Wild Animals
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2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (suplemento) ◽  
M F Bono Battistoni

Trichinellosis in a zoonotic parasitism of worldwide distribution caused by nematodes of the genus Trichinella. Argentina is considered an endemic country for this zoonosis and so far four species have been identified, spiralis, patagoniensis, britovi and pseudospiralis. It can affect both domestic animals such as pigs, dogs, horses, or wild animals such as cougars, armadillos, wild boars, and wild pigs. With the aim of knowing if any species of Trichinella circulates among the wild fauna of the province of Santa Fe, 22 samples of muscle from pigs between wild and wild boars were analyzed by Artificial Digestion, five from aguará guazú (Chrysocyon brachiurus), one of cat wild (Leopardus geoffroyi), one of weasel (Didelphis albiventris) and one of an equine (Equus caballus). All samples were negative.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Yuval Zukerman ◽  
Zehava Sigal ◽  
Oded Berger-Tal

The increasing pressure of ecotourism on wildlife in their natural habitats leads many wild animals to alter their behaviors. The restrictions issued in many places due to COVID-19 provide a rare opportunity to examine wildlife behavior in nature reserves with reduced human presence, and to reveal the impact of human visitation on the behaviors and fitness of local wildlife species. In 2019 and 2020 we placed trail cameras next to two natural springs in the Israeli Negev Desert, Ein-Avdat and Ein-Shaviv, located 9 km apart. Both sites serve as the main water source for local Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana) populations, but Ein-Avdat is situated within a popular national park into which visitors’ entrance was restricted due to COVID-19 regulations in 2020, while Ein-Shaviv is more remote and thus attracts only few visitors regardless of COVID-19 regulations. Our study revealed that during 2020, ibex in Ein-Avdat arrived to drink earlier in the day and the population’s Female:Kids ratio more than doubled. These changes were not observed in Ein-Shaviv. We found that the daily number of visitors in Ein-Avdat affected the arrival time of ibex to the water pool. We conclude that the reduced number of visitors to Ein-Avdat in 2020 compared to 2019 may have allowed ibex to arrive in preferred hours, and may have contributed to the increased kid-to-females ratio. Our study shows that behavioral adaptions to human visitation in nature reserves might carry a high fitness cost.

2021 ◽  
Vol 99 (5-6) ◽  
pp. 375-382
E. A. Shirokov

Epidemics of new, previously unknown human viral diseases have been occurring with increasing frequency in recent decades. The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus has demonstrated humanity's unpreparedness for new challenges and a complete lack of understanding of the causes of viral aggression. An attempt to explain the catastrophic development of the pandemic by accidental transmission of the virus from an animal to a person does not seem convincing. The explosive development of the epidemic process in large ecosystems negates the existing ideas about the contact mechanism of pathogenic virus transmission from person to person. Probably, the causes of the pandemic are related to global changes in the biosphere of the planet. According to V. I. Vernadsky's theory, the biosphere consists of three main parts: plants, animals and microorganisms, the total mass of which is a constant value. In recent decades, the rate of destruction of forests as the main resource of the plant world has considerably increased. The number of wild animals has decreased and at the same time the human population has increased. The growing disproportions led to the expansion of viruses with a new vector from animals to humans. Global insight into the role of viruses in the biosphere of the planet leads to understanding of the COVID-19 pandemic causes. There is every reason to believe that viruses have wave properties, and are able to produce a magnetic field, stable coherent resonance systems and interact without the participation of biochemical transformations. The energy of the electromagnetic field can be high enough for non-contact infection and assembly of an active biological virus inside the human body. The physical theory of viruses significantly expands the existing understanding of the role of viruses in the biosphere of the planet and the causes of new viral infections.

Zhihong Guo ◽  
Hong Duo ◽  
Xueyong Zhang ◽  
Yijuan Ma ◽  
Xiuying Shen ◽  

Background: Wild foxes play an important role in echinococcosis epidemics. There have been a few studies investigating Echinococcus spp. in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau area, China, but none on the prevention and control of Echinococcus spp. in wild foxes. Methods: From 2016 March through December 2019, two wild fox dens were selected as two test sites based on prior long-term camera screening and observation. Anthelmintic praziquantel tablets were placed near the two dens of wild foxes, and the wild foxes freely consumed the anthelmintic drugs. Morphological methods were used to detect initially the parasite species, and PCR molecular methods were used to identify accurately parasite and host species. Results: Parasite eggs of E. multilocularis (2/11, 18.2%) were found in 11 fecal samples. Importantly, the eggs of E. multilocularis (1/21, 4.8%) were found again in the feces of the foxes one year later; moreover, the eggs of E. multilocularis (2/19, 10.5%) still existed in the feces of the foxes two years later. Conclusion: Wild foxes were repeatedly infected with E. multilocularis and that deworming for prevention and control is required at least twice per year. Prevention and control methods for echinococcosis in wild foxes were explored, providing a scientific basis for the prevention and control of echinococcosis in wild animals.

Josh Milburn

AbstractWhat we could call ‘relational non-interventionism’ holds that we have no general obligation to alleviate animal suffering, and that we do not typically have special obligations to alleviate wild animals’ suffering. Therefore, we do not usually have a duty to intervene in nature to alleviate wild animal suffering. However, there are a range of relationships that we may have with wild animals that do generate special obligations to aid—and the consequences of these obligations can be surprising. In this paper, it is argued that we have special obligations to those animals we have historically welcomed or encouraged into our spaces. This includes many wild animals. One of the consequences of this is that we may sometimes possess obligations to actively prevent rewilding—or even to dewild—for the sake of welcomed animals who thrive in human-controlled spaces.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (13) ◽  
pp. 20124-20127
Maneesh Sharma ◽  
B.L. Jangir ◽  
D. Lather ◽  
G.A. Chandratre ◽  
V. Nehra ◽  

The present study was conducted on 20 dead carcasses of Nilgai Boselaphus tragocamelus brought to the Department of Veterinary Pathology, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (LUVAS), Hisar for post mortem examination. Thorough necropsy examinations were conducted and the representative samples for parasitic examination were collected. Most of the carcasses showed varying degrees of traumatic injuries (9), external wounds and haemorrhages (5) along with putrefactive changes (6). Intestinal contents and faecal samples were collected and screened for the presence of any parasite by sedimentation and flotation techniques. Out of 20 faecal samples, overall incidence of parasitic gastrointestinal tract infection was 40% (8/20). Out of 20, eight cases revealed presence of coccidian oocysts, however, among the eight cases, one case also revealed mixed infection of Moneizia andStrongylespp.,andanother case with Strongyle and Trichuris spp. Gross pathology of the intestines revealed varying degrees of vascular changes like petechial haemorrhages and the presence of catarrhal exudate. Histopathological examination revealed mild to moderate congestion, fused villi, desquamated mucosal epithelium in focal areas, and infiltration of mononuclear cells mainly lymphocytes. The different developmental stages of coccidian spp.were also observed in the intestinal mucosa. In conclusion, the preliminary study reported the parasitic load and pathological changes in the intestinal tract which further indicated the parasitism of these wild animals which is of immense significance from the epidemiological point of view.

2021 ◽  
pp. 2979-2983
Hamong Suharsono ◽  
Ali Ghufron Mukti ◽  
Ketut Suryana ◽  
I. Wayan Masa Tenaya ◽  
Dilasdita Kartika Pradana ◽  

Background and Aim: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an acute infectious respiratory disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and has spread rapidly globally, resulting in a pandemic. In humans, the main routes of transmission are respiratory droplets and close contact with infected individuals or through contact with an object infected with the virus, followed by touching mouth, nose, or eyes. It is assumed that SARS-CoV-2 was originated in wild animals and was then transmitted to humans. Although some wildlife and domestic animals can be naturally or experimentally infected with the virus, the intermediate hosts that transmitted it to humans are still unknown. Understanding the dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 associated with possible zoonotic transmission of intermediate hosts is considered critical. Reportedly, cats or dogs living with COVID-19-positive humans tested positive for the disease, suggesting that the virus was transmitted to the animals from humans. Information regarding the epidemiological investigation and comprehensive studies is limited. Therefore, it is still unclear how high is the correlation of infection in humans and pet animals, especially those living together. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the pets of patients with COVID-19 who were hospitalized at the Wangaya hospital, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia. Materials and Methods: A total of seven clinically asymptomatic pets (six dogs of different races and sexes and a cat [age, 360-2920 days]) were included in this study. These animals belonged to patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection from August to November 2020. Nasal swab and nasopharyngeal samples were collected from the pets individually under anesthetic condition and were collected 6-12 days after confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in owners and hospitalization at the Wangaya Hospital. The swab samples were then processed for RNA isolation and tested using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for SARS-CoV-2, in accordance with the World Health Organization manual 2020. Results: RT-PCR results for all seven RNA samples, prepared from the swab samples, were negative. For the samples, all PCR products were below the threshold limit, suggesting no genetic material belonging to the samples tested. Conclusion: This was the first preliminary study of COVID-19 on pets in pandemic using RT-PCR. The study tested a very limited quantity of samples, and all of them were negative. However, the way in which the samples were prepared was considered appropriate. Therefore, in further studies, testing of more samples of pets of more individuals with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection is required.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (13) ◽  
pp. 19921-19929
Aureo Banhos dos Santos ◽  
Andressa Gatti ◽  
Marcelo Renan de Deus Santos ◽  
Leonardo Merçon ◽  
Ilka Westermeyer ◽  

Highways limit the movement and dispersion of wild animals and contribute to their loss due to roadkills, leading to the isolation and decline of populations, increasing the risk of local extinction. The Lowland Tapir Tapirus terrestris is the largest neotropical herbivore-frugivore, and despite its wide distribution in South America it is threatened with extinction. In this study we report six roadkill events of tapirs between 2014 and 2019 in a section of a federal highway crossing the mosaic of Atlantic Forest reserves called Sooretama, one of the last tapir refuges in southeastern Brazil. The traffic in this area is heavy with inadequate speed control, while exotic fruit trees growing along the highway attract wild animals. Water drainage tunnels serve as passageways for some species, including tapirs. However, the tunnels located under the highway are not continuously maintained, reducing its effectiveness. The loss of at least one tapir per year can have serious long-term consequences for one of the last viable lowland tapir populations in the entire Atlantic Forest. Emergency measures are required to avoid vehicle-tapir collisions.

Pathogens ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 1541
Carlos A. López González ◽  
Norma Hernández-Camacho ◽  
Gabriela Aguilar-Tipacamú ◽  
Salvador Zamora-Ledesma ◽  
Andrea M. Olvera-Ramírez ◽  

Mexico is a highly diverse country where ticks and tick-borne diseases (TBD) directly impact the health of humans and domestic and wild animals. Ticks of the genera Rhipicephalus spp., Amblyomma spp., and Ixodes spp. represent the most important species in terms of host parasitism and geographical distribution in the country, although information on other genera is either limited or null. In addition, information regarding the influence of global warming on the increase in tick populations is scarce or nonexistent, despite climate conditions being the most important factors that determine tick distribution. In order to aid in the management of ticks and the risks of TBD in humans and domestic animals in Mexico, an analysis was conducted of the gaps in information on ticks with the purpose of updating the available knowledge of these ectoparasites and adapting the existing diagnostic tools for potential distribution analysis of TBD in wildlife. These tools will help to determine the epidemiological role of wildlife in the human–domestic animal interface in anthropized environments in Mexico.

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