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2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 55-69
M. G. Girich ◽  
A. D. Levashenko

The OECD and the FATF highlight the problem of money laundering via international trade with a view to disguising illicit gains and moving value through the use of trade transactions. For example, inaccurate invoices may be used, which, according to the Global Financial Integrity estimates, resulted in $0,9 trillion to $1,7 trillion losses in 148 countries in 2006–2015. In Russia, the authorities attempt to reduce the risks of money laundering within the framework of international trade through the use of currency regulation, while foreign countries are using a risk-based approach by developing the “red flags” systems that allow financial intelligence agencies, customs and other state bodies as well as subjects of financial market (through which the payments for export-import transactions are made) and the companies participating in international trade themselves to determine whether a transaction entails risks of money laundering. In addition, internal and international inter-agency exchange of information related to money laundering in international trade, including trade and financial data, is being developed.

2022 ◽  
Tat'yana Alent'eva ◽  
Mariya Filimonova

The textbook examines the processes of development of American civilization in the XIX century, assesses various aspects of the life and activities of the American state. Special attention is paid to the most important periods, such as "Jeffersonian democracy", "the era of good consent", "Jacksonian democracy", "the brewing of inevitable conflict", the Civil War and Reconstruction. The political activities of American presidents, various parties and movements are analyzed. A separate chapter is devoted to the development of law in the XIX century . It is intended for students of historical faculties studying the academic discipline "History of regions (on the example of the USA)", students of historical and law faculties studying the history of the USA in Modern times, the history of international relations, the development of the state and law of this country, the constitutional law of foreign countries, as well as for students of cultural studies, students of foreign language faculties and anyone interested in the history of the USA.

Economies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 21
Mariusz Urbański

The purpose of this research was to conduct a comparison of the push and pull factors affecting migration between Poland and Romania. The study aimed to find out which among the push and pull factors have a greater effect overall and individually on the migration activities. The study was conducted using primary data collected from migrants in both countries using a structured questionnaire. There were data from 298 and 288 surveys for Poland and Romania, respectively. The push and pull migration framework was applied to guide the study. The model suitability was confirmed satisfactory on validity, reliability and factor analysis. The hypothesis was analyzed and evaluated using multiple regression analysis. The findings of the study indicated that pull factors have a greater influence on migration in these two countries as compared to the push factors. Five out of six (economic, political and social in Poland and economic and political in Romania) pull factors were found significant as compared to two (social in Poland and in Romania) out of six push factors. Pull economic factors were significant determinants of migration in all the countries. Pull political factors were found to have the highest effect in both countries, because they influenced migrants in Romania. Economic factors are the major factors that influence migration, including the hope of finding better jobs and better life in the foreign countries, and these factors should be addressed in the effort to reduce migration. In addition, political issues such as unfair legal system, violent conflicts, underdevelopment, poverty, political instability and corruption should be addressed to control the issue of migration.

Lukas Isenberg ◽  
Susanne Kreiter ◽  
Roland Helm ◽  
Christian Schmitz

AbstractThe use of marketing and sales control mechanisms is a core management activity for multinational corporations. However, research on controlling marketing and sales of international subsidiaries is scarce. In particular, the influence of a firm’s economic and cultural environment on different control mechanisms has not been thoroughly examined yet. In attempting to fill these gaps, we build on Jaworski’s (J Mark 52:23–39, 1988) framework from a subsidiary perspective on marketing and sales controls, applied by the headquarters of medium-sized industrial goods corporations. Through a rival model analysis, we determine the impact of the local environmental context on marketing and sales control types exerted by headquarters on subsidiaries located in foreign countries. To analyze the proposed model, this study deploys survey data of 184 subsidiaries from different industries and different European countries with headquarters in Switzerland. The results show that while environmental factors influence the marketing and sales control configurations, the effectiveness of marketing and sales controls is not contingent on environmental factors.

2022 ◽  
Vol 67 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-10
Liying Li

This autobiography documents the life and accomplishments of Li Liying. Born into a poor family in China, she eventually became director of Guangdong Entomological Institute. After graduating middle school (1949), she was admitted to the Agronomy Faculty at Beijing Agricultural University but was shortly after redirected by the Chinese Government to Timiryazev Agricultural Academy, Moscow, Russia. The last year of her study at Timiryazev Agricultural Academy was a pivotal experience. She had the opportunity to conduct fieldwork on cotton pest control and became aware of the harmful practice of aerially spraying highly toxic organophosphates with workers present. She decided to dedicate herself to finding safer alternatives and became a leader in the development of mass-rearing techniques for insects beneficial to agriculture. She traveled to laboratories in several foreign countries to foster collaboration and exchange of ideas among colleagues. She is recognized for her service to entomological societies, teaching at universities, and love of entomology.

Mario Martínez-Avella ◽  
Ángela Alarcón-León ◽  
Giovanni Hernández-Salazar

The relation between the cultural distance and the firm’s entry modes to foreign countries has received considerable research attention, and studies have shown the role of experience in this relation. However, previous research has only studied direct experience and neglected the study of vicarious experience. Using a sample of 355 foreign companies that entered Colombia (2007–2017), this research reviews the effect of cultural distance on entry mode choice (e.g., Acquisition vs. Greenfield) and examines the moderating role of vicarious experience in this relationship. The study concludes that the cultural distance positively affects the entry probability by acquisition, and the vicarious experience negatively affects this relationship in four cultural dimensions. If firms have vicarious experience, the effect of cultural distance on the acquisition probability is less and positively influences the entry probability by Greenfield when the cultural distance is in power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism, and long-term orientation. Nevertheless, vicarious experience has the opposite effect when considering the masculinity dimension. Consequently, we highlight the importance of considering vicarious experience as a different variable of direct experience and the individual effects of cultural distance dimensions for cross-cultural studies in management.


This article is about the use of Myth in Tamil literature. The stories and philosophical sayings of the inevitable god are termed as “MYTH". The antiquity of language is based on the diversity of myths used in that language. Myth is considered the spirit of the literature. In foreign countries, myth plays a unique and professional role. The author applies the idea of myth to make his work efficient. The beliefs of the end of the world and thoughts beyond the reach of human beings are seen in myths. The roots of myth have been gowned dup from the ancient Tamil literature to revival poetry of the 20th century. Myth is even present in secular literature works as the Sangam literature Heritage period went to its peak. Myth played a diverse role in Tamil literature. Library research was made for this study and an explanatory method was used to write this article. The findings of this article are Culture and Tradition of Race are influencing myth and how the myth was seen in the literature. This study summarizes the uses of myths and ideology in Tamil literature.

Zara Ahmed

This paper researches the way in which marriage as a concept has evolved in Pakistani culture. Pakistani individuals are studied and researched within Pakistan, as well as outside in foreign countries. The customary arranged marriage situation is studied, as well as its effects on the life of both the husband and wife. We also look at the evolution and how change has brought love marriages or arranged love marriages have begun to arise within Pakistani culture. The effect of love marriages on Pakistani culture and its connection to violence has also been studied. Ultimately, Pakistani culture regarding marriage has been evolving over time and in the future, we hope to see even more change which includes an acceptance for customs and traditions that are new.

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