thyroid antibodies
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Rishi Kalia ◽  
Ravi Kalia ◽  
Abdullah El-Naji ◽  
Joshua Musih ◽  
Soham Patel

The benefits of a whole-food, plant-based diet (WFPBD) include, but are not limited to, improvement of cardiovascular health, decreased inflammation, as well as enhanced endocrine system function. We present the case of a 51-year-old pre-diabetic female with a 22-year history of Graves’ disease who reversed her conditions following the ini- tial 28-week WFPBD period. In this time, she was able to reduce her thyroid stimu- lating immunoglobulin (TSI) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels and discontinue methimazole and cetirizine intake. It was also found that maintaining vitamin D levels are beneficial for promoting a more balanced immune response to help lower thyroid antibodies.

Yasser Aladdin ◽  
Bader Shirah

AbstractHashimoto's encephalopathy is a rare immune-mediated disorder characterized by subacute encephalopathy with elevated thyroid antibodies. Hashimoto's encephalopathy is also known as steroid-responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis. We report a rare presentation of Hashimoto's encephalopathy presenting with acute neuropsychiatric disturbances, rapidly progressive dementia, seizures, and extrapyramidal failure. Neuroimaging revealed multifocal vasculitides of major cerebral vessels that support the autoimmune vasculitic theory as the underlying pathogenesis for Hashimoto's encephalopathy. Unfortunately, permanent irreversible cerebral damage has already ensued before her presentation to our center, which rendered steroid therapy ineffective. Serological testing for Hashimoto's thyroiditis must be in the investigation of all rapidly progressive dementias as early diagnosis and timely management of autoimmune thyroiditis may salvage sizable and eloquent cerebral tissues. The rarity of the condition should not preclude the investigation of Hashimoto's disease even in the presence of normal levels of thyroid hormones. Delayed diagnosis may result in irreversibly catastrophic encephalopathy in patients who once presented with potentially curable dementia.

Shintaro Iwama ◽  
Tomoko Kobayashi ◽  
Yoshinori Yasuda ◽  
Takayuki Okuji ◽  
Masaaki Ito ◽  

Abstract Background Previous studies showed that although the risk of thyroid dysfunction (thyroid immune-related adverse events [irAEs]) induced by anti-programmed cell death-1 antibodies (PD-1-Ab) was as low as 2–7% in patients negative for anti-thyroid-antibodies (ATAs) at baseline, it was much higher (30–50%) in patients positive for ATAs. However, whether a similar increase occurs with combination therapy using PD-1-Ab plus anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 antibody (CTLA-4-Ab) is unknown. Methods A total of 451 patients with malignancies treated with PD-1-Ab, CTLA-4-Ab, or a combination of PD-1-Ab plus CTLA-4-Ab (PD-1/CTLA-4-Abs) were evaluated for ATAs at baseline and for thyroid function every 6 weeks for 24 weeks after treatment initiation, and then observed until the last clinical visit. Results Of the 451 patients, 51 developed thyroid-irAEs after immunotherapy [41 of 416 (9.9%) treated with PD-1-Ab, 0 of 8 (0%) with CTLA-4-Ab, and 10 of 27 (37.0%) with PD-1/CTLA-4-Abs]. The cumulative incidence of thyroid-irAEs was significantly higher in patients who were positive versus negative for ATAs at baseline after both PD-1-Ab [28/87 (32.2%) vs. 13/329 (4.0%), p < 0.001] and PD-1/CTLA-4-Abs [6/10 (60.0%) vs. 4/17 (23.5%), p < 0.05] treatments. The risk of thyroid-irAEs induced by PD-1/CTLA-4Abs, which was significantly higher than that induced by PD-1-Ab, in patients negative for ATAs at baseline was not statistically different from that induced by PD-1-Ab in patients positive for ATAs at baseline. Conclusions This study showed that the incidence of thyroid-irAEs was high and not negligible after PD-1/CTLA-4-Abs treatment even in patients negative for ATAs at baseline.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
David Tak Wai Lui ◽  
Ivan Fan Ngai Hung ◽  
Chi Ho Lee ◽  
Alan Chun Hong Lee ◽  
Anthony Raymond Tam ◽  

BackgroundSome studies have indicated that interferon (IFN) may be valuable in COVID-19. We aimed to evaluate the impact of short-term IFN on incident thyroid dysfunction and autoimmunity among COVID-19 survivors.MethodsWe included consecutive adults without known thyroid disorder admitted to Queen Mary Hospital for COVID-19 from July 2020 to January 2021 who had thyroid function tests (TFTs) and anti-thyroid antibodies measured both on admission and at three months.Results226 patients were included (median age 55.0 years; 49.6% men): 135 were IFN-treated. There tended to be more abnormal TFTs upon reassessment in IFN-treated patients (8.1% vs 2.2%, p=0.080). 179 patients (65.4% IFN-treated) had a complete reassessment of anti-thyroid antibodies. There were significant increases in titres of both anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO: baseline 29.21 units [IQR: 14.97 – 67.14] vs reassessment 34.30 units [IQR: 18.82 – 94.65], p<0.001) and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (anti-Tg: baseline 8.23 units [IQR: 5.40 – 18.44] vs reassessment 9.14 units [IQR: 6.83 – 17.17], p=0.001) in the IFN-treated group but not IFN-naïve group. IFN treatment (standardised beta 0.245, p=0.001) was independently associated with changes in anti-TPO titre. Of the 143 patients negative for anti-TPO at baseline, 8 became anti-TPO positive upon reassessment (seven IFN-treated; one IFN-naïve). Incident anti-TPO positivity was more likely to be associated with abnormal TFTs upon reassessment (phi 0.188, p=0.025).ConclusionIFN for COVID-19 was associated with modest increases in anti-thyroid antibody titres, and a trend of more incident anti-TPO positivity and abnormal TFTs during convalescence. Our findings suggest that clinicians monitor the thyroid function and anti-thyroid antibodies among IFN-treated COVID-19 survivors, and call for further follow-up studies regarding the clinical significance of these changes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Lianfeng Chen ◽  
Wenlin Wu ◽  
Yang Tian ◽  
Yiru Zeng ◽  
Chi Hou ◽  

Objective: Recent studies found that changes of thyroid antibodies (ATAbs), thyroid hormone, and non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) characterized by thyroid hormone inactivation with low triiodothyronine and high reverse triiodothyronine followed by suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in adult anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis were associated with disease severity. This study aimed to explore thyroid function and ATAbs in pediatric anti-NMDAR encephalitis and their clinical association.Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 51 pediatric cases with anti-NMDAR encephalitis hospitalized in Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center from August 2016 to 2019.Results: A percentage of 52.9% of patients belonged to the ATAb (+) group, with 26 cases both positive for anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (TGAb), and one patient only positive for TPOAb. A percentage of 62.7% of patients had at least one abnormality in terms of FT3, free thyroxin (FT4), or TSH levels. Meanwhile, 45.1% of patients were diagnosed with NTIS. Among 25 cases retested for thyroid function 2 months after the initial test, the respectively decreased FT3 and FT4 in 13 and 11 cases on admission returned to normal or closer normal than before; TPOAb in eight cases and TGAb in 12 cases were changed from positivity to negativity. Compared with onset, the level of TPOAb and TGAb at relapse remained stable or significantly decreased, respectively. Compared with the ATAb (–) group, the ATAb (+) group had an older onset age, a higher ratio of movement disorders, elevated rate of sleep disorders, increased anti-nuclear antibody positivity rate, and higher ratio of more than one course of intravenous immunoglobulin treatment. There were no significant differences between the NTIS and non-NTIS groups in clinical characteristics.Conclusion: Anti-thyroid antibody positivity, abnormality of FT3, FT4, or TSH levels and NTIS are frequent in pediatric anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Thyroid antibody and thyroid hormone abnormalities could be improved through the course of treatment of anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Cases with ATAbs (+) are at older onset ages and more likely to be treated by intravenous immunoglobulin therapy more than once. Unlike adult anti-NMDAR encephalitis, NTIS might not be associated with the clinical characteristics of anti-NMDAR encephalitis in pediatric patients.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Zhongyun Chen ◽  
Yan Zhang ◽  
Lili Cui ◽  
Huijin Huang ◽  
Weibi Chen ◽  

ObjectiveTo investigate the characteristics and prognosis of anti-NMDAR encephalitis with the prevalence of anti-thyroid antibodies (ATAbs).MethodsThe clinical data of anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients admitted to Xuanwu Hospital from January 2012 to August 2018 was prospectively analyzed, and the patients were followed up for 24 months.ResultsA total of 120 patients were enrolled, of which 34.2% (41/120) were positive for ATAbs. The antibodies were more frequent in patients with severe disease compared to the non-severe group (51.4% vs. 25.6%, P=0.008). In addition, prevalence of ATAbs correlated with a higher incidence of disturbed consciousness, autonomic dysfunction, central hypoventilation and mechanical ventilation. The ATAbs-positive patients were also more likely to receive intravenous gamma immunoglobulin and immunosuppressor compared to the ATAbs-negative cases (P=0.006; P=0.035). Although the presence of ATAbs was associated with longer hospital stays and worse prognosis at 6 months (P=0.006; P=0.038), it had no impact on long-term patient prognosis. Positive status of anti-thyroglobulin antibody was an independent risk factor for worse prognosis at 6 months [odds ratio (OR)= 3.907, 95% CI: 1.178-12.958, P=0.026].ConclusionATAbs are prevalent in patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis, especially in severe cases, and correlate with poor prognosis and impaired short-term neurological recovery.

2021 ◽  
Vol 30 (9) ◽  
pp. 0-0
Maria Listewnik ◽  
Piwowarska-Bilska Hanna ◽  
Jasiakiewicz Krystyna ◽  
Birkenfeld Bożena

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
Xinxin Han ◽  
Panpan Zhang ◽  
Jieqiong Li ◽  
Zheng Liu ◽  
Hui Lu ◽  

Abstract Purpose This study aimed to clarify the clinical features of and evaluate the treatment efficacy for IgG4-related thyroiditis. Methods Fourteen IgG4-related thyroiditis patients and 42 randomly matched IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) patients without thyroiditis in a prospective cohort at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) were enrolled from 2011 to 2019. Patient demographics, clinical characteristics, laboratory parameters and treatment efficacy were analysed. Results The prevalence of IgG4-related thyroiditis in our cohort was 2.0%. The average patient age was 42.8 ± 14.9 years, and the male: female ratio was 1:1. Goiter (14, 100.0%), hard thyroid (14, 100.0%) and neck compression (5, 35.7%) were the most prevalent onset symptoms observed. IgG4-related thyroiditis was characterized by asymmetric diffuse thyroid enlargement on ultrasound. Thirteen (92.9%) patients had hypothyroidism, and all patients had significantly elevated circulating thyroid antibodies. Compared with patients without thyroiditis, patients with IgG4-related thyroiditis had less submandibular gland involvement and lacrimal gland involvement and lower serum IgG4 and T-IgE levels (P = 0.019, P = 0.022, P = 0.004, and P = 0.006, respectively) and more single-organ involvement (P = 0.011). After treatment, the symptoms were relieved, while the size of the thyroid gland did not change significantly, and levothyroxine as a supplemental therapy was still needed. Conclusions IgG4-related thyroiditis is a distinct subtype of IgG4-RD characterized by positive circulating thyroid antibodies and a high rate of hypothyroidism. Although compression symptoms could be relieved with treatment, the thyroid size did not change significantly, and the damage to thyroid function was often irreversible.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Ning Huang ◽  
Lixue Chen ◽  
Ying Lian ◽  
Haining Wang ◽  
Rong Li ◽  

Several studies have reported the association between thyroid autoimmunity (TAI) and in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes. However, the findings remain controversial. We performed a large-scale retrospective cohort study to verify the effect of the presence of thyroid antibodies on IVF/ICSI outcomes and fetal growth and to evaluate the association between the types and titers of thyroid antibodies and adverse IVF/ICSI outcomes. A total of 16481 patients with infertility were referred to the Reproductive Center of Peking University Third Hospital for their first IVF/ICSI treatment between January 2018 and June 2019.Patients who sought IVF/ICSI treatment due to tubal or male factors infertility and who achieved fresh embryo transfer were included in our study. Finally, 778 patients with thyroid antibody positivity were selected as the TAI group, and 778 age-matched patients were included in the control group. The number of oocytes retrieved and high-graded embryos and the rates of clinical pregnancy, miscarriage, live birth, and preterm delivery were compared between the TAI and control groups. In addition, subgroup analysis was performed to demonstrate whether different types and titers of thyroid antibodies had different effects on IVF/ICSI outcomes. After adjusting for thyroid function, anti-Müllerian hormone levels, basal follicle stimulating hormone levels, basal estradiol levels and antral follicle count, the number of oocytes retrieved in the TAI group was significantly lower than that in the control group. No significant differences were observed between the two groups in the rates of clinical pregnancy, miscarriage, preterm delivery, live birth, and birth weight in singletons; however, the birth weight in twin pregnancy was significantly lower in the TAI group than in the control group. Subgroup analysis showed no association between the types or titers of thyroid antibodies and adverse IVF/ICSI outcomes. In conclusion, the presence of TAI in patients with infertility did not impair embryo quality or affect pregnancy outcomes, including clinical pregnancy, miscarriage, preterm delivery, and live birth. However, it decreased the number of oocytes retrieved and birth weight in twin pregnancy.

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