acid catalysts
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2022 ◽  
Vol 284 ◽  
pp. 117006
Jun Ho Myung ◽  
Jihyun Yoon ◽  
Yong Min Kim ◽  
Jeong-Yun Sun ◽  
Woong-Ryeol Yu

Catalysts ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 91
Jan Drönner ◽  
Peter Hausoul ◽  
Regina Palkovits ◽  
Matthias Eisenacher

The oxidation of cumene and following cleavage of cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) with sulfuric acid (Hock rearrangement) is still, by far, the dominant synthetic route to produce phenol. In 2020, the global phenol market reached a value of 23.3 billion US$ with a projected compound annual growth rate of 3.4% for 2020–2025. From ecological and economical viewpoints, the key step of this process is the cleavage of CHP. One sought-after way to likewise reduce energy consumption and waste production of the process is to substitute sulfuric acid with heterogeneous catalysts. Different types of zeolites, silicon-based clays, heteropoly acids, and ion exchange resins have been investigated and tested in various studies. For every type of these solid acid catalysts, several materials were found that show high yield and selectivity to phenol. In this mini-review, first a brief introduction and overview on the Hock process is given. Next, the mechanism, kinetics, and safety aspects are summarized and discussed. Following, the different types of heterogeneous catalysts and their performance as catalyst in the Hock process are illustrated. Finally, the different approaches to substitute sulfuric acid in the synthetic route to produce phenol are briefly concluded and a short outlook is given.

2022 ◽  
Dongseok Lee ◽  
Sung-Ho Joo ◽  
Dong Ju Shin ◽  
Shun Myung Shin

An environmentally friendly hydrometallurgical process was developed to recover vanadium and cesium selectively from spent sulfuric acid catalysts, and it has high recovery efficiency and economic advantages.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (2) ◽  
pp. 60-68
Primata Mardina ◽  
Hesti Wijayanti ◽  
Abubakar Tuhuloula ◽  
Erita Hijriyati ◽  

The utilization of an appropriate catalyst in biodiesel production depends on the free fatty acid content of vegetable oil as a feedstock. Recently, heterogeneous acid catalysts are widely chosen for biodiesel production. However, these catalysts are non-renewable, highly expensive and low stability. Due to the aforementioned drawbacks of commercial heterogeneous acid catalyst, a number of efforts have been made to develop renewable green solid acid catalysts derived from biomass. Published literature revealed that the application of the biomass derived solid acid catalysts can achieve up to 98% yield of biodiesel. This article focused on corncob as raw material in solid acid catalyst preparation for biodiesel production. The efficient preparation method and performance comparation are discussed here. The corncob derived heterogeneous acid catalysts provides an environmentally friendly and green synthesis for biodiesel production.

2021 ◽  
Pelin Ulukan ◽  
Saron Catak ◽  
Erdal Ertas

Stilbenes substituted with –CN, –OMe and –Br were synthesized using four different Lewis acid catalysts and their reaction efficiencies were compared. In addition to McMurry reagents known in literature, a more familiar and economical catalyst ZnCl2 was used for the first time in our reaction procedures. Furthermore, bromine substituted stilbenes were subjected to Suzuki coupling reactions to append a triphenylamine (TPA) unit, which enhances fluorescence emissions. Solvatochromic properties of synthesized stilbenes were investigated and aggregation caused quenching (ACQ) properties of TPA containing molecules were systematically examined. Optical properties were also theoretically investigated.

Catalysts ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 5
Valeria Nori ◽  
Fabio Pesciaioli ◽  
Arianna Sinibaldi ◽  
Giuliana Giorgianni ◽  
Armando Carlone

In the last two decades, boron-based catalysis has been gaining increasing traction in the field of organic synthesis. The use of halogenated triarylboranes as main group Lewis acid catalysts is an attractive strategy. It has been applied in a growing number of transformations over the years, where they may perform comparably or even better than the gold standard catalysts. This review discusses methods of borane synthesis and cutting-edge boron-based Lewis acid catalysis, focusing especially on tris(pentafluorophenyl)-borane [B(C6F5)3], and other halogenated triarylboranes, highlighting how boron Lewis acids employed as catalysts can unlock a plethora of unprecedented chemical transformations or improve the efficiency of existing reactions.

Life ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 1364
Yuiko Hirata ◽  
Muneyuki Matsuo ◽  
Kensuke Kurihara ◽  
Kentaro Suzuki ◽  
Shigenori Nonaka ◽  

The linkage between the self-reproduction of compartments and the replication of DNA in a compartment is a crucial requirement for cellular life. In our giant vesicle (GV)-based model protocell, this linkage is achieved through the action of a supramolecular catalyst composed of membrane-intruded DNA and amphiphilic acid catalysts ([email protected]) in a GV membrane. In this study, we examined colocalization analysis for the formation of the supramolecular catalyst using a confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscope with high sensitivity and resolution. Red fluorescence spots emitted from DNA tagged with Texas Red (Texas Red-DNA) were observed in a GV membrane stained with phospholipid tagged with BODIPY (BODIPY-HPC). To our knowledge, this is the first direct observation of DNA embedded in a GV-based model protocellular membrane containing cationic lipids. Colocalization analysis based on a histogram of frequencies of “normalized mean deviation product” revealed that the frequencies of positively correlated [lipophilic catalyst tagged with BODIPY (BODIPY-C) and Texas Red-DNA] were significantly higher than those of [BODIPY-HPC and Texas Red-DNA]. This result demonstrates the spontaneous formation of [email protected] in the GV membrane, which serves as a lipo-deoxyribozyme for producing membrane lipids from its precursor.

2021 ◽  
Mohammad Al-Zeer

<p>Recent increased environmental awareness and the stimulus of greener chemistry has driven the rapid development of heterogeneous catalysts, particularly solid acids, for a wide range of organic synthesis applications. Typical homogenous acids suffer drastic drawbacks in terms of their corrosivity, toxicity, and reusability, in addition to their separation that generates large amounts of industrial wastes which exceeds in many cases the amount of the formed products.  Crystalline aluminosilicate inorganic polymers (zeolites) have successfully replaced the typical homogenous Lewis acids in many industrially important applications, the majority of which are in the petrochemical industries, e.g. production of olefins and aromatics. The fine chemical industries, however, are more challenging and still mainly use homogenous catalysts. Typical zeolite catalysts are hindered by their restricted micropores, and the low hydrothermal stability of other mesoporous M-silicates (such as MCM-41) results in structural deformation in aqueous solutions at elevated temperatures. Other highly promising solid catalysts suffer drawbacks of high cost, sophisticated synthesis procedures, and environmental risks from the use of toxic reagents. Thus, there is still a need for new cost-efficient reactive heterogeneous solid catalysts that are also environmentally benign.  This thesis reports the development of amorphous aluminosilicate inorganic polymers (known as geopolymers) as a novel class of heterogeneous solid acid catalysts. These geopolymers can be synthesised with the desired acidity and porosity in a very energy-efficient and simple procedure which does not involve lengthy thermal treatments or the use of costly and sometimes toxic structural directing agents that are required for the synthesis of zeolite or other mesoporous aluminosilicates.  Microporous, mesoporous and hierarchical geopolymer-based catalysts were synthesised from different precursors with high surface area and acidic sites (Bronsted and Lewis) generated within their structure by ion-exchange with ammonium ions followed by thermal treatment, allowing the nature of these acidic sites to be tailored to specific applications. Furthermore, some of the resulting geopolymer catalysts were subjected to post synthetic treatments (demetallation) which provided improved acidity and porosity.  In the first instance, the geopolymer-based catalysts were synthesised from a naturally occurring clay mineral and their catalytic performance was evaluated in the industrially important Beckmann rearrangement of cyclohexanone oxime to 𝜀-caprolactam. High catalytic reactivity and selectivity was achieved over the geopolymer-based catalysts that possess high surface area and weak surface acidities consisting of H-bonded silanol nests and vicinal silanols. The catalytic reactivity of the clay-based geopolymer catalysts was further evaluated in the Friedel-Crafts alkylation of large substituted arenes with benzyl halide as alkylating agent, where typical microporous zeolites show poor reactivity due to diffusional limitations. In this reaction, the thermal treatment was adjusted to generate the required Bronsted and Lewis acidic sites. High reactivity was achieved over several mesoporous geopolymer-based catalysts, with the best performance being observed over a hierarchical geopolymer-based catalyst that exhibits the highest acidity of all these new catalysts.  In another approach, highly reactive geopolymer-based catalysts were synthesised from industrial wastes precursors (fly ash). Several fly ashes were collected from different sources and the influence of their chemical and physical properties on the resulting geopolymers was investigated. These fly ash-based catalysts demonstrated excellent catalytic performance in the alkylation of benzene and substituted benzenes and their active sites were ascribed to a combination of Fe2O3 present in the raw fly ash, together with the Bronsted and Lewis acid sites that were generated within the geopolymers framework by the ion-exchange process followed by thermal treatment.  The use of the fly ash-based catalysts was also demonstrated in another highly demanding catalytic process, the Friedel-Crafts acylation of aromatics. High reactivity and selectivity was achieved in the acylation reactions of anisole and mesitylene using benzoylchloride as the acylating agent. In addition to their excellent catalytic reactivities, the fly ash-based geopolymer catalysts provide a valuable approach of the utilisation of industrial wastes such as fly ash, the vast production of which is becoming a world-wide concern.  The geopolymer-based catalysts developed in this work are reusable without significant loss of reactivity and their catalytic performance is superior to other commonly used solid acid catalysts. The results presented in this thesis demonstrate a great potential for geopolymers as active candidates in the field of heterogeneous catalysis, representing as they do a new class of solid acids with highly desirable features such as catalytic efficiency as well as ecological friendliness, cost effectiveness and ease of synthesis.</p>

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