Thin films of SnO2 were deposited by reactive RF magnetron sputtering. It was shown that the films possess gas sensitivity to ethanol vapor at room temperature. XRD, SEM, and EDX measurements of thin films were investigated. Annealing of SnO2 thin films at 800 °С is polycrystalline and grain size of SnO2 in the range about 12 nm. The growth of SnO2 with annealing to 800 °C leads to the percolation nanorods structure. EDX clearly explains the rich of Sn reached 70% annealing. The conductivity of SnO2 nanorods has been increasing at room temperature for ethanol vapors.
Torrential rains cause many losses in city infrastructure, crops, and deaths in several regions of the world including Iraq as in the case that we will discuss in this work, on January 28 and 29, 2019. Torrential rain caused the flow of torrents in several areas of Iraq and the neighboring areas. This research work aims to identify the synoptic characteristics of torrential rains and the causes of this case. This will be done by analyzing and interpreting the weather maps at different pressure levels with focusing on the troughs and fronts locations, relative vorticity, polar jet stream effect as well as the moisture flux. The Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to analyze the satellite images in order to calculate the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) to confirm the heavy rain case. The weather maps were obtained from the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications Version 2 (MERRA-2). As for the satellite images we used the satellite imagery from Sentinel-2 and EMUTSAT.
A spectroscope presents the optical emission spectroscopy (OES) technique on laser-produced copper and silver plasmas. The optical emission spectrum technique was used to analyzes the spectrum arising from the Cu, Ag Laser Nd: YAG plasmas with a wavelength of (1064) nm, a span of (10) ns, and a focal length of (10) cm in the energy range (300-800) mJ. The electron temperature (Te) was determined while the Saha-Boltzmann equation was used to measure the electron density (ne). Other plasma parameters, (λD), (fp), (ND), were also measured. For various energies, the plasma spectrum was registered copper and silver. Q-switched Nd: YAG liquid laser ablation technique (PLAL) was used to produce nanoparticles (NPs), silver, and copper particles using distilled water at room temperature at different energies (300-600-800) mJ. With a constant wavelength (1064nm). At a constant frequency (6Hz), 300 laser pulses were used to ablate the target placed in distilled water to study the effect of these materials in inhibiting bacteria. Bacteria were used (Staphylococcus). This study showed that (Ag-NPs) and (Cu-NPs) that are synthesized by laser ablation have a great effect on Staphylococcus (antibiotic-resistant) bacteria.
Iron oxide nanoparticles were made using celery extract by chemical method with change PH. Bio-materials in celery extract synthesized the iron oxide nanoparticles by reducing iron (III) chloride (FeCl3) and then acted as both capping and stabilizing agents. The iron oxide NPs were characterized by XRD, SEM, and UV–vis techniques. The change PH affected the size, shape, and purity of iron oxide NPs. XRD results showed Crystallite size increased from 16.71nm to 21.65nm as pH was increased from 1.6 to 12. SEM images showed that the particle size of (α-Fe2O3) NPs was around 40.06 nm, while increasing PH showed different shapes in the same sample. The particle size became approximately 45.56 and 61.22 nm. UV–vis measurements showed the energy band increased from 3.11eV to 5.11eV. The antimicrobial activity of iron oxide NPs was determined by growth inhibition zones of the negative gram bacteria E. coli, Klebsiella spp, and gram-positive bacteria S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and fungal Candida albicans. The zones for (α-Fe2O3) NPs when PH 1.6 was between (12-13) mm. The zones for (α-Fe2O3) NPs when PH 12 was a little higher between (13-15) mm.
The energy loss straggling is obtained from an exact quantum mechanical evaluation, which takes into account the degeneracy of the target plasma, and later it is compared with common classical and degeneracy approximation as a function of incident Homo (H-H, He-He) and Hetero (He-H) di-cluster energy in Kev with different kinds of plasma target. For homonuclear di-clusters (H-H) and (He-He) decreasing temperature, the exact calculation approaches the high degeneracy limit, but the differences are still significant. However, as the temperature rises, the exact result approaches the classical limit. Finally, the energy loss straggling increases with the increasing atomic number of the projectiles (He-He). Our research focuses on targets in the weakly coupled electron gas limit, where we can use the random phase approximation (RPA). This kind of plasma has not been widely researched, considering the fact that it is essential for inertial confinement fusion (ICF).
A new series of pyrazoline derivatives (3-10) have been synthesized and characterized on the basis of FT-IR, 1H-NMR, and Mass techniques. 1-(4-Aminophenyl)-3-(pyridin-4-yl)prop-2-en-1-one (1) as a starting material was prepared by the reaction of 4-aminoacetophenone and 4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde in ethanol, using sodium hydroxide as a catalyst. Pyrazoline derivatives 2 was obtained via the cyclization reaction of compound 1 by the action of hydrazine hydrate 80% in ethanol. The target derivatives (3-8) were obtained by the reaction of pyrazoline derivative (2) with the corresponding aldehyde in ethanol. The novel pyrazoline derivatives 9 and 10 were synthesized by the reaction of pyrazoline derivative 2 with the corresponding anhydride (maleic or phthalic anhydride) in presence of anhydrous sodium acetate in glacial acetic acid. The synthesized derivatives were screened against several bacterial strains: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus espidermididis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella and Candida albicans. The synthesized compounds showed promising bio-activity compared with amoxicillin.
In this paper, we will investigate and discuss a new class of meromorphic univalent functions defined by multiplier transformation which is R(c, , y, ), as well as study the coefficient estimates and growth theorems, and then another line in this work, upon to get the close under the convex linear combination
In this paper, we study the approximate properties of functions by means of trigonometric polynomials in weighted spaces. Relationships between modulus of smoothness of function derivatives and those of the jobs themselves are introduced. In the weighted spaces we also proved of theorems about the relationship between the derivatives of the polynomials for the best approximation and the best approximation of the functions
Various methods could be employed to synthesize nanomaterials. In this work laser induced forward technology was used to synthesize silver nanoparticles. Silver nanomaterials were tested using different measuring instruments such as UV–vis diffuse (DRS), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), and optical Microscope to characterize features such as the optical and morphological properties of these nanoparticles. AFM results show that when the laser energy of the pulsed Nd: YAG laser increases, the diameter and roughness of produced AgNPs will be decreased for the same number of pulses and the air cavity between donner and acceptor. Also, results show that when laser energy is (300,400) mJ, the AgNPs diameters are (95.76,88.44) nm and the roughness are (7,6) nm respectively. While, results show that as laser pulses increase, structure to be rougher for different laser pulses and constant laser energy at 300 mJ the same behavior will be found when the laser energy becomes 400mJ.Finally, results show that the reflectance peaks of Ag NPs increase by decreasing the number of pulses to a maximum value of 467 at 2 pulses.