Quality Traits
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yu Zhou ◽  
Juan Huang ◽  
Zebi Li ◽  
Yu Wu ◽  
Jijun Zhang ◽  

Ratooning is the cultivation practice of two harvests in one cropping season by producing a second crop from the original stubble, which could provide higher resource use efficiency and economic benefit compared with direct sown crops. Nitrogen (N) fertilizer and planting density (D) play a vital role in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) production; however, limited information is available on the effects on yield and quality of the sorghum-ratoon system. To address this question, field experiments were conducted with three N treatments (120 kg N ha–1, N1; 180 kg N ha–1, N2; and 255 kg N ha–1, N3) and three D treatments (82,500 plant ha–1, D1; 105,000 plant ha–1, D2; and 127,500 plant ha–1, D3). The yield of the main crop was significantly higher than that of the ratoon crop. Increasing N could increase the yield and yield attributes of both main and ratoon crops, and the effect on the ratoon crop was greater than the main crop. With increasing D, the grain yield of both main and ratoon crops increased, though 1,000-grain weight and grain weight per ear decreased. The sorghum grain of the ratoon crop contained higher starch, protein, and tannin contents but lower fat content, indicating a better quality for liquor production. The quality traits were significantly affected by N and D, but the differences between treatments were smaller than that between the main and ratoon crop. Our results indicated that increasing the yield of ratoon crops could obtain a high yield and quality of the sorghum-ratoon system. It was recommended that 120 kg N ha–1 with 127,500 plant ha–1 for the main crop and a small amount of N be top-dressed in three new buds left on stubble in each hill for the ratoon crop.

Horticulturae ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 64
Andruța E. Mureșan ◽  
Adriana F. Sestras ◽  
Mădălina Militaru ◽  
Adriana Păucean ◽  
Anda E. Tanislav ◽  

The large number of cultivars belonging to the cultivated apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) reflects an extremely wide range of variability, including for fruit quality traits. To evaluate some characteristics of fruit quality, 22 apple genotypes were selected from a collection of germplasms containing more than 600 accessions, based on different considerations, including the use of fruits (dessert, cooking, processing, juice, cider, multipurpose). The mean water content of the studied apple genotypes was 85.05%, with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 2.74%; the mean ash content was 2.32% with a CV of 22.1%, and the mean total soluble solids was 16.22% with a CV of 17.78%, indicating a relatively small difference between genotypes for these indices. On the contrary, relatively large differences were registered between genotypes for fruit weight, volume, and titratable acidity with means of 119.52 g, 155 mL, and 0.55% malic acid, and CVs of 35.17%, 34.58%, and 54.3%, respectively. The results showed that peel hardness varied between 3.80 and 13.69 N, the toughness between 0.2 and 1.07 mm, the flesh hardness between 0.97 and 4.76 N, and the hardness work between 6.88 and 27.84 mJ. The current study can emphasize the possibility of choosing the appropriate apple cultivars to cross in the breeding process and how future strategies can help apple breeders select breeding parents, which are essential key steps when breeding new apple cultivars. In addition, multivariate analysis has proven to be a useful tool in assessing the relationships between Malus genetic resources.

Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 153
Mohamed M. El-Mogy ◽  
Mohamed A. M. Atia ◽  
Faten Dhawi ◽  
Ahmed S. Fouad ◽  
Eslam S. A. Bendary ◽  

This study aims to predict the behavior of different tomato rootstocks under drought stress conditions. SCoT and CDDP analyses were employed to characterize the genetic relatedness among a commercial drought-sensitive tomato hybrid (cv. Bark) and four wild tomato accessions (LA2711, LA1995, LA3845, and LA4285) known for their tolerance to adverse conditions. The Bark plants were grafted onto the aforementioned wild accessions and self-grafted as control, and then the behavior of all graft unions was followed under normal and drought stress conditions. Our results showed a general genotype-dependent better growth and yield of heterografts than autografts under all growth conditions. Furthermore, clustering analysis based on growth, yield quantity and quality traits, and the leaf content of minerals, ABA, GA3, and proline, in addition to the activity of APX, POD, and DHAR reflected the same grouping pattern of the studied rootstocks exhibited by SCoT and CDDP. The identical grouping pattern supports the utilization of SCoT and CDDP as a robust screening tool helpful to predict the physiological and agronomical behavior of grafting on different tomato rootstocks. Furthermore, grafting could be a cost-efficient alternative method to improve drought tolerance in sensitive tomato genotypes.

S. Saravanan ◽  
R. Sushmitha ◽  
M. Arumugam Pillai

Background: Forty two crosses involving seven lines and six testers were studied for economically important yield contributing and quality traits to test the magnitude of genetic components and diversity. Formulation of efficient breeding methodology is possible by targeting the genetic architecture of genotypes. Methods: The systematic breeding programme involves generating genetic variability besides sorting off the diverse genotypes and utilizing the extreme phenotypes for producing stable varieties. Genetic diversity helps to achieve the greater continuum of genetic variability in segregating populations to reach for ideal selection of progenies. Heritability and genetic advance are other important selection parameters for retrieving better genotype through selection. Result: Significant differences in analysis of variance were recorded for all the traits. The results signified the greater value of phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) than genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) and environment coefficient of variation (ECV) pertaining to the test traits studied. Among agronomical characters, the GCV and PCV were reported to be in higher estimate for number of productive tillers per plant, number of grains per panicle, single plant yield and among quality characters for gelatinization temperature (GT), length breadth (LB) ratio, gel consistency and amylose content. The present study adverted that among the yield and grain quality characters viz., number of productive tillers, number of grains per panicle, single plant yield, plant height, 1000 grain weight, milling percentage and grain length could be easily inherited to next generation due to high heritability. Whereas breadth elongation ratio and linear elongation ratio are influenced by environmental factors due to their low heritability. Further, the number of productive tillers, number of grains per panicle, single plant yield, plant height, Gel consistency and amylose content exhibited higher PCV, GCV, heritability and genetic advance and hence direct selection can be made for target traits.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Meki S. Muktar ◽  
Ermias Habte ◽  
Abel Teshome ◽  
Yilikal Assefa ◽  
Alemayehu T. Negawo ◽  

Napier grass is the most important perennial tropical grass native to Sub-Saharan Africa and widely grown in tropical and subtropical regions around the world, primarily as a forage crop for animal feed, but with potential as an energy crop and in a wide range of other areas. Genomic resources have recently been developed for Napier grass that need to be deployed for genetic improvement and molecular dissection of important agro-morphological and feed quality traits. From a diverse set of Napier grass genotypes assembled from two independent collections, a subset of 84 genotypes (although a small population size, the genotypes were selected to best represent the genetic diversity of the collections) were selected and evaluated for 2 years in dry (DS) and wet (WS) seasons under three soil moisture conditions: moderate water stress in DS (DS-MWS); severe water stress in DS (DS-SWS) and, under rainfed (RF) conditions in WS (WS-RF). Data for agro-morphological and feed quality traits, adjusted for the spatial heterogeneity in the experimental blocks, were collected over a 2-year period from 2018 to 2020. A total of 135,706 molecular markers were filtered, after removing markers with missing values >10% and a minor allele frequency (MAF) <5%, from the high-density genome-wide markers generated previously using the genotyping by sequencing (GBS) method of the DArTseq platform. A genome-wide association study (GWAS), using two different mixed linear model algorithms implemented in the GAPIT R package, identified more than 35 QTL regions and markers associated with agronomic, morphological, and water-use efficiency traits. QTL regions governing purple pigmentation and feed quality traits were also identified. The identified markers will be useful in the genetic improvement of Napier grass through the application of marker-assisted selection and for further characterization and map-based cloning of the QTLs.

2022 ◽  
Tingting Ma ◽  
Yan Liu ◽  
Xingyu Wei ◽  
Qianjin Xue ◽  
Zhiwei Zheng ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Vincent Colas ◽  
Philippe Barre ◽  
Frederik van Parijs ◽  
Lukas Wolters ◽  
Yannick Quitté ◽  

Perennial ryegrass is an important forage crop in dairy farming, either for grazing or haying purposes. To further optimise the forage use, this study focused on understanding forage digestibility in the two most important cuts of perennial ryegrass, the spring cut at heading and the autumn cut. In a highly diverse collection of 592 Lolium perenne genotypes, the organic matter digestibility (OMD) and underlying traits such as cell wall digestibility (NDFD) and cell wall components (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) were investigated for 2 years. A high genotype × season interaction was found for OMD and NDFD, indicating differences in genetic control of these forage quality traits in spring versus autumn. OMD could be explained by both the quantity of cell wall content (NDF) and the quality of the cell wall content (NDFD). The variability in NDFD in spring was mainly explained by differences in hemicellulose. A 1% increase of the hemicellulose content in the cell wall (HC.NDF) resulted in an increase of 0.81% of NDFD. In autumn, it was mainly explained by the lignin content in the cell wall (ADL.NDF). A 0.1% decrease of ADL.NDF resulted in an increase of 0.41% of NDFD. The seasonal traits were highly heritable and showed a higher variation in autumn versus spring, indicating the potential to select for forage quality in the autumn cut. In a candidate gene association mapping approach, in which 503 genes involved in cell wall biogenesis, plant architecture, and phytohormone biosynthesis and signalling, identified significant quantitative trait loci (QTLs) which could explain from 29 to 52% of the phenotypic variance in the forage quality traits OMD and NDFD, with small effects of each marker taken individually (ranging from 1 to 7%). No identical QTLs were identified between seasons, but within a season, some QTLs were in common between digestibility traits and cell wall composition traits confirming the importance of hemicellulose concentration for spring digestibility and lignin concentration in NDF for autumn digestibility.

Ryan C. Graebner ◽  
Kathleen Haynes ◽  
Brian A. Charlton ◽  
Solomon Yilma ◽  
Vidyasagar Sathuvalli

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