Background: Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is one of the oil and cash crops in Vietnam. However, owing to the lack of appropriate management practices, the production and the area under cultivation of peanut have remained low. Mulches are the key factors contributing to promoting crop development and early harvest and increasing yields.
Methods: The experiment consisted of three mulch treatments, viz., plastic mulch, straw mulch and no-mulch control. All the treatments were replicated thrice in a complete randomized block design.
Result: In the conditions of mulch, the plant growth parameters (germination rate, growing time, plant height, number of branches per plant), leaf area index, the number of nodules per plant, dry matter accumulation, yield components and yield of peanut was much higher than that of no-mulch control. Among the mulches, plastic mulch was found superior to straw mulch in the pod yields and water-use efficiency and moisture conservation, thereby can be considered as a reliable practice for increasing the productivity of peanut on the coastal sandy land in Nghe An province, Vietnam.
Background: In north-eastern Thailand, sugarcane is planted normally in late rainy season wherein the plants may experience drought stress during its early growth stage in dry season and waterlogging stress during late growth stage at peak of rainy season. Hence, the objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of soil application alone and soil combined with foliar application of nutrients on growth, yield and sugar quality of sugarcane grown under rainfed conditions. Methods: The field experiment was conducted during November 2016 to December 2017. A split-plot design with three replications was laid out. The two sugarcane cultivars (KK3, K93-219) were assigned as main plots. The fertilizer application methods were assigned as sub-plots that comprised of four treatments: (1) soil applied NPK, (2) soil NPK + foliar N and K applied at 90 days after planting (DAP), (3) soil NPK + foliar N and K applied at 210 DAP and (4) soil NPK + foliar N and K applied at 90 and 210 DAP.
Result: The soil NPK + foliar N and K applied at 90 and 210 DAP improved yield components and cane yield. The cultivar K93-219 produced significantly higher cane yield than KK3. The fertilizer application methods and cultivars had no significant effect on sugar quality such as brix (%), purity (%), polarity (%), fiber (%) and commercial cane sugar (CCS-%).
Background: The hormonal up-regulation and down-regulation in recalcitrant seeds, on the other hand, has received little research. We tested fou plant growth regulators from distinct families of phytohormones at the same time to better understand their differential input from maternal tissues to growing Syzygium cumini seeds.
Methods: During April-June 2020, seeds were collected in their native habitats in the Western Ghats. Seeds were chosen at random from each treatment. The embryonic tissues of seeds were chopped up and frozen for LC-MS/MS hormonal profiling.
Result: Except for ABA, the dynamics of key plant hormones in this recalcitrant seed were identical to that of desiccation-tolerant orthodox seeds. When compared to other conventional seeds, SA was shown to accumulate at an unusually high level in mature embryonic tissues, demonstrating the highly hydrated seed’s defense mechanism against fungal attack following seed shedding.
Background: Chickpea wilt complex caused by several soil-borne pathogens is the major yield-reducing malady worldwide. Biological control is one of the best, low-cost and ecologically sustainable method for managing plant diseases caused by soil-borne pathogens.
Methods: In this present investigation Panchagavya and Trichoderma spp. were evaluated by following poisoned food technique and dual culture technique against wilt complex causing pathogens i.e. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri, Fusarium solani and Macrophomina phaseolina. Result: Among the different isolates of Trichoderma spp. evaluated, Trichoderma viride (AAU isolate) was highly antagonistic to F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceri (52.78%) and F. solani (65.37%) whereas, Trichoderma asperellum (AAU isolate) was highly antagonistic to M. phaseolina (65.93%). Panchagavya at the highest concentration (50%) showed significantly higher efficacy (80.74, 66.62 and 49.67%) in inhibiting the mycelial growth of all three pathogens and at the lowest concentration it was moderately effective.
Background: Commercial cultivation of bitter gourd is affected by biotic stresses like mosaic disease, fusarium wilt and root-knot nematode as well as abiotic stress like drought. Grafting with resistant rootstocks can be a tool to control these problems. In vegetable production, grafting is exploited commercially in many parts of the world. The cultivated area of grafted solanaceae and cucubitaceae plants has increased tremendously in recent years because of the advantages of grafted plants. Commercial use of vegetable grafting is a relatively recent innovation in India and scientific information on grafting in bittergourd is meager. In this context, identification of suitable rootstocks and standardization of grafting techniques that do not have adverse effect on yield and fruit quality not only lay foundation for further evaluation on tolerance to different biotic and abiotic stresses but also enhance the area and production of bitter gourd especially in sustainable production systems.
Methods: Grafting in bitter gourd was carried out with three grafting methods such as hole insertion grafting, one cotyledon grafting and cleft grafting using growth regulators viz., alar and CCC to control height of rootstocks in order to identify suitable method, growth regulator and its concentration. The grafting experiment was done independently to four cucurbitaceous rootstocks viz., sponge gourd, pumpkin, bottle gourd and bitter gourd using bittergourd var. Preethi as scion. Height and diameter of the rootstocks before grafting were recorded and then the growth regulators alar and CCC each at 10 mgL-1 and 50 mgL-1 along with distilled water as control were sprayed on rootstocks in order to prevent the lodging of the root stocks and then grafted using different methods. Days taken for graft union and percentage success were also evaluated after grafting.
Result: Our study of grafting bitter gourd scion into four cucurbitaceous rootstocks utilizing three methods and two growth regulators at two different concentration along with control exhibited significant difference in graft success among the methods as well as concentration of growth regulator in all four experiments. This work can be further utilized for imparting resistance against abiotic and biotic stresses in bitter gourd by selecting suitable rootstocks.
Background: The study of the moisture balance can be used to suppose the plants water requirement and the plants water use efficiency. The moisture balance influenced by climate factor, therefore climate change can affect the moisture balance especially in rainfed. Therefore, an effort is needed to manage soil moisture in rainfed as a climate change mitigation measure: soil and water conservation. This study aimed to determine the influence of soil and water conservation on the moisture balance in the coffee root zone. Methods: This study was conducted at people’s coffee plantation of Argotirto village, Sumbermanjing Wetan District, Malang Regency, located between 8.2411-8.1443 S and 112.4031-112.4634 E. Observation were made on February to November 2020, divided into observations in the wet season, dry seasons and flowering period. The observation plots consisted of terraced plot (P0), terraced + straight silt pit (P1), terraced + L-shaped silt pit (P2) and terrace + biopore (P3). The observation variables were: soil physical characteristics and moisture balance components there were precipitation, percolation, runoff, evapotranspiration and soil moisture storage. Result: At P1, the runoff depth was 80.89% lower and the percolation was 44.22% higher than P0. The total soil moisture storage at P1 was 20.06% higher than P0 in the dry season, indicating that P1 could increase the period of surplus moisture in the dry season.
Background: Molecular markers are the landmarks on DNA that identifies a particular sequence of base pairs coding for a character. SCAR (Sequenced Characterized Amplified Region) markers are proving to be more effective in identification of genotypes as they are PCR based co-dominant markers. In view of plant variety registration under PPV and FRA, 2001 molecular characterization/ identification of the variety is essential to ascertain the trueness of the variety, hence present studies have been planned and executed.
Methods: In present investigation CGMS based chilli hybrid UARChH42 and its parental lines were identified using molecular techniques. A line, B line, R line and hybrid seedlings were used for DNA extraction and characterized on the basis of polymorphism with respect to sterility or fertility by using SCAR markers.
Result: P1 and P2 and coxII-SCAR which are sterility specific markers could amplify A line and hybrid showing a definite band. CRF-SCAR 870 is a fertility specific marker amplified R line and hybrid. Also CMS-SCAR 130 and CMS-SCAR 130/140 were able to identified A line, B line, R line and hybrid. Two of the markers viz. orf-456-SCAR atp6-SCAR and were not able to specify any case of parental lines or hybrid identification. Hybridity of UARChH42 (JCH42) chilli hybrid was determined by any similarity in the banding pattern with any of its parent. This study would help in the fulfillment of the requirements of protection of plant varieties and farmers’ rights authority (PPVFRA), New Delhi for registration purpose.
Background: E-learning is now being used in a variety of industries, including agriculture. The use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) is seen as essential for overcoming the barriers that a developing country faces in all areas and closing the digital divide. Farmers must be prepared with the most recent breakthroughs in ICTs in order to take advantage of new opportunities in the global market.
Methods: By designing an e-learning module and providing farmers with a self-learning framework, the study focuses on the use of ICT instruments in climate-smart horticulture. The psychological factors in this study were investigated using the E-Learning Acceptance Model (ELAM), which was derived from the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). A quantitative survey of 200 farmers were conducted. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to test the research hypotheses.
Result: ELAM has enough predictive ability to explain farmers’ behavioural intention to utilise an e-learning module in a real world. In total, the result supports five ELAM hypotheses. The SEM findings indicate that ELAM is a valid model. In ELAM, partial mediation was also observed.
Background: Forty two crosses involving seven lines and six testers were studied for economically important yield contributing and quality traits to test the magnitude of genetic components and diversity. Formulation of efficient breeding methodology is possible by targeting the genetic architecture of genotypes.
Methods: The systematic breeding programme involves generating genetic variability besides sorting off the diverse genotypes and utilizing the extreme phenotypes for producing stable varieties. Genetic diversity helps to achieve the greater continuum of genetic variability in segregating populations to reach for ideal selection of progenies. Heritability and genetic advance are other important selection parameters for retrieving better genotype through selection.
Result: Significant differences in analysis of variance were recorded for all the traits. The results signified the greater value of phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) than genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) and environment coefficient of variation (ECV) pertaining to the test traits studied. Among agronomical characters, the GCV and PCV were reported to be in higher estimate for number of productive tillers per plant, number of grains per panicle, single plant yield and among quality characters for gelatinization temperature (GT), length breadth (LB) ratio, gel consistency and amylose content. The present study adverted that among the yield and grain quality characters viz., number of productive tillers, number of grains per panicle, single plant yield, plant height, 1000 grain weight, milling percentage and grain length could be easily inherited to next generation due to high heritability. Whereas breadth elongation ratio and linear elongation ratio are influenced by environmental factors due to their low heritability. Further, the number of productive tillers, number of grains per panicle, single plant yield, plant height, Gel consistency and amylose content exhibited higher PCV, GCV, heritability and genetic advance and hence direct selection can be made for target traits.
Background: Nutmeg is a perennial tree spices which is yielding twin spices; present days research thrust is to identify high yielding mother trees. But yield and quality both are equally important due to its wide spread medicinal as well as industrial usage. Methods: The core collection of nutmeg genotypes form different locations of Kerala evaluated for biochemical composition. Seventeen morphologically distinct types of nutmeg were analysed through GC/MS method. The change in volatiles after storage (at 4°C) was also assessed after one year. Result: The range of variation was observed for kernel oil, mace oil, kernel oleoresin, mace oleoresin and fixed oil of kernel. Myristicin, elemecin and sabinene were principal volatile compounds. The identification of distinct nutmeg chemotypes for specific volatile compounds which could be used in commercial cultivation/pharmaceutical application/industrial use. Present study highlights the high and low hallucinogen (myristicine, elemicine and safrole) genotypes along with high sabinene types.