antibody titres
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2022 ◽  
Amelie Bonaud ◽  
Laetitia Gargowitsch ◽  
Simon Gilbert ◽  
Elanchezhian Rajan ◽  
Pablo Canales-Herrerias ◽  

Despite the essential role of plasma cells in health and disease, the cellular mechanisms controlling their survival and secretory capacity are still poorly understood. Here, we identified the SNARE Sec22b as a unique and critical regulator of plasma cell maintenance and function. In absence of Sec22b, plasma cells were barely detectable and serum antibody titres were dramatically reduced. Accordingly, Sec22b deficient mice fail to mount a protective immune response. At the mechanistic level, we demonstrated that Sec22b is indispensable for efficient antibody secretion but also for plasma cell fitness through the regulation of the morphology of the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Altogether, our results unveil a critical role for Sec22b-mediated regulation of plasma cell biology through the control of organelle dynamics.

2022 ◽  
Qiao Wang ◽  
Lili Feng ◽  
Haohai Zhang ◽  
Juehua Gao ◽  
Changchuin Mao ◽  

Abstract While mRNA vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 were highly efficacious against severe illness and hospitalization, they seem to be less effective in preventing infection months after vaccination, especially with the Delta variant. Breakthrough infections might be due to higher infectivity of the variants, relaxed protective measures by the general public in “COVID-19 fatigue”, and/or waning immunity post-vaccination. Determining the neutralizing antibody levels in a longitudinal manner may address this issue, but technical complexity of classic assays precludes easy detection and quick answers. We developed a lateral flow immunoassay NeutraXpress™ (commercial name of the test kit by Antagen Diagnostics, Inc.), and tested fingertip blood samples of subjects receiving either Moderna or Pfizer vaccines at various time points. With this device, we confirmed the reported clinical findings that mRNA vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies quickly wane after 3–6 months. Thus, using rapid tests to monitor neutralizing antibody status could help identify individuals at risk, prevent breakthrough infections and guide social behavior to curtail the spread of COVID-19. Statement of Significance. Mounting evidence suggests that mRNA vaccine-induced neutralizing antibody titres against SARS-CoV-2 wane in 3–6 months. Quick identification of fully vaccinated persons with high risk of breakthrough infections is key to control the COVID-19 pandemic. The described LFIA device having a control/sample dual-lane design serves this purpose with successful field-test data.

Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 133
Aslah Mohamad ◽  
Fathin-Amirah Mursidi ◽  
Mohd Zamri-Saad ◽  
Mohammad Noor Azmai Amal ◽  
Salleh Annas ◽  

Vibriosis is one of the most common threats to farmed grouper; thus, substantial efforts are underway to control the disease. This study presents an oral vaccination against multiple Vibrio spp. in a marine fish with double booster immunisation. The Vibrio harveyi strain VH1 vaccine candidate was selected from infected groupers Epinephelus sp. in a local farm and was formalin inactivated and combined with commercial feed at a 10% ratio (v/w). A laboratory vaccination trial was conducted for seventy days. The induction of IgM antibody responses in the serum of Asian seabass Lates calcarifer immunised with the oral Vibrio harveyi strain VH1 was significantly (p < 0.05) increased as early as week one post-primary vaccination. Subsequent administration of the first and second booster for 5 consecutive days, starting on days 14 and 42, respectively, improved the specific antibody level and reached a highly significant (p < 0.05) value at days 35 and 49 before slightly decreasing from day 56 onwards. Antibody titres of the control unvaccinated group remained relatively stable and low throughout the experimental period. At the end of the 70-day vaccination trial, 23 days post final boost, an intraperitoneal challenge with a field strain of Vibrio harveyi, V. alginolyticus, and V. parahaemolyticus was carried out. Our challenge study showed that oral Vibrio harveyi strain VH1 vaccine candidate could induce significant protection, with an RPS of 70–80% against different Vibrio species. Thereafter, a field trial was conducted in a mariculture farm to study the effect of field vaccination using the oral Vibrio harveyi strain VH1 vaccine candidate. A total of 3000 hybrid grouper juveniles were divided into two groups in triplicate. Fish of Group 1 were not vaccinated, while Group 2 were vaccinated with the feed-based vaccine. Vaccinations were carried out on days 0, 14, and 42 via feeding the fish with the vaccine at 4% body weight for 5 consecutive days. At the end of the study period, the fish survival rate was 80% for the vaccinated group, significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the 65% seen in the control unvaccinated group. Furthermore, the vaccinated fish showed significantly (p < 0.05) better growth performances. Therefore, the oral Vibrio vaccine from the inactivated Vibrio harveyi strain VH1 is a potential versatile vaccine candidate that could stimulate good immune responses and confer high protection in both Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer, and farm hybrid grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus × Epinephelus lanceolatus.

2022 ◽  
Malik Peiris ◽  
Samuel Cheng ◽  
Chris Ka Pun Mok ◽  
Yonna Leung ◽  
Susanna Ng ◽  

Abstract Omicron, a novel SARS-CoV-2 variant has emerged and is rapidly becoming the dominant SARS-CoV-2 virus circulating globally. It is important to define reductions in virus neutralizing activity in serum of convalescent or vaccinated individuals to understand potential loss of protection from infection or re-infection. Two doses of BNT162b2 or CoronaVac vaccines provided little 50% plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT50) antibody immunity against the Omicron variant, even at one-month post vaccination. Booster doses with BNT162b2 in those with two doses of either BNT162b2 or CoronaVac provided acceptable neutralizing immunity against Omicron variant at 1-month post-booster dose. However, three doses of BNT162b2 elicited higher levels of PRNT50 antibody to Omicron variant suggesting longer duration of protection. Convalescent from SARS-CoV-2 infection did not have protective PRNT50 antibody levels to Omicron, but a single dose of BNT162b2 vaccine provided protective immunity. Field vaccine-efficacy studies against Omicron variant against different vaccines are urgently needed.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262239
Harriet Ng′ombe ◽  
Michelo Simuyandi ◽  
John Mwaba ◽  
Charlie Chaluma Luchen ◽  
Peter Alabi ◽  

Introduction In cholera endemic areas, the periodicity of cholera outbreaks remains unpredictable, making it difficult to organize preventive efforts. Lack of data on duration of protection conferred by oral cholera vaccines further makes it difficult to determine when to deploy preemptive vaccination. We report on the immunogenicity and waning of immunity to Shanchol™ in Lukanga Swamps. Methods We enrolled a cohort of 223 participants aged between 18 and 65 years old from whom serum samples were collected at baseline, day 28 before administration of the second dose, and consecutively at 6, 12, 24, 30, 36, and 48 months. Vibriocidal antibody titres were measured and expressed as geometric mean titres. Box plots and 95% CI were computed at each visit for both Inaba and Ogawa. Seroconversion was defined as a four fold or greater increase in antibody titres compared to baseline titres. Results Overall, seroconversion against V. cholerae Inaba and Ogawa after 1st dose was 35/134 (26%) and 34/134 (25%) respectively. We observed a statistical difference in seroconversion between the two subgroups of baseline titres (low <80 and high ≥80) for both Inaba (p = 0.02) and Ogawa (p<0.0001). From a baseline of 13.58, anti-Ogawa GMT increased to 21.95 after the first dose, but rapidly waned to 14.52, 13.13, and 12.78 at months 6, 12 and 24 respectively, and then increased to 13.21, 18.67 and 23.65 at months 30, 36 and 48 respectively. A similar trend was observed for anti-Inaba GMT across the same time points. Conclusion We found that Shanchol™ was immunogenic in our study population and that vibriocidal antibodies may not be a good marker for long-term immunity. The observed rise in titres after 36 months suggests natural exposure, and this may be a critical time window opening for natural transmission in an endemic areas. We recommend re-vaccination at this time point in high risk areas.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-1
Dragica Vojinovic ◽  
Jadranka Zutic ◽  
Ana Vasic ◽  
Slobodan Stanojevic ◽  
Ljiljana Spalevic ◽  

Canine leptospirosis is a zoonosis caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Leptospira. Dogs are one of the animal species involved in the cycle of preservation and transmission of leptospirosis in urban areas. Serological testing for the presence of specific antibodies against Leptospira spp. in dogs was continuously performed between 2010 and 2020 in the city of Belgrade. At the request of the owners themselves, other veterinary laboratories or laboratory clinics, 179 blood sera from 179 dogs were examined in the Laboratory for Immunology, Scientific Institute of Veterinary Medicine of Serbia. Blood sera samples from dogs were examined using the standard microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for the presence of specific antibodies against seven different serovars of Leptospira: Pomona, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Grippotyphosa, Sejroe, Canicola, Bataviae, and Australis. The number of seropositive dogs was 17/179 (9.5%). Among all examined sera, the highest titre of seropositive samples was to serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae (10/17, 58.8%), followed by Pomona (4/17, 23.5%), and serovar Canicola (3/17, 17.6%). Specific antibodies for serovars Grippotyphosa, Sejroe, Bataviae and Australis were not detected in any of the dog sera. Cross-reaction (the presence of two or three titres with different values where one of them was higher than others) between different serovars was diagnosed in a low number of sera (n=4), with the following serovars: Icterohaemorrhagiae and Pomona (n=3) and Pomona and Canicola (n=1). The confirmed specific antibody titres for Leptospira spp. were between 1:100 to 1:3000 (5 sera had titres of 1:100, 7 had titres of 1:300, 4 had titres of 1:1000, and 1 serum had a titre 1:3000). Monitoring canine leptospirosis is a useful tool in preventing leptospirosis in Belgrade.

RMD Open ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. e001898
Cristiana Sieiro Santos ◽  
Sara Calleja Antolin ◽  
Clara Moriano Morales ◽  
Juan Garcia Herrero ◽  
Elvira Diez Alvarez ◽  

BackgroundPatients with immune-mediated rheumatic diseases (IMRDs) are commonly treated with immunosuppressors and prone to infections. Recently introduced mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccines have demonstrated extraordinary efficacy across all ages. Immunosuppressed patients were excluded from phase III trials with SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines.AimsTo fully characterise B-cell and T-cell immune responses elicited by mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in patients with rheumatic diseases under immunotherapies, and to identify which drugs reduce vaccine’s immunogenicity.MethodsHumoral, CD4 and CD8 immune responses were investigated in 100 naïve patients with SARS-CoV-2 with selected rheumatic diseases under immunosuppression after a two-dose regimen of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine. Responses were compared with age, gender and disease-matched patients with IMRD not receiving immunosuppressors and with healthy controls.ResultsPatients with IMRD showed decreased seroconversion rates (80% vs 100%, p=0.03) and cellular immune responses (75% vs 100%, p=0.02). Patients on methotrexate achieved seroconversion in 62% of cases and cellular responses in 80% of cases. Abatacept decreased humoral and cellular responses. Rituximab (31% responders) and belimumab (50% responders) showed impaired humoral responses, but cellular responses were often preserved. Antibody titres were reduced with mycophenolate and azathioprine but preserved with leflunomide and anticytokines.ConclusionsPatients with IMRD exhibit impaired SARS-CoV-2 vaccine immunogenicity, variably reduced with immunosuppressors. Among commonly used therapies, abatacept and B-cell depleting therapies show deleterious effects, while anticytokines preserved immunogenicity. The effects of cumulative methotrexate and glucocorticoid doses on immunogenicity should be considered. Humoral and cellular responses are weakly correlated, but CD4 and CD8 tightly correlate. Seroconversion alone might not reflect the vaccine’s immunogenicity.

Garima Agrawal ◽  
Ruchira Agrawal ◽  
Harsh Agrawal ◽  
Hiren Prajapati ◽  
Krishna Yadav ◽  

Background: The study was conducted to determine the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) antibody titre among patients who visited our clinic in Lucknow in order to find out the prevalence of sero positivity and to determine the association between COVID anti-body titre and positivity to different age groups, sex, and religions etc., if any.Methods: Secondary data analysis was conducted at Lucknow's Sitara polyclinic from patients’ data, who had attended the clinic between May 2021 and July 2021 and had universally undergone COVID antibody testing. COVID antibody (including IgG) levels in patients' blood were determined using Roche's commercial "Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV2-cobas e411,601,602 Roche which measure by Eclia (electro chemilusence immunoassay) quantitatively antibodies (including IgG). Patients with titres less than 1 u/ml were deemed seronegative for anti –SARS COVID-2, while those with titres greater than or equal to 1 u/ml were declared seropositive.Results: The overall rate of seropositivity was 84.8%. Around 84.5% males and 85.1% females were seropositive. Seropositivity was higher among 18 to 60 years of age. But there was no significant relation between mean age and seropositivity. Muslims had slightly higher seropositivity (86.0%) as compared to non-Muslims (84.5%). There was no significant difference between age and gender having positive COVID 19 antibody titres. Although the incidence of seropositivity was similar between Muslims and Non-Muslims, the antibody titres were significantly higher in Muslim patients.Conclusions: In this part of central eastern UP, incidence of seropositivity could already be as high as 85%, which is a pointer toward adequate herd immunity. COVID-19 does not differentiate on the basis of age, gender or religious affiliations. However, Muslims were found to have more antibody titres compared to non-Muslims, possibly related to life style, degree of exposure to COVID-19 virus and presence of inherent immunity.

2021 ◽  
Marios Koutsakos ◽  
Wen Shi Lee ◽  
Arnold Reynaldi ◽  
Hyon-Xhi Tan ◽  
Grace Gare ◽  

Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 results in protection from acquisition of infection as well as improved clinical outcomes even if infection occurs, likely reflecting a combination of residual vaccine-elicited immunity and the recall of immunological memory. Here, we define the early kinetics of spike-specific humoral and T cell immunity after vaccination of seropositive individuals, and after breakthrough infection in vaccinated individuals. Intensive and early longitudinal sampling reveals the timing and magnitude of recall, with the phenotypic activation of B cells preceding an increase in neutralizing antibody titres. In breakthrough infections, the delayed kinetics of humoral immune recall provides a mechanism for the lack of early control of viral replication but likely underpins accelerated viral clearance and the protective effects of vaccination against severe COVID-19.

PeerJ ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
pp. e12642
Berta Blanch-Lázaro ◽  
Raoul F.H. Ribot ◽  
Mathew L. Berg ◽  
Soren Alexandersen ◽  
Andrew T.D. Bennett

Background Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) is a circovirus that infects captive and wild psittacine birds, and is of conservation concern. The haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay is used to determine antibody titres against BFDV, and the use of dried blood spots (DBS) on filter paper stored at room temperature has been suggested to be an equally valid technique to the use of frozen serum. However, research on other pathogens has found variable results when investigating the longevity of antibodies stored on DBS at room temperature. Consequently, we aimed to test the temporal stability of antibodies to BFDV in DBS samples stored long-term at room temperature. A further goal was to add to the current knowledge of antibody response to naturally acquired BFDV infection in crimson rosellas (Platycercus elegans). Methods Blood was collected from wild P. elegans in Victoria, Australia, that had been live-trapped (n = 9) or necropsied (n = 11). BFDV virus load data were obtained from blood stored in ethanol by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR); antibody titres were obtained by HI assay from either DBS or serum samples, which had been collected concurrently. All HI assays were performed commercially by the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (VDL) in Charles Sturt University, Australia, who were blind to BFDV blood status. Results HI titres from DBS stored at room temperature declined significantly over time (~80 weeks). By contrast, frozen serum samples assayed after 80 weeks in storage all had high HI titres, only varying up to one dilution step from the initial HI titres obtained from DBS at 3–6 weeks after sampling. Weak HI titres from DBS samples all came back negative when the test was repeated only nine weeks later. Novel high HI titres were reported in P. elegans, and while most birds with high antibody titres had corresponding negative qPCR results, a single subadult presented with high HI titres and virus load simultaneously. Conclusion Detection of antibodies on filter paper stored at room temperature decreases over time, increasing the chances of false negatives in these samples, and in repeated testing of samples with weak HI titres. Consequently, serum should be the preferred sample type to use for seroepidemiological studies on BFDV in parrots and other bird species. When not possible, it may help to store DBS on filter paper at −20 °C or lower. However, prompt testing of DBS samples (e.g., <6 weeks in storage) is recommended pending further research on antibody temporal stability. We also show that P. elegans, especially adults, can produce high antibody titres against BFDV, which may help them resist infection.

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