in captivity
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Kegan Romelle Jones ◽  
Gary Wayne Garcia

Abstract The agouti (Dasyprocta leporina) is a rodent that is found in the Neo-tropical region. This animal is hunted for its meat but has recently been reared in captivity as a source of meat protein in rural communities. A 20-month experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of an anthelmintic on the reproductive performance of the agouti (Dasyprocta leporina) reared in captivity. This experiment was conducted in the humid tropics of Trinidad and Tobago. Sixteen animals (15 females, 1 male) placed in each of the two treatment groups in a completely randomized study design. In treatment 1 (T1) animals were given subcutaneous injections of Endovet Ces® (Ivermectin/Praziquantel) at 0.2 mg/kg every three months. Treatment 2 (T2) was the negative control group where animals were not exposed to an anthelmintic. Reproductive data were collected at parturition which included birth weight, litter weight, litter size and gender of offspring. The results showed that there was no statistical difference (p > 0.05) between the treatment groups with respect to birth weight, litter weight, litter size and gender. However, agoutis that were dewormed had a higher birth weight (220.24 g vs 209.1 g) and litter weight (369.8 g vs 343 g). The same values were obtained for the litter size (1.7 vs 1.7) and animals that were dewormed had a higher female offspring to male offspring (2.41:1 vs 1.11:1). This experiment demonstrated that the use of an anthelmintic strategically in the management of captive reared agoutis had no statistical effect (p > 0.05) on the reproductive parameters. Therefore, these animals can be kept in captive conditions without being dewormed and produce efficiently with proper feeding and housing management.

2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
H. Reiche ◽  
L. S. L. Hohl ◽  
O. Rocha-Barbosa

Abstract Amphisbaenians are fossorial reptiles that have a cylindrical and elongated body covered with scales arranged in rings, and are all apodal, except for the three species of the genus Bipes. The amphisbaenian diet consists of a variety of invertebrates and small vertebrates. As these animals live underground, many aspects of their natural history are difficult to study. Most feeding studies of amphisbaenians have focused on the composition of the diet and feeding ecology, and the data available on feeding behavior are based on precursory observations. The present study describes the food capture behavior of Leposternon microcephalum Wagler, 1824 in captivity. In this experiment we used non-live bait (moist cat food), which was placed near a burrow opening, on the surface of the substrate. Three animals were monitored visually and filmed using cellphone cameras deployed at fixed points, to capture images from the dorsal and lateral perspectives of the study subjects. Two principal types of behavior were observed: the capture of food and defense mechanisms. The strategies used to capture the food were similar to those observed in other fossorial species. Although the backward movement has already been observed and described, we were able to record this movement being used as an escape strategy. These findings enrich our knowledge on different aspects of the natural history of the amphisbaenians.

2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 895-900
Washington Luiz Assunção Pereira ◽  
Marcella Katheryne Marques Berna ◽  
Antônio Messias Costa ◽  
Aline Amaral Imbeloni ◽  

Information on neoplasms in animals has increased over time, and these studies have helped in the management of reptiles that present tumors. There are similar incidences of neoplasms between homeothermic and ectothermic animals. Furthermore, there are usually more than one type of tumor present. The treatment of wild animals afflicted with cancer usually happens late, contributing to their low life expectancy. Thus, the present work aimed to describe an infrequent case of oral tumor in Boa constrictor. The tumor was observed in an adult female animal, raised in an exhibition area of the Zoo and Botanical Park of the Emílio Goeldi Museum, located in Belém, State of Pará, Brazil. Macroscopically, the mass presented morphologically with an irregular, multilobulated surface, color that varied from white to grey, hemorrhagic areas and its extension was 3.9 x 2.3 cm. The neoplasm was surgically removed, and the histopathological evaluation revealed an adenocarcinoma, with a papillary-like development pattern and a moderate degree of differentiation. The animal died three months after diagnosis due to starvation. The necropsy showed that there was tumor recrudescence and no metastases. Given the impossibility of surgical removal with a greater margin of safety, and adjuvant therapies, this condition favoured the resurgence of the neoplasm. This compromised the animal’s ability to feed and consequently lead to death. Malignant neoplasms in reptiles may have an unfavourable clinical evolution for the maintenance of life, requiring specific therapeutic care such as chemotherapy. Scientific contributions on tumors in these animals are essential for the medical treatment of wild animals, and the conservation of wild species.

Diversity ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 54
Patricia Escalante-Pliego ◽  
Noemí Matías-Ferrer ◽  
Patricia Rosas-Escobar ◽  
Gabriela Lara-Martínez ◽  
Karol Sepúlveda-González ◽  

Given the interest in the conservation of the Mesoamerican scarlet macaw (Ara macao cyanoptera), the Xcaret Park formed an initial reproductive population about 30 years ago, which has progressively grown to a considerable population in captivity. In this work, we focus on the evaluation of the genetic diversity of the captive population, taking two groups into account: its founding (49) and the current breeding individuals (166). The genetic analysis consisted of genotyping six nuclear microsatellite loci that are characterized by their high variability. Tests for all loci revealed a Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium in four loci of the founders and in no loci of the breeding groups. The results showed that the genetic variation in the Xcaret population was relatively high (founders He = 0.715 SE = 0.074, breeding pairs He = 0.763 SE = 0.050), with an average polymorphism of 7.5 (4–10) alleles per locus in founders and 8.3 (4–14) in breeding pairs. No significant differences in the evaluated genetic diversity indexes were found between both groups. This indicates that the genetic variability in Xcaret has been maintained, probably due to the high number of pairs and the reproductive management strategy. Bayesian analysis revealed five different genetic lineages present in different proportions in the founders and in the breeding pairs, but no population structure was observed between founders and breeding individuals. The analyzed captive individuals showed levels of genetic diversity comparable to reported values from Ara macao wild populations. These data indicate that the captive population has maintained a similar genetic diversity as the metapopulation in the Mayan Forest and is an important resource for reintroduction projects, some of which began more than five years ago and are still underway.

2022 ◽  
Jin-Yong Kim ◽  
Soo Hyung Eo ◽  
Seung-Gu Kang ◽  
Jung Eun Hwang ◽  
Yonggu Yeo ◽  

Abstract Background Hill pigeons (Columba rupestris) are close to local extinction (ca. less than 100 individuals) in South Korea where a variety of conservation management procedures are urgently required. Objective This study was aimed at determining the conservation direction of captive propagation and reintroduction of hill pigeons using genetic information based on mitochondrial DNA. We also evaluated the extent of hybridization between hill pigeons and cohabiting domestic pigeons. Methods We used 51 blood samples of hill pigeons from Goheung (GH), Gurye (GR), and Uiryeong (UR), and domestic pigeons cohabiting with hill pigeon populations. Genetic diversity, pairwise Fst, analysis of molecular variance, and haplotype network analysis were used to examine the genetic structure of hill pigeons. Results Hill pigeons that inhabited South Korea were not genetically distinct from Mongolian and Russian populations and showed relatively low genetic diversity compared with other endangered species in Columbidae. The GR population that exhibited the largest population size showed lower genetic diversity, compared to the other populations, although the pairwise Fst values of the three populations indicated low genetic differentiation. The GH and GR populations were confirmed to lack hybridization, relatively, whereas the UR population was found to exhibit some degrees of hybridization. Conclusion To conserve hill pigeons with low genetic diversity and differentiation in South Korea, the conservation process of captive propagation and reintroduction may require artificial gene flows among genetically verified populations in captivity and wildness. The introduction of foreign individuals from surrounding countries is also considered an alternative strategy for maintaining genetic diversity.

Palmyre H. Boucherie ◽  
Mario Gallego-Abenza ◽  
Jorg J. M. Massen ◽  
Thomas Bugnyar

Dominance hierarchies typically emerge in systems where group members regularly encounter and compete for resources. In birds, the ‘open’ and dynamic structure of foraging groups may prevent the emergence of structured hierarchies, although this assumption have hardly been tested. We report on agonistic data for ravens Corvus corax , collected over two 18-month periods for 183 marked individuals of a wild (fluid) population and 51 birds from six captive (stable) groups. We show that the dominance structure (steep and transitive) in wild foraging groups is strikingly similar to that found in captivity. In the wild, we found that higher ranks are mainly occupied by males, older and more aggressive individuals that also tend to receive fewer aggressions. Exploring the mechanisms sustaining the wild dominance structure, we confirmed that males are more aggressive than females and, with age, tend to receive fewer aggressions than females. Males that are about to leave the foraging groups for some months are less aggressive than newcomers or locals, while newcomers are specifically targeted by aggressions in their first year (as juveniles). Taken together, our results indicate that the socially dynamic conditions ravens face during foraging do not hinder, but provide opportunities for, using (advanced) social cognition. This article is part of the theme issue ‘The centennial of the pecking order: current state and future prospects for the study of dominance hierarchies’.

2022 ◽  
Vol 30 (1) ◽  
pp. 527-546
Kushaal Selvarajah ◽  
Mohd Noor Hisham Mohd Nadzir ◽  
Geetha Annavi

Sambar deer was up-listed from Least Concern to Vulnerable by the IUCN Red list in 2015. The local government has initiated Ex-situ conservation efforts to boost sambar deer numbers in captivity and reintroduce them into the wild. The reproductive success of sambar deer and their welfare management practices in captivity are important components for effective captive breeding programs. However, there has been a lack of study on sambar deer in recent years, especially about their behavior in captivity. This study aimed to identify environmental factors that may influence the behavior of the captive sambar. Three captive sites were selected and observed for an average of 40 days at each site (minimum 37 days to maximum 43 days, 6 hours/day). A Generalized Linear Model was used to determine the correlation between social behavior and extrinsic parameters. ‘Captive sites’ showed the strongest correlation in behavioral variability environmental settings, such as the size of the enclosure, could force the deer to spend more time in a herd, which increases the frequency in grooming, which was recorded to be highest in Zoo Negara compared to other captive sites. Time of day also significantly influenced certain behavior skewed towards morning slots. It could be due to an adaptive behavior to the feeding time in the captive sites being often in the morning, which caused the deer to rest towards the afternoon. A suggestion would be to create a more erratic feeding schedule to ensure that the deer adapt to behavior variations. An extensive study needs to be done on sambar deer to pinpoint the specifics and better understand these possible influential factors in their behavior.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 19-31
Valentín Zárate ◽  
Jesica R. Mufari ◽  
Lucía G. Abalos Luna ◽  
Daniel P. Villarreal ◽  
Juan M. Busso

Very little information is available to zoo managers on the nutritional preferences of the lesser anteater, a highly specialized predator. By studying lesser anteater feeding behavior, we expect to contribute to improved management decisions and individual welfare experiences. We studied the response of zoo-housed lesser anteaters (n = 7) to feeders with live ants (Acromyrmex lundi) and termites (Cortaritermes fulviceps), and we also evaluated the nutritional values of these prey. We individually evaluated each lesser anteater (3 sessions), recording activities by camera. We ground insect samples into a coarse meal and evaluated in vitro biochemical parameters (humidity, lipids proteins, ash, and carbohydrates). Lesser anteaters spent more time with termites than with ants and consumed more termites. Ant meal presented a higher protein and lipid content than termite meal (35.28 ± 0.18% vs. 18.19 ± 0.34% and 16.95 ± 0.13% vs. 6.54 ± 0.31%, respectively), and carbohydrate digestibility was higher in termites. These findings indicate an association between the level of insect consumption and nutritional and digestibility values. This is the first exploration of lesser anteater responses to the presence of social insects in feeders and may serve to guide the study of food preferences in captivity.

2022 ◽  
Luca Lacitignola ◽  
Pietro Laricchiuta ◽  
Annarita Imperante ◽  
Claudia Acquafredda ◽  
Marzia Stabile ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Brian K. Trevelline ◽  
Andrew H. Moeller

In mammals, the composition of the gut microbiota is associated with host phylogenetic history, and host-lineage specific microbiota have been shown, in some cases, to contribute to fitness-related traits of their hosts. However, in primates, captivity can disrupt the native microbiota through a process of humanization in which captive hosts acquire gut microbiota constituents found in humans. Despite the potential importance of this process for the health of captive hosts, the degree to which captivity humanizes the gut microbiota of other mammalian taxa has not been explored. Here, we analyzed hundreds of published gut microbiota profiles generated from wild and captive hosts spanning seven mammalian families to investigate the extent of humanization of the gut microbiota in captivity across the mammalian phylogeny. Comparisons of these hosts revealed compositional convergence between captive mammal and human gut microbiota in the majority of mammalian families examined. This convergence was driven by a diversity of microbial lineages, including members of the Archaea, Clostridium, and Bacteroides. However, the gut microbiota of two families—Giraffidae and Bovidae—were remarkably robust to humanization in captivity, showing no evidence of gut microbiota acquisition from humans relative to their wild confamiliars. These results demonstrate that humanization of the gut microbiota is widespread in captive mammals, but that certain mammalian lineages are resistant to colonization by human-associated gut bacteria.

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