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2021 ◽  
Vol 40 (04) ◽  
pp. e412-e416
Author(s):  
Arthur Lopes ◽  
Rafael Albanez Andrade ◽  
Rebeca Gonelli Andrade ◽  
Bianca Berardo Pessoa Zirpoli ◽  
Arthur Burgos Souto Maior ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Fungal spondylodiscitis is not common but should be suspected in some cases. Candida tropicalis infections are being more frequently diagnosed due to some factors related to the microorganism. Case Description A C. tropicalis spondylodiscitis is described in a 72-year-old man who was treated with a combination of echinocandin (micafungin) and surgery. Conclusion The presence of some risk factors should promptly raise the suspicion of fungal spondylodiscitis. Treatment should be instituted as early as possible for the best outcome for the patient.


2021 ◽  
pp. 112067212110637
Author(s):  
Barbara Sabal ◽  
Bożena Romanowska-Dixon ◽  
Izabella Karska-Basta

Introduction Numerous studies described a link between weather phenomena and an increased incidence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. We report a case of ocular decompression retinopathy with massive premacular haemorrhage secondary to acute intraocular pressure reduction in a patient with acute primary angle closure. At the time of admission, a change in weather conditions occurred with high temperatures and a strong Foehn wind known locally as halny. Case description A healthy 56-year-old man with acute primary angle closure who developed severe ocular decompression retinopathy with large prefoveal subhyaloid haemorrhage after pharmacological treatment was admitted to the hospital. The patient was elected for surgery and underwent vitrectomy with improvement of visual acuity to the baseline vision. Conclusions This report suggests that, in addition to an abrupt reduction in intraocular pressure as a causative factor, massive ocular decompression retinopathy may be significantly influenced also by environmental factors such as halny.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
pp. 577
Author(s):  
Zulfi Haneef ◽  
Alexandr Karimov ◽  
Vaishnav Krishnan ◽  
Sameer A. Sheth

Background: The responsive neurostimulation system (RNS) is used in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy who are not candidates for surgical resection of a seizure focus. As a relatively new therapy option, the adverse effects of long-term implantation are still being clarified. We present a series of two patients who presented with similar symptoms which were attributable to migration of the intracranially implanted subdural leads. Case Description: Two patients who had subdural RNS lead implantation presented with symptoms of paroxysmal unilateral facial pain which were thought to be related to the stimulation of the trigeminal nerve secondary to RNS lead migration. Adjustment of the stimulation parameters improved the symptoms in both patients. Conclusion: Chronically implanted subdural RNS leads can migrate over time stimulating nerves in the intracranial space. Strategies to avoid and overcome the complication are discussed.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
pp. 579
Author(s):  
Munehiro Demura ◽  
Masahiro Oishi ◽  
Naoyuki Uchiyama ◽  
Masanao Mohri ◽  
Katsuyoshi Miyashita ◽  
...  

Background: Moyamoya disease is a rare chronic steno-occlusive cerebrovascular disease. It may have variable clinical symptoms associated with cerebral stroke, including motor paralysis, sensory disturbances, seizures, or headaches. However, patients with moyamoya disease rarely present with involuntary movement disorders, including limb-shaking syndrome, with no previous reports of limb-shaking syndrome occurring after revascularization procedures for this disease. Although watershed shifts can elicit transient neurological deterioration after revascularisation, symptoms originating from the contralateral hemisphere following the revascularization procedure are rare. Here, we report the case of moyamoya disease wherein the patient developed limb-shaking syndrome derived from the contralateral hemisphere after unilateral revascularisation. Case Description: A 16-year-old girl presented with transient left upper and lower limb numbness and headache. Based on digital subtraction angiography, she was diagnosed with symptomatic moyamoya disease. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) showed decreased cerebral blood flow (CBF) on the right side, and she underwent direct and indirect bypasses on this side. Involuntary movements appeared in her right upper limb immediately postoperatively. SPECT showed decreased CBF to the bilateral frontal lobes. Subsequently, the patient was diagnosed with limb-shaking syndrome. After performing left-hemispheric revascularisation, the patient’s symptoms resolved, and SPECT imaging confirmed improvements in CBF to the bilateral frontal lobes. Conclusion: Revascularization for moyamoya disease can lead to watershed shifts, which can induce limb-shaking syndrome derived from abnormalities in the contralateral hemisphere of the revascularized side. For patients with new-onset limb-shaking syndrome after moyamoya revascularisation procedures, additional revascularization may be warranted for treatment of low perfusion areas.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
pp. 570
Author(s):  
Tejas Arvind Sardar ◽  
Viren S. Vasudeva ◽  
M. Neil Woodall

Background: Glossopharyngeal neuralgia is a rare neurovascular compression syndrome that can lead to paroxysmal craniofacial pain and sometimes cardiovascular symptoms.[1,2] The characteristic pathology involves a vessel (commonly a branch/loop of PICA) compressing the nerve at the root entry/exit zone at the brainstem.[1] Microvascular decompression is a commonly used treatment approach for patients that have failed conservative measures.[2] Case Description: A 72-year-old male presented to the ED following four episodes of syncope. The patient had a multi-year history of right-sided burning/stabbing pain involving the submandibular area and posterior throat. His syncope was related to symptomatic bradycardia that would occur during episodes of pain. His pain was exacerbated by speaking and swallowing and could be triggered by placing his finger in the right external auditory meatus. Interestingly, this maneuver would also trigger his bradycardia. The patient had failed previous pharmacotherapy, and a pacemaker had been placed to protect him from periods of hypotension. MRI/MRA of the brain and cervical spine were unremarkable. Due to his profoundly symptomatic status, the patient was offered a right retrosigmoid craniotomy for microvascular decompression of the right glossopharyngeal nerve. The patient had complete resolution of his pain and bradycardia immediately post-operatively. He was discharged on the second postoperative day and his pacemaker was ultimately removed. The patient continues to be pain free and off medication. Conclusion: Here we present a video case report of microvascular decompression with favorable outcome for an interesting presentation of glossopharyngeal neuralgia. The patient gave informed consent for surgery and video recording.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
pp. 572
Author(s):  
Khaled Dibs ◽  
Rahul Neal Prasad ◽  
Kajal Madan ◽  
Kevin Liu ◽  
Will Jiang ◽  
...  

Background: Ependymoma is an uncommon tumor accounting for approximately 1.9% of all adult central nervous system tumors. Ependymomas at the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) are even more rare and only previously described in isolated case reports. Typically, acoustic neuromas and meningiomas represent the bulk of adult CPA tumors. Diagnosis can be challenging, as ependymomas have clinical findings and imaging characteristics that overlap with more common tumor histologies at the CPA. Case Description: We present the case of a 70-year-old male patient with progressive, isolated left-sided hearing loss found to have a World Health Organization (WHO) Grade II CPA ependymoma, representing one of the oldest recorded patients presenting with this primarily pediatric malignancy in this unique location. The patient presentation with isolated hearing loss was particularly unusual. When associated with neurologic deficits, CPA ependymomas more characteristically result in facial nerve impairment with fully preserved hearing, while vestibular schwannomas tend to present with isolated hearing loss. The standard of care for pediatric ependymomas is maximal safe resection with adjuvant radiotherapy, but treatment paradigms in adult CPA ependymoma are not well defined particularly for WHO Grade II disease. After resection, he received adjuvant radiation to decrease the risk of local recurrence. Twenty-nine months after resection, the patient remains free of treatment-related toxicity or disease recurrence. Conclusion: We review this patient’s clinical course in the context of the literature to highlight the challenges associated with timely diagnosis of this rare tumor and the controversial role of adjuvant therapy in preventing local recurrence in these patients.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
pp. 569
Author(s):  
Megumi Matsuda ◽  
Hideki Endo ◽  
Kohei Ishikawa ◽  
Ryota Nomura ◽  
Tomoaki Ishizuka ◽  
...  

Background: An extremely tortuous superior cerebellar artery is a rare anomaly. We report a case of an extremely tortuous superior cerebellar artery mimicking an aneurysm. Case Description: A 77-year-old woman was initially diagnosed with unruptured cerebral aneurysm at the right basilar artery-superior cerebellar artery junction by magnetic resonance angiography. Catheter angiogram revealed that there was no apparent aneurysm at the basilar artery-superior cerebellar artery junction and the lesion was actually an extremely tortuous superior cerebellar artery. Conclusion: Although an extremely tortuous superior cerebellar artery is rare, it should be considered when examining other vascular lesions.


2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Hiromitsu Imataki ◽  
Hideo Miyake ◽  
Hidemasa Nagai ◽  
Yuichiro Yoshioka ◽  
Koji Shibata ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Emergency appendectomy is often performed for de Garengeot hernia. However, in some cases, there may be a chance to perform an appendix-preserving elective surgery. Case description A 76-year-old woman presented to our hospital with complaints of a right inguinal swelling, which we diagnosed as a de Garengeot hernia using computed tomography (CT). B-mode ultrasonography (US) of the mass showed an appendix 4–6 mm in diameter with a clear wall structure; color Doppler US showed pulsatile blood flow signal in the appendiceal wall. Twenty-eight days later, herniorrhaphy with transabdominal preperitoneal repair (TAPP) was performed without appendectomy. Another 70-year-old woman presented to our hospital with complaints of a painful bulge in the right inguinal region. The diagnosis of de Garengeot hernia was made using CT. B-mode US showed an appendix 5 mm in diameter with a clear wall structure. Color Doppler US showed a pulsatile blood signal in the appendiceal wall. Seven days later, herniorrhaphy with TAPP was performed without appendectomy. Conclusion De Garengeot hernia is often associated with appendicitis; however, an appendix-preserving elective herniorrhaphy can be performed if US and intraoperative findings do not suggest appendicitis or circulatory compromise in the appendix.


Author(s):  
Jessica R. Kinsey ◽  
Mohammed I. A. Ibrahim

Abstract CASE DESCRIPTION A 4-month-old 4.2 kg sexually intact female mixed-breed dog was evaluated for rectal and vesicular tenesmus, intermittent rectal prolapse, fecal incontinence, and an anogenital cleft. CLINICAL FINDINGS Rectal prolapse and an anogenital cleft were confirmed on physical examination. Results of a CBC and serum biochemical analysis were within respective reference ranges, and abdominal ultrasonography revealed no abnormalities. Urinalysis revealed evidence of a urinary tract infection. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME An H-perineoplasty was performed and the prolapse was reduced. The repair partially dehisced and was repaired (with concurrent reduction of a recurrent rectal prolapse) but dehisced again. There was limited tissue available for additional reconstruction. In another surgical procedure, the rectum was allowed to prolapse, the most dorsal 40% of the prolapsed rectal tissue was resected, and the rectal tissue margin and skin in this region were apposed. The remaining rectal tissue flap was folded ventrally, and the lateral margins of the aborad aspect were sutured to the dorsolateral vestibular mucosa. In a subsequent surgery, 2.5 to 3 cm of the rectal tissue flap was excised. The remainder was used to create ventral margins for the rectum and vestibular mucosa. The perineal skin between the anus and dorsal vulvar commissure was closed. The patient experienced mild cutaneous partial dehiscence of the repair that healed by second intention. Over an 18-month follow-up period, some fecal incontinence persisted, but straining resolved and urinary tract infection did not recur. CLINICAL RELEVANCE For the dog of this report, the use of rectal mucosa in surgical repair of an anogenital cleft provided an acceptable clinical outcome.


2021 ◽  
pp. 112067212110590
Author(s):  
Mehreen Adhi ◽  
Maria Reinoso

Introduction Choroidal rupture is a tear/break within the Bruch's membrane, retinal pigment epithelium and choroid following blunt trauma. Choroidal neovascularization is a well-known complication of traumatic choroidal rupture that is typically treated with intravitreal injections of Bevacizumab. This case describes an early detection of choroidal neovascular complex secondary to traumatic choroidal rupture and its spontaneous regression and quiescence without treatment followed using optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography. Case Description A healthy 19 year old female presented with decreased vision in her left eye following a blunt non-penetrating closed globe injury two weeks prior. A complete ophthalmic examination with ancillary testing was consistent with sub-foveal choroidal neovascularization secondary to traumatic choroidal rupture. Five weeks later, there was spontaneous regression of the choroidal neovascular complex as depicted on OCT angiography and complete resolution of subretinal fluid/exudation on structural OCT. A conservative approach without intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) injections was chosen for management. Conclusion To the authors’ knowledge this is a first case describing a unique evolution with spontaneous regression and quiescence of choroidal neovascularization secondary to traumatic choroidal rupture without treatment followed using OCT angiography. Expectant management may be a viable treatment option for this condition.


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