Stream Order
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2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Brahim Benzougagh ◽  
Sarita Gajbhiye Meshram ◽  
Abdallah Dridri ◽  
Larbi Boudad ◽  
Brahim Baamar ◽  

AbstractMorphometric analysis is a pertinent scientific approach in any hydrological analysis, and it is necessary in the progress and management of drainage basin. Identification of areas at risk of erosion, and the prioritization of 48 sub-watersheds of Inaouene basin, was done by using linear, relief and areal aspects of watershed. The research carried out the use of geographic information system spatial data. The linear aspects include stream number, stream sequence, stream length, and bifurcation ratio, mean length of stream order, stream length ratio, mean stream length ratio, and form factor. The areal aspect includes frequency of stream, drainage density, texture ratio, channel length constant, and overland flow maintenance length. Ultimately, the relief dimensions included relief proportion, relief and ruggedness number. The array of compound (Cp) values computed allow us to set the priority ranks and classify the sub-watershed into three priority ranks groups: low, moderate, and high priority. Such morphometric analyses can be used therefore as a watershed erosion status estimator to prioritize land and water conservation initiatives and natural resources management.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (24) ◽  
pp. 13513
Antonio J. Sanhouse-García ◽  
Jesús Gabriel Rangel-Peraza ◽  
Sergio A. Rentería-Guevara ◽  
Yaneth A. Bustos-Terrones ◽  
Zuriel D. Mora-Félix ◽  

Urban development decreases infiltration, increases the runoff velocity, and reduces the concentration times. This situation increases the flood risk in urban watersheds, which represent a management challenge for urban communities and authorities. To increase the resilience of communities due to modifications of the hydrological cycle produced by climate change and urban development, a methodology is proposed to delineate flood-prone areas in urban basins. This methodology is implemented in an urban subbasin of Culiacan, Mexico, and is based on stream order. A high-resolution digital elevation model was used, which was validated independently through a photogrammetric flight with an unmanned aerial vehicle and ground control points obtained with GNSS (global navigation satellite systems) receivers. Morphometric parameters related to geometry, shape, relief, and drainage network aspects of the subbasin were determined and analyzed. Then, flood-prone area zonation was carried out based on stream-order classification and flow direction. Fieldwork was also carried out for the inspection of the sewage network conditions. This methodology simplifies the identification of the flood-prone areas in urban subbasins without carrying out complex hydraulic calculations.

2021 ◽  
Vol 59 (2) ◽  
pp. 185-194

Remote Sensing and GIS has given more importance for investigation of the geomorphological features based on the morphometric analysis duo to the diversity of data information by using digital map characters which help in moderating of data base information to get a different data like distance, area, point, line, polygon and qualitative data. This has decreased the errors which resulted by manual map sources. The main aim of this paper is the study of a morphometric analysis and characteristics of river basin area, basin shape, length, width and the ratio of length to the width, the ratio of rotation and circularity of the basin. It is also a study of relief characteristic, like slope and basin texture hypsometric curve. And also a study of drainage network characteristic like streams, stream order, length, drainage density, turn ratio, bifurcation ratio, weighted bifurcation ratio, type of drainage, and the relationship between all variables that mentioned above  with rock types and structural movements of internal and external  factors which  are represented by relief,  climate, soil, type of vegetation along with the human impact on the other hand. Results have been discussed for Rasyan valley basin in the Republic of Yemen using Landsat data.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (22) ◽  
pp. 4645
Ge Pu ◽  
Lindi J. Quackenbush ◽  
Stephen V. Stehman

Riparian vegetation delineation includes both the process of delineating the riparian zone and classifying vegetation within that zone. We developed a holistic framework to assess riparian vegetation delineation that includes evaluating channel boundary delineation accuracy using a combination of pixel- and object-based metrics. We also identified how stream order, riparian zone width, riparian land use, and image shadow influenced the accuracy of delineation and classification. We tested the framework by evaluating vegetation vs. non-vegetation riparian zone maps produced by applying random forest classification to aerial photographs with a 1 m pixel size. We assessed accuracy of the riparian vegetation classification and channel boundary delineation for two rivers in the northeastern United States. Overall accuracy for the channel boundary delineation was generally above 80% for both sites, while object-based accuracy revealed that 50% of delineated channel was less than 5 m away from the reference channel. Stream order affected channel boundary delineation accuracy while land use and image shadows influenced riparian vegetation classification accuracy; riparian zone width had little impact on observed accuracy. The holistic approach to quantification of accuracy that considers both channel boundary delineation and vegetation classification developed in this study provides an important tool to inform riparian management.

2021 ◽  
Cheddad Souhila ◽  
Haouchine Abdelhamid

Abstract This research article is attempted on the study of the morphological characteristics of the oued Loussif sub-watershed, located in the Wilaya of Sétif, Algeria. This study is part of a more general study on the hydrogeological study of the Kherzet Youcef deposit. In all fields interested in the study of spatial phenomena, a need for automation is emerging, especially for geographical structures of the ‘network’ type, given their systemic organization of space that is not explained in databases of geographical data. In order to meet this need for automation, the use of Geographic Information Systems has proven to be cost-effective. Morphological characteristics such as flow accumulation, flow direction and stream network were extracted on the basis of the digital elevation model (DEM), and the results were interpreted and analyzed. The geographic information system (GIS) based approach with the use of DME facilitates the understanding of the different morphological features represented in the thematic matrix data maps, and the correlation between flow accumulations, flow direction, stream order and stream network has been well explored. The study represents the morphological characteristics extracted from the DEM. The software used to perform the global analysis was ESRI ArcGIS version 10.8 with the ESRI Spatial Analyst and ArcHydro extension. Morphological features are effective in understanding the spatial distribution of the watercourse network and identifying potential groundwater locations.

Water ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (19) ◽  
pp. 2779
Nikos Mamassis ◽  
Katerina Mazi ◽  
Elias Dimitriou ◽  
Demetris Kalogeras ◽  
Nikolaos Malamos ◽  

The large-scale surface-water monitoring infrastructure for Greece Open Hydrosystem Information Network ( is presented in this paper. provides free access to water data, incorporating existing networks that manage their own databases. In its pilot phase, operates three telemetric networks for monitoring the quantity and the quality of surface waters, as well as meteorological and soil variables. Aspiring members must also offer their data for public access. A web-platform was developed for on-line visualization, processing and managing telemetric data. A notification system was also designed and implemented for inspecting the current values of variables. The platform is built upon the web 2.0 technology that exploits the ever-increasing capabilities of browsers to handle dynamic data as a time series. A GIS component offers web-services relevant to geo-information for water bodies. Accessing, querying and downloading geographical data for watercourses (segment length, slope, name, stream order) and for water basins (area, mean elevation, mean slope, basin order, slope, mean CN-curve number) are provided by Web Map Services and Web Feature Services. A new method for estimating the streamflow from measurements of the surface velocity has been advanced as well to reduce hardware expenditures, a low-cost ‘prototype’ hydro-telemetry system (at about half the cost of a comparable commercial system) was designed, constructed and installed at six monitoring stations of

2021 ◽  
Vol 67 (3) ◽  
pp. 248-262
Neetesh Kumar ◽  
Jagadish Singh ◽  

The morphometric analysis of any drainage basin is considered useful for water resource studies such as flood assessment, water quality sampling, water use reporting, watershed management etc. Drainage basin is generally defined as the areal extent of land from which the surface runoff flows to a defined drain, channel, stream or river. It is mainly governed by the topography of the terrain. Geographical Information System and Image Processing Techniques can be used for the identification of morphological features and analyzing properties of the basin. The morphometric parameters include linear, areal and relief aspects. ‘Watershed Atlas of India’ (2014) on 1:50,000 scale is an important digital database for planning and monitoring of development programs on a watershed basis. It serves as a uniform baseline for developing a hydrological unit-based data bank to be used for the management of water resources in the country. Run-off, sedimentation, water balance, evapotranspiration and several other catchment characterization related studies may be taken up on a watershed basis. The present study deals with morphometric parameters such as stream order (Nu), stream length (Lu), bifurcation ratio (Rb), drainage density (D) and stream frequency (Fs) of the Betwa drainage basin. Geographically the basin (77° 30′ to 80° 12′ east longitudes and 23°30′ to 25°55′ north latitudes) is located in two states i.e. Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh occupying an area of 43780 km2. The length of the stream segment is maximum for the first-order stream and decreases as the stream order increases. This study would help in understanding the hydrological behaviour of the basin. This, in turn, may enable the local people to utilize the resources of the basin for the sustainable development of the area.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
R. W. McDowell ◽  
Z. P. Simpson ◽  
A. G. Ausseil ◽  
Z. Etheridge ◽  
R. Law

AbstractUnderstanding the lag time between land management and impacts on riverine nitrate–nitrogen (N) loads is critical to understand when action to mitigate nitrate–N leaching losses from the soil profile may start improving water quality. These lags occur due to leaching of nitrate–N through the subsurface (soil and groundwater). Actions to mitigate nitrate–N losses have been mandated in New Zealand policy to start showing improvements in water quality within five years. We estimated annual rates of nitrate–N leaching and annual nitrate–N loads for 77 river catchments from 1990 to 2018. Lag times between these losses and riverine loads were determined for 34 catchments but could not be determined in other catchments because they exhibited little change in nitrate–N leaching losses or loads. Lag times varied from 1 to 12 years according to factors like catchment size (Strahler stream order and altitude) and slope. For eight catchments where additional isotope and modelling data were available, the mean transit time for surface water at baseflow to pass through the catchment was on average 2.1 years less than, and never greater than, the mean lag time for nitrate–N, inferring our lag time estimates were robust. The median lag time for nitrate–N across the 34 catchments was 4.5 years, meaning that nearly half of these catchments wouldn’t exhibit decreases in nitrate–N because of practice change within the five years outlined in policy.

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