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Green computing is the system of implementing virtual computing technology that ensure minimum energy consumption and reduces environmental waste while using computer. ICT Based Teaching and Learning (ICT-BTL) tools can be implemented for effective and quality education especially during the pandemic like Covid 19. The researchers collect the data from original sources with their personal experiences and eagerness to understand the concept in depth and the applicability for prospective mankind. The results include positive impacts of developing and implementing the green computing for ICT-BTL tools in smart class rooms. ICT experts and entrepreneurs believe in initiating the virtual classroom operations for the betterment of future and protecting from the faster growing technology era in education and research industry. The present study can be initiated for developing modern classrooms and ICT based education system with 3D presentation, demonstration of practical examples in the realistic manner.

Crystals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 111
Sergey P. Zimin ◽  
Nikolai N. Kolesnikov ◽  
Ildar I. Amirov ◽  
Viktor V. Naumov ◽  
Egor S. Gorlachev ◽  

The nanostructuring of the (100) PbS single crystal surface was studied under varying argon plasma treatment conditions. The initial PbS single crystals were grown by high-pressure vertical zone melting, cut into wafer samples, and polished. Subsequently, the PbS single crystals were treated with inductively coupled argon plasma under varying treatment parameters such as ion energy and sputtering time. Plasma treatment with ions at a minimum energy of 25 eV resulted in the formation of nanotips with heights of 30–50 nm. When the ion energy was increased to 75–200 eV, two types of structures formed on the surface: high submicron cones and arrays of nanostructures with various shapes. In particular, the 120 s plasma treatment formed specific cruciform nanostructures with lateral orthogonal elements oriented in four <100> directions. In contrast, plasma treatment with an ion energy of 75 eV for 180 s led to the formation of submicron quasi-spherical lead structures with diameters of 250–600 nm. The nanostructuring mechanisms included a surface micromasking mechanism with lead formation and the vapor–liquid–solid mechanism, with liquid lead droplets acting as self-forming micromasks and growth catalysts depending on the plasma treatment conditions (sputtering time and rate).

Nanomaterials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 243
Ivana Miháliková ◽  
Matej Pivoluska ◽  
Martin Plesch ◽  
Martin Friák ◽  
Daniel Nagaj ◽  

New approaches into computational quantum chemistry can be developed through the use of quantum computing. While universal, fault-tolerant quantum computers are still not available, and we want to utilize today’s noisy quantum processors. One of their flagship applications is the variational quantum eigensolver (VQE)—an algorithm for calculating the minimum energy of a physical Hamiltonian. In this study, we investigate how various types of errors affect the VQE and how to efficiently use the available resources to produce precise computational results. We utilize a simulator of a noisy quantum device, an exact statevector simulator, and physical quantum hardware to study the VQE algorithm for molecular hydrogen. We find that the optimal method of running the hybrid classical-quantum optimization is to: (i) allow some noise in intermediate energy evaluations, using fewer shots per step and fewer optimization iterations, but ensure a high final readout precision; (ii) emphasize efficient problem encoding and ansatz parametrization; and (iii) run all experiments within a short time-frame, avoiding parameter drift with time. Nevertheless, current publicly available quantum resources are still very noisy and scarce/expensive, and even when using them efficiently, it is quite difficult to perform trustworthy calculations of molecular energies.

2022 ◽  
Boxin Yang ◽  
Haojie Xu ◽  
Qi An

Abstract Energy method is an essential theoretical approach to analyze plastic forming, which is widely used in rolling. An analysis model for vertical rolling process is established according to energy theory. By using global weighted method firstly, the 3D continuous velocity field, strain rate field and the corresponding power functional are proposed. The unknown variables are solved numerically based on the principle of minimum energy. Then, deformation parameters and rolling force are determined. The analysis on specific examples with the width reduction rate of 0.03~0.05 shows that the theoretical prediction value of weighted model is in good agreement with experimental results. Moreover, the effects of several shape and rolling parameters on rolling force, rolling power and edge deformation are studied. Both the width reduction rate and initial slab thickness have significant influences on dog-bone size and rolling force. A wider slab slightly increases the nonuniformity of dog-bone deformation. An increase of vertical roller radius can weaken the edge deformation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 25 (6) ◽  
pp. 741-752
S. S. Girshin ◽  
E. G. Andreeva ◽  
K. V. Khatsevskiy ◽  
V. M. Trotsenko ◽  
N. A. Melnikov ◽  

The aim is to manage the transmitted reactive power in electrical grids using variable capacitor batteries according to the criterion of minimum energy loss under different annual reactive load schedules and different numbers of variable capacitor sections. The main theoretical relations were obtained by the methods of mathematical modelling and integral calculus using the theory of optimal control. The influence of the power and number of sections in a capacitor battery on energy losses in the grid was estimated using computational experiments. Dependencies for energy losses in a capacitor battery, as well as for reducing energy losses in the grid, were obtained. These expressions are valid for linearized load schedules. It is shown that the dependences of energy losses in a capacitor battery and the reduction of losses in the grid on the section power have inflection points and pass through a maximum. The presence of inflection points is associated with a change in the number of capacitor sections operating throughout the year. The presence of a maximum is explained by the fact that, with an increase in the power of the capacitor battery, its operating time decreases under the complete number of variable sections. It is established that the batteries of static capacitors with two variable sections can reduce energy losses when transmitting reactive power by over 90%. For three- and four-section static capacitors, the loss reduction is close to 100%. The reduction in energy losses increases when approaching maximal levels of annual reactive load. Energy losses in electrical grid systems can be reduced by capacitor batteries with no more than three or four variable sections. In most cases, this can be achieved by two-section capacitor batteries.

Mehmet Iscan ◽  
Cuneyt Yilmaz ◽  
Berkem Vural ◽  
Huseyin Eken

Abstract The most common human locomotion problems such as quadriceps weakness, knee osteoarthritis can be healed up by using exoskeleton mechanisms with proper control systems. However, these kinds of abnormalities cannot be easily modeled in terms of engineering perspectives due to a lack of adequate data or unknown dynamics. Also, nature always seeks minimum energy as well as biology which means that the unknown dynamics can be built by using this phenomenon. In this study, a new system dynamic model had been involved in designing a simple single-legged exoskeleton robot mechanism and its control system to assist partially disabled individuals to improve their quality of locomotion. To determine the specific features of the human gait disorders to interpret their nature in the computer-aided simulation environment, knee osteoarthritis and quadriceps weakness, which are the common types of such problems, have been chosen as the main interests for this study. By using the lower limb model with anthropometric data, the simulations of disorders have been realized on MATLAB Simscape environment which enables us to model the entire exoskeleton system with the 3D parts of the human body. A model of a leg with the disorder was able to be obtained with the utilization of feedback linearization which is one of the examples of minimum principles in the control theory. A proper gait cycle is achieved with the exoskeleton application and separately for the leg, with approximately 10 deg deviation from the natural property in knee flexion. Finally, it can be seen that the system conversion into such problematic cases with or without an exoskeleton system is accomplished.

2022 ◽  
Bin Xu ◽  
Tao Deng ◽  
Yichuan Liu ◽  
Yunkai Zhao ◽  
Zipeng Xu ◽  

Abstract The combination of idle computing resources in mobile devices and the computing capacity of mobile edge servers enables all available devices in an edge network to complete all computing tasks in coordination to effectively improve the computing capacity of the edge network. This is a research hotspot for 5G technology applications. Previous research has focused on the minimum energy consumption and/or delay to determine the formulation of the computational offloading strategy but neglected the cost required for the computation of collaborative devices (mobile devices, mobile edge servers, etc.); therefore, we proposed a cost-based collaborative computation offloading model. In this model, when a task requests these devices' assistance in computing, it needs to pay the corresponding calculation cost; and on this basis, the task is offloaded and computed. In addition, for the model, we propose an adaptive neighborhood search based on simulated annealing algorithm (ANSSA) to jointly optimize the offloading decision and resource allocation with the goal of minimizing the sum of both the energy consumption and calculation cost. The adaptive mechanism enables different operators to update the probability of selection according to historical experience and environmental perception, which makes the individual evolution have certain autonomy. A large number of experiments conducted on different scales of mobile user instances show that the ANSSA can obtain satisfactory time performance with guaranteed solution quality. The experimental results demonstrate the superiority of the mobile edge computing (MEC) offloading system. It is of great significance to strike a balance between maintaining the life cycle of smart mobile devices and breaking the performance bottleneck of MEC servers.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 384
Sandrine Mukase ◽  
Kewen Xia ◽  
Abubakar Umar ◽  
Eunice Oluwabunmi Owoola

Nowadays, wireless energy transfer (WET) is a new strategy that has the potential to essentially resolve energy and lifespan issues in a wireless sensor network (WSN). We investigate the process of a wireless energy transfer-based wireless sensor network via a wireless mobile charging device (WMCD) and develop a periodic charging scheme to keep the network operative. This paper aims to reduce the overall system energy consumption and total distance traveled, and increase the ratio of charging device vacation time. We propose an energy renewable management system based on particle swarm optimization (ERMS-PSO) to achieve energy savings based on an investigation of the total energy consumption. In this new strategy, we introduce two sets of energies called emin (minimum energy level) and ethresh (threshold energy level). When the first node reaches the emin, it will inform the base station, which will calculate all nodes that fall under ethresh and send a WMCD to charge them in one cycle. These settled energy levels help to manage when a sensor node needs to be charged before reaching the general minimum energy in the node and will help the network to operate for a long time without failing. In contrast to previous schemes in which the wireless mobile charging device visited and charged all nodes for each cycle, in our strategy, the charging device should visit only a few nodes that use more energy than others. Mathematical outcomes demonstrate that our proposed strategy can considerably reduce the total energy consumption and distance traveled by the charging device and increase its vacation time ratio while retaining performance, and ERMS-PSO is more practical for real-world networks because it can keep the network operational with less complexity than other schemes.

2022 ◽  
Paloma Campo Ruano ◽  
José María De Lapuerta Montoya ◽  
Javier García-Germán ◽  
Jesús M. Menéndez Amigo ◽  
Irene Cámara Ruiz

Abstract BackgroundThis paper presents a new-built school that works disconnected from the grid and uses energy from renewable sources. The design is based on a necessary condition from the developer to achieve extremely low energy demands for heating and cooling and total primary energy according to the Passivhaus Plus standard: Furthermore, the total energy consumed can be generated on-site from renewable sources. Through energy efficiency management systems, a very low rate of CO2 emissions are achieved. ResultsIn addition to meeting the requirements established by the Passivhaus accreditation, the strategies achieve high levels of internal “well-being” for students and staff members, as recognised in other environmental certifications. This is possible through a holistic and bioclimatic design principle integrated in architectural design. ConclusionsThe installation’s design solves the main challenge in educational use: to respond to the high variations of occupancy in the classrooms and to guarantee a stable temperature and optimum air quality, but, in addition, minimum energy consumption is achieved, and prioritising passive energy sources (GSHX) overactive sources (heat pumps) employing integrated monitoring systems.The educational component in design is fundamental; the building is conceived as an extra learning tool for the pupils involved in the energy process in the building. This promotes awareness and sensitivity to the environmental challenges ahead.This is the first Spanish building (Figure 1) awarded by the Passive House Institute (2021).

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