Morphometric Parameters
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2022 ◽  
Elena A. Tyumina ◽  
Grigory A. Bazhutin ◽  
Irina B. Ivshina

Against the background of atense environmental situation, the risk of drug pollution in the natural environment is steadily increasing. Pharmaceuticals entering open ecosystems can cause toxic effects in wildlife from molecular to population levels. The aim of this research was to examine the impact of pharmaceutical pollutants on rhodococci, which are typical representatives of soil actinobacteria and active biodegraders of these compounds. The pharmaceutical products used in this research werediclofenac sodium and ibuprofen, which are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) that are widely used and frequently found in the environment. The most common cell adaptations of rhodococci to the effects of NSAIDs were changes in zeta potential, catalase activity, morphometric parameters and degree of hydrophobicity; elevated contents of total cellular lipids; and the formation of cell conglomerates. The findings demonstrated the adaptation mechanisms of rhodococci and their increased resistance to the toxic effects of the pharmaceutical pollutants. Keywords: pharmaceutical pollutants, NSAIDs, diclofenac, ibuprofen, cell responses, Rhodococcus

2022 ◽  
Saglara Mandzhieva ◽  
Natalia Chernikova ◽  
Tamara Dudnikova ◽  
David Pinskii ◽  
Tatiana Bauer ◽  

The growth and development of plants is one of the criteria for assessing the degree of soil pollution with heavy metals. Morphological and anatomical changes in test plants affected by pollutants, such as growth retardation, shoot bending, and decreased root length and mass, indicate the worsening of environmental conditions. The effect of various ratios of soil and sand polluted with copper (Cu) on morphobiometric parameters of spring barley (Hordeum sativum distichum), Ratnik variety, was studied in a model vegetative experiment. Haplic calcic chernozem was used as a substrate with different ratios of soil/sand. It was determined that an addition of sand into the soil in the amounts of 25%, 50% and 75% of soil mass resulted in the alteration of the physical properties of the chernozem, which was reflected in the morphometric parameters of the plants. The most notable changes in the parameters were observed after pollution of soil-sand substrates with Cu(CH3COO)2 in the amounts of 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, 1000 mg/kg and 2000 mg/kg. The maximum growth and development retardation of the barley plants was found at the maximum content of sand and the maximum concentration of Cu. The pollutant reduced the root length and, to a lesser degree, the height of the aboveground components of the plant, which as a result, decreased the total plant biomass. Keywords: trace elements, soil, agricultural crops, particle size distribution

2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
S. V. S. RAJU ◽  

An experiment was conducted at Research Farm, National Rice Research Institute, Cuttack, Odisha, India to quantify the effect of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations on the biology and morphometric parameters of yellow stem borer (Scirpophaga incertulas, Pyralidae, Lepidoptera). Yellow stem borer is one of the major pest of rice in the whole rice growing regions of South East Asia. The effect of three carbon dioxide concentrations i.e. 410 ppm (ambient), 550 ppm and 700 ppm on the duration of the developmental period as well as morphometric parameters of each stage of the lifecycle of the pest was analysed. It was found that, there was an increase in the duration of the developmental period of each stage of life cycle as the concentration of CO2 increases. However, the life span of the adult moth was significantly lower under the elevated CO2 concentrations when compared with ambient CO2 concentration. Morphometric parameters viz., mean length, width and weight of each larval instar, pupa and adult were found to be significantly higher in elevated concentrations of CO2 as compared to ambient concentration.

2022 ◽  
Vol 53 (5) ◽  
Milivoje Urošević ◽  
Darko Drobnjak ◽  
Radomir Mandić ◽  
Ružica Trailović ◽  
Goran Stanišić ◽  

The domestic donkey (Equus asinus) has a very specific body construction. It is built in such a way that the mutual relationship of individual body regions enables great work endurance. The fact that this breed of domestic animal originates from wild ancestors, originated and developed in Africa, clearly shows that the breed developed in harsh climatic and ecological conditions that conditioned the appropriate biological response. The biostatic model causes the biodynamic effect, i.e., the production of biokinetic energy. Movement forwards occurs as a consequence of the creation of biokinetic energy and its transfer from the back part of the body, where it originates, to the front part of the body. The most efficient transfer of biokinetic energy is enabled by the existence of an appropriate biostatic model, i.e., body structure, and this leads to a biodynamic effect that is defined as a movement. For the process of movement, the muscles must be well developed. Two muscle groups are distinguished; a) pelvic muscles, b) external hip and croup joint muscles. The basic lever for the transfer of biokinetic energy is the femur. The generated energy is transferred from the hip joint to the thigh muscles, which shortening leads to the movement of the hind leg forward, its leaning against the ground and pushing the whole body forward. The generated biokinetic energy cause the bio kinematic effect, which is characterized as a movement.

2022 ◽  
Honnakerappa S Ballari ◽  
Shashikant Shiddappa Udikeri ◽  
Vinay Kalia

The prominence of Helicoverpaarmigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) averse insecticide resistance was traversed in the course of 2017 in Karnataka, India. The results divulged typical resistance level prostrating in selected newer insecticides, even though exiguous higher resistance airing in insect growth regulator Novaluranwith LC 50 of and 13.02 to 18.07 ppm and 1.17 to 1.95 folds resistance) compared to newer group insecticides Spinasad, Indoxacarb, Flubendiamide, and Rynaxypyr (3.57 to 10.19 ppm, 1.01 to 1.27 fold). Raichur and Kalaburgi strains comprehend higher resistance to Novaluran and newer insecticides with exception of Flubendiamide (Raichur and Vijayapura strains), respectively, and Spinosad (Kalaburgi and Raichur strains), respectively. The morphometric parameters of larval length, pupal length, and weight were most in RCH stain (2.75 cm, 1.76.18 cm, and 0.511 g, 0.309 g) respectively, which was pursued by Kalaburgi strain. The morphometric correlation revealed that larval length was a significant positive relation with insecticide resistance which might be an influence of resistance but not merely responsible. Among newer insecticides, a significant positive correlation between Rynaxypyr and Indoxacarb was evident, similarly, Nuvaluran with Indoxacarb and Rynaxypyr as well. Usage pattern revealed that 81.67 % of farmers found to use insecticides more than the recommended dose and 70.83% have habit consecutive applications of products from the same chemical group which bears witness to developing resistance.

2022 ◽  
Vol 962 (1) ◽  
pp. 012044
Y V Zima ◽  
E A Banshchikova ◽  
T V Zhelibo

Abstract The paper examines development of sand knolls under the influence of climatic and anthropogenic factors in Southern Zabaykalye within the territory of Tsasucheysky Bor nature reserve. The sand knolls were studied on-site with instruments and aerial surveying. Grain size distribution of the soil cover was studied. The floristic composition of the sand knolls represented by motley grass-grasses and herbs-grasses steppe communities with varying degrees of projective cover was investigated. The analysis of the field survey data from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) made it possible to obtain the main morphometric parameters of the sand knolls, and overlaying aerial photographs on historic satellite images allowed to trace how they changed in time. The studies showed that the movement of the studied sand knolls with time as Aeolian formations under the influence of wind erosion is unlikely, as the sand knolls are currently mostly covered by steppe vegetation, and only about 20% of the areas are bare. The analysis of satellite images and aerial photographs showed that over the last twenty years the sand knolls had not moved or changed their size.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (4) ◽  
pp. 49-55
A. N. Russkikh ◽  
A. D. Shabokha ◽  
N. V. Tyumentsev ◽  
S. N. Derevtsova

The aim of this study was to identify the morphometric features of the human portal venous system by means of multislice computed tomography (MSCT).Materials and methods. A contrast X-ray study of the portal vein was carried out in 53 men who were treated in the surgical departments of the Krasnoyarsk Regional Hospital No. 1. The average age of the patients was 54.9 ± 1.7 years (36–71 years). Measurements were performed on 3D models of the vascular bed in the portal venous system (GE Advantage Workstation and Siemens singo.via workstations). Branching patterns, length, diameter, angle of the portal vein formation relative to the midline of the human body, and angles of formation of the vessels forming the portal vein in the frontal plane were evaluated.Results. Variations in the morphometric parameters of the intrahepatic vessels of the portal vein are obvious, although the branching patterns are not diverse and are reduced to one type – the magistral pattern (according to V.N. Shevkunenko). The veins that form the portal vein are represented by three systems, each of which has a stem and tributaries that differ in branching patterns and other morphological characteristics.Conclusion. The findings of the study made it possible to supplement the scientific materials regarding branching patterns and morphological characteristics of the portal vein and its tributaries as well as to use the morphometric characteristics of the superior and inferior mesenteric and splenic veins to resolve the issues of surgical intervention on the abdominal organs. 

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (3) ◽  
pp. 953-962
Basavaraju Basavaraju ◽  
D. Nagaraju D. Nagaraju

The current research work is an attempt to study of drainage area covering 429 sqkms comprising of 10 sub-watersheds they are namely Heggadadevanakote, Budanuru, Kodasige, Yedenhundi, Sunkadakatte, Nagarahole, Muruganahalli, Heggadapura, Kalhalla, Sarathihole. The research area has strong structural control shows that the 10 sub-basins named as the normal category. Different parameters of morphometric were used, Arc-Info and Arc -View GIS software was used to analysis the morphometric parameters and drainage characteristics, Sub-basin have been delineated by drainage pattern. The drainage pattern suggesting very coarse to coarse texture and the density explains the texture of drainage is related to coarse as geomorphic development their late youth stage and values suggest that Form factor, Circulatory ratio, Sub-basins are circular to elongated in shape.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 115-123
Hernán Cucho ◽  
Olger Puelles ◽  
Aydee Meza ◽  
Darwin Urquizo ◽  

The aim of the study was to determine the morphological and morphometric characteristics of the vicuña sperm (Vicugna vicugna), looking for possible subpopulations in its structure. Semen was collected by electroejaculation method from three adult male vicuñas weighing 50.33 ± 2.52 kg, once per animal. The volume, color and concentration, sperm morphology and morphometry were determined. The samples for the analysis of sperm morphology and morphometry were stained with Hemacolor®, and analyzed using the CASA-Morph, Integrated Semen Analysis System (ISAS®v1). Five forms of the vicuña sperm head were distinguished: normal, piriform, long, short and rounded. The morphometric parameters determined were the length, width, area, perimeter, ellipticity, elongation, regularity and rugosity of the vicuña sperm head, percentage of acrosome, head gray level, as well as the width, area, distance and angle of insertion of midpiece of the sperm. In relation to morphology, significant differences (P <0.05) were found in the percentage distribution of head shapes, with the normal shape (55.7%) being the majority and different from the other shapes. Significant differences (P <0.05) were found between animals in the morphometric variables of head, percentage of acrosome, ellipticity, rugosity, elongation and gray level; while the variables of the midpiece and regularity did not show differences (P> 0.05). The morphometric variables were distributed in four main components (PCA) called elongation, area, circularity and midpiece width, which explained 84.59% of the total variance. The cluster analysis determined five subpopulations (SP): SP1 grouped small cells of low length, width and area (18.8%); SP2 of sperm of large size, both in area and width of the head (17.38%); SP3 of rounded cells with high values of percentage of acrosome and head gray level (24.04%); SP4 of spermatozoa of intermediate size and elongated, with greater ellipticities and elongation (23.61%); and SP5 of cells of intermediate size and short, with low values of area and length (16.71%).

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