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2022 ◽  
Vol 66 ◽  
pp. 287-295
Karmendra Kumar Agrawal ◽  
Shibani Khanra Jha ◽  
Ravi Kant Mittal ◽  
Sanjay Vashishtha

Hiba Khan

Abstract: India has done a very much towards to become a developed country but still India is a part of developing countries and for this reason most of the factors are responsible and from these one of the factor is poverty and their index. Poverty index, directly affect the standard of living in a population , that why various major and minor diseases are occur in the various age groups of people, and Hypermetropia is one of these that can occur due to unhealthy life style. Hyperopia, also termed hypermetropia or farsightedness, is a common refractive error in children and adults. Its effect on an individual and the symptoms produced varies greatly, depending on the magnitude of hyperopia, the age of the individual, the status of the accommodative and convergence system, and the demands placed on the visual system. Individuals with uncorrected hyperopia may experience symptoms such as blurred vision, asthenopia (e.g., headaches and eyestrain) while reading, accommodative/binocular dysfunction, amblyopia, and/or strabismus. This article outlines several discussion points as related to hyperopia: definition and classifications, prevention, clinical presentations, importance of early detection, examination techniques, risks of uncorrected hyperopia, and management strategies. Keywords: Amblyopia, Hyperopia, Refractive error, Strabismus, Visual development.

Plants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 224
Malyaj Prajapati ◽  
Aakansha Manav ◽  
Jitender Singh ◽  
Pankaj Kumar ◽  
Amit Kumar ◽  

Garlic (Allium sativum L.) plants exhibiting mosaics, deformation, and yellow stripes symptoms were identified in Meerut City, Uttar Pradesh, India. To investigate the viruses in the garlic samples, the method of high-throughput sequencing (HTS) was used. Complete genome of the garlic virus E (GarV-E) isolate (NCBI accession No. MW925710) was retrieved. The virus complete genome comprises 8450 nucleotides (nts), excluding the poly (A) tail at the 3′ terminus, with 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs) of 99 and 384 nts, respectively, and ORFs encoding replicase with a conserved motif for RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP), TGB1, TGB2, TGB3, serine-rich protein, coat protein, and nucleic acid binding protein (NABP). The sequence homology shared 83.49–90.40% and 87.48–92.87% with those of GarV-E isolates available in NCBI at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed a close relationship of this isolate from India (MW925710) with GarV-E isolate YH (AJ292230) from Zhejiang, China. The presence of GarV-E was also confirmed by RT-PCR. The present study is the first report of GarV-E in garlic cultivar Yamuna Safed-3 grown in northern India. However, further studies are needed to confirm its role in symptom development, nationwide distribution, genetic diversity, and potential yield loss to the garlic in India.

2022 ◽  
Vol 53 (4) ◽  
pp. 481-486

The present study aims at seasonal and diurnal pollution potential at Gorakhpur in east Uttar Pradesh. To assess the pollution potential, meteorological data for five year period (1982-86) of Gorakhpur have been analyzed for four seasons viz; winter (December-February), summer (March-May), monsoon (June-September) and post monsoon (October-November). Season wise wind roses, stability, stability wind roses have been prepared and season wise diurnal variation of mixing height and ventilation coefficient have also been worked out. It is found that Gorakhpur has a better diffusion capacity in summer and poor in post monsoon followed by winter. Afternoon hours are better for vertical mixing. The winds are predominantly from southwest to west in all seasons except in monsoon when it blows from northeast to east. Based on this study, an appropriate location for industrialization has been suggested.

2022 ◽  
Vol 53 (2) ◽  
pp. 119-126
R. K. MALL ◽  

Actual evapotranspiration of wheat crop during different year from 1978-79 to 1992-93 was measured daily in Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh using lysimeter. In this study three evapotranspiration computing models namely Doorenbos and Pruitt, Thornthwaite and Soil Plant Atmosphere Water (SPAW) have been used. Comparisons of these three methods show that the SPAW model is better than the other two methods for evapotraspiration estimation. In the present study the MBE (Mean-Bias-Error), RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) and t-statistic have also been obtained for better evaluations of a model performance.

2022 ◽  
pp. 001955612110583
Aditya P. Tripathi ◽  
Noopur Agrawal

With the outbreak of the global pandemic of COVID-19, India witnessed one of the largest reverse migrations in its entire history. Amid continuously streaming heart-rending visuals of migrant workers struggling to somehow return to their place of origin, Uttar Pradesh emerged as the recipient of huge 3.2 million migrant workers employed in the informal sector. Accepting, welcoming, helping, encouraging and offering employment to those destitute workers amid the pandemic was a difficult task for the state government. An appropriate management of this problem has made it a classic case of crisis management by a state chief minister who dares to think beyond the reflex paranoia about resource crunch so as to come up with an improvised strategy. Purpose of this article is to discuss the crisis of reverse migration amid COVID-19 and the initiatives taken by the Government of Uttar Pradesh. The article uses case study approach to analyse the problem of livelihood faced by the migrant workers and the innovative model of employment and rehabilitation envisioned and implemented by the state government. Based on secondary data, it observes positive impact of skill mapping and other key strategies of the Government of Uttar Pradesh.

2022 ◽  

The Barelvī movement or school is a theological interpretation within South Asian Sunnī Islam with roots in developments in the late 19th and early 20th centuries spanning colonial India and into the post-independence history of the subcontinent. Most of its adherents are found today in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, but also in educational and religious institutions in the United Kingdom, South Africa, and other parts of Africa, the Caribbean, and the United States. The Sunnī Ḥanafī scholar Aḥmad Raẓā Khān of Bareilly (d. 1921) was born in Uttar Pradesh during British colonial rule. Typically, his interpretations of certain doctrines of Sunnī Islam are seen as a response to the Deoband school and its theological ancestry that was formed in 1866-7, found in the northern Indian town of Deoband. The Barelvī school of thought is defined by a set of theological positions that revolve around the persona of the Prophet Muhammad and his special, if not exceptional, relationship and status with God. The Barelvī movement defines itself as the most authentic representative of what is known as Sunnī Islam and thus adopts the generic moniker, Ahl-i-Sunnat wa-al-Jamāʿat (The people who adhere to the Prophetic Tradition and preserve the unity of the community). Some describe the movement as first spreading among rural Muslims immersed in a selection of Sufi and shared Indian cultural practices. Today, it has its own franchise of seminaries (madrasas), scholars, and a robust industry of publications that engage in polemics with other theological sects prevalent in South Asia. It keeps its sights trained on the Deobandi movement and the global Muslim evangelical group known as the Tablīghī Jamāʿat and continuously exposes what it believes to be its doctrinal errors. Other adversaries are the anti-canonical school tradition, known as the Ahl-i-Ḥadīs, the variant doctrines of the Aḥmadis and Qādianis, as well as the Shīʿa. Aḥmad Raẓā Khān declared aspects or, all of these sects to be worthy of anathematization (takfīr) because they doctrinally depart from the true tradition and its interpretation of Islam. It would be a mistake to think of the Barelvī theological positions as paradigmatically Sufi. Indeed, the Deobandis, the Shīʿa, and even the Aḥmadis also accept variant teachings of Sufism, though they might diverge from the Barelvīs on precisely what the detailed doctrines of Sufism entails (Tareen 2020 [cited under General Overviews]).

2022 ◽  
Tista Ghosh ◽  
Shrewshree Kumar ◽  
Kirtika Sharma ◽  
Parikshit Kakati ◽  
Amit Sharma ◽  

The extant members of the Eurasian rhino species have experienced severe population and range declines through a combination of natural and anthropogenic factors since the Pleistocene. The one-horned rhino is the only Asian species recovered from such strong population decline but most of their fragmented populations in India and Nepal are reaching carrying capacity. Implementation of any future reintroduction-based conservation efforts would greatly benefit from currently unavailable detailed genetic assessments and the evolutionary history of these populations. We sequenced wild one-horned rhino mitogenomes from all the extant populations (n=16 individuals) for the first time, identified the polymorphic sites and assessed genetic variation (2531bp mtDNA, n=111 individuals) across India. Results showed 30 unique rhino haplotypes distributed as three distinct genetic clades (Fst value 0.68-1) corresponding to the states of Assam (n=28 haplotypes), West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh (both monomorphic). Phylogenetic analyses suggest earlier coalescence of Assam (~0.5 Mya) followed by parallel divergence of West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh/Nepal (~0.06-0.05Mya), supported by the paleobiogeographic history of the Indian subcontinent. Combined together, we propose recognising three Evolutionary Significant Units (ESUs) of the Indian rhino. As recent assessments suggest further genetic isolations of the Indian rhinos at local scales, future management efforts should focus on identifying genetically variable founder animals and consider periodic supplementation events while planning future rhino reintroduction programs in India. Such well-informed, multidisciplinary approach is the only way to ensure evolutionary, ecological and demographic stability of the species across its range.

2022 ◽  
Nagendran Krishnan ◽  
Shweta Kumari ◽  
Koshlendra Kumar Pandey ◽  
Sudhakar Pandey ◽  
Tusar Kanti Behera ◽  

Abstract The pathogen responsible for yellowing and downward rolling of leaves of squash and watermelon plants from Uttar Pradesh state, India, was identified as probably strains of Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV) through RT-PCR using universal Polerovirus primers followed by sequencing. The full-length genome sequences of an isolate from squash (POL-SQ - 5650 nt) and one from watermelon (POL-WM - 5647nt) were determined by sequencing the products from RT-PCR with six sets of primers with overlapping products. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis showed that these isolates had closest identity with a recombinant strain obtained between CABYV and Melon aphid-borne yellows virus (MABYV) reported from Taiwan infecting Luffa aegyptiaca (CABYV-R-TW82) rather than other Asian, American, or European isolates. The deduced amino acid sequences of the P0, P1 and P1-P2 proteins showed >10% variation, whereas the P3, P4 and P3-P5 proteins showed <10% variation when compared to the corresponding proteins of other strains of CABYV worldwide. Thus, according to the Polerovirus species demarcation threshold, these new sequences should be regarded as representing strains of a novel previously undescribed Polerovirus species. However, based on their sequence similarity and phylogenetic grouping with the recombinant strain from Taiwan we suggest these sequences represent recombinant strains of CABYV. These are the first full-length genome sequences for CABYV strains from India and this study adds watermelon as host for CABYV in India.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (6) ◽  
pp. 676-684
Mata Prasad ◽  
Sutanu Maji

Off-season onion production of is an important issue to challenge the price fluctuation during different time of year and in different location of the country. The present experiment was conducted at sub-tropical region of central Uttar Pradesh (Lucknow) during kharif, late kharif season of 2018-20 to find out the optimum date of transplanting and choice of suitable cultivar of onion for off-season production. The experiment consisted of eight dates of transplanting (30th August, 10, 20, 30th September, 10, 20, 30th October and 10th November) and two cultivars (Agrifound Dark Red and L-883) which was laid out in factorial randomized block design with three replications. Transplanting on 30th September showed maximum vegetative growth in terms of plant height (66.93 cm), number of leaves per plant (14.99), maxi-mum length of leaf (47.60 cm), neck thickness (23.19 mm) at 120 days after transplanting as well as highest average bulb weight (79.53 g) and bulb yield ( 10.02kg/plot and 382.68 q/ha). Among the two varieties L-883 showed the better performance in respect of growth and yield in off season production. Therefore, it may be concluded that the cultivation of L-883 variety and transplanting on 30th September was found best for off –season production in the sub –tropical agro- climatic region of Center Uttar Pradesh (Lucknow) which may be beneficial for increasing farmers’ income as well as for benefit of costumers keeping the balance between demand and supply.

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