the inoculated muskmelons begun to rot, and the rot lesion expanded from the core towards the surface of the fruit, then white mycelia were produced on the surface. Ten isolations were re-isolated from the infected tissues and confirmed to fulfill Koch’s postulates. No symptoms were observed on the control muskmelons. To our knowledge, this is the first report of fruit rot caused by F. luffae in muskmelon in China. Considering the economic value of the muskmelon crop, correct identification can help farmers select appropriate field management measures for control of this disease.


2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. e246568
Author(s):  
Nessa Keane ◽  
Amy Farrell ◽  
Brian Hallahan

A 35-year-old primigravida presented with significant anxiety symptoms at 26 weeks’ gestation. Symptoms were preceded by a nightmare about her upcoming labour. She developed repetitive intrusive thoughts of being trapped emotionally and physically in her pregnancy. Her symptoms were suggestive of new-onset claustrophobia associated with pregnancy, which has not been previously reported on. Her symptoms ameliorated with a combination of cognitive–behavioural therapy and pharmacotherapy (sertraline and low dose quetiapine). The later stages of pregnancy were associated with minimal symptoms and the resolution of her subjective ‘entrapment’. A subsequent pregnancy resulted in similar although less severe symptomatology. No postpartum anxiety symptoms were demonstrated on both occasions. Anxiety symptoms can adversely impact both the mother and fetus, and thus correct identification and management of pregnancy-related claustrophobia improved symptomatology and functioning and allowed for earlier detection and reduced symptomatology in a subsequent pregnancy.


GEODYNAMICS ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 2(31)2021 (2(31)) ◽  
pp. 84-91
Author(s):  
Yuriy Andrushchenko ◽  
◽  
Oleksandr Liashchuk ◽  

The aim of the work is to determine the possibility of using local seismological networks of nuclear power plants as elements of the seismological monitoring system of the territory of Ukraine. Estimation of local seismicity and specification of quantitative parameters of seismological influences is carried out on the basis of materials of seismological observations. Operational processing and analysis of seismic signals registered on the elements of local seismological networks of NPPs is carried out by the Main Center for Special Control of the State Space Agency of Ukraine (MCSC SSA of Ukraine). In the process of implementation of the “Seismic Hazard Assessment and Seismic Resistance Action Plan” of existing NPPs, seismic monitoring networks were deployed at Ukrainian NPPs. To date, the MCSC receives data from the local seismological networks of Rivne, Khmelnytsky and Zaporizhzhya NPPs in a continuous mode. The processing of geophysical information coming from the NPP to the FSC is carried out by the operational next shift of the center with the help of FSC hardware and software and provides reliable data on the parameters of seismic sources registered by stations, their location and energy characteristics. In total, in the period from 2017 to 2021, 36 local earthquakes were registered by NPP seismic networks in Ukraine. The epicenters of the vast majority of them are located within the Ivano-Frankivsk, Ternopil and Lviv regions. The experience of conducting instrumental observations at NPP seismic stations testifies to their high efficiency and possibility of use as full-fledged elements of the seismological monitoring system of the territory of Ukraine. According to the results of primary processing of seismic data of 2017-2021, a catalog of seismic events registered by NPP seismic stations was created. The system of interpretation of the obtained results was improved, which allowed to determine equally well local, regional and teleseismic events of different nature and energy level. The practical significance of the obtained results lies in their direct focus on solving a number of practical problems of processing and interpretation of seismological data. The use of NPP seismic stations as elements of the general system of seismological monitoring of Ukraine will increase the reliability of detection and localization of sources and the probability of correct identification of the nature of seismic phenomena, which in turn will improve the assessment of tectonic structures in Ukraine.


2021 ◽  
pp. 1-5
Author(s):  
Jonathan W. Armbruster ◽  
Nathan K. Lujan

Correct identification of fossil taxa is immensely important for dating molecular phylogenies and understanding when and how quickly modern biodiversity evolved. Fossils that are available for a clade of interest and can be directly incorporated in the phylogenetic analysis are considered primary sources of time calibration, whereas calibrations inferred from other studies are secondary (Arroyave et al., 2013). Studies of taxonomic groups that lack fossils must either expand their analyses to include fossilized outgroup lineages, use secondary calibrations, or use more problematic primary calibrations, e.g., vicariant geologic events. The use of vicariant geologic events to calibrate phylogenies poses the risk of circular reasoning, because the goal of many such studies is to determine how geologic events have affected diversification. Near et al. (2012) argued that fossil calibrations external to clades of interest, but still within the broader Actinopterygian (ray-finned fishes) tree, could be used as means of calibrating a generalized molecular clock, but internal calibrations are still valuable for refining such inferences (Arroyave et al., 2013).


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