infection prevalence
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2022 ◽  
Andrew Brouwer ◽  
Lora P Campredon ◽  
Heather M Walline ◽  
Brittany M Marinelli ◽  
Christine M Goudsmit ◽  

We determined baseline oral and cervicogenital human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and determinants of infection in the Michigan HPV and Oropharyngeal Cancer (MHOC) study. We enrolled 394 college-age and older-adult participants of both sexes in Ann Arbor, Michigan and the surrounding area. All participants provided an oral sample at baseline, and 130 females provided a cervicogenital sample. Samples were tested for 18 HPV genotypes using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) MassArray. Participants filled out sociodemographic and behavioral questionnaires. Prevalence ratios for HPV oral or cervicogenital prevalence by predictor variables were estimated in univariable log-binomial models. Analysis was conducted 2018-20. In the full cohort, baseline oral HPV prevalence was 10.0% for any detected genotype (among the 338 valid oral tests at baseline) and 6.5% for high-risk types, and cervicogenital prevalence was 20.0% and 10.8%, respectively (among the 130 first valid cervicogenital tests). Oral HPV prevalence did not vary by sex, with 10.5% of women and 9.0% of men having an infection. We found a high prevalence of oral and cervicogenital HPV infection among those reporting no recent sexual partners compared to those with a single recent sexual partner, but prevalence increased with the number of recent partners for most sexual behaviors. We observed an ecological fallacy masking the direction of impact of vaccination on HPV prevalence in the full cohort compared to the college-aged and older-adult populations considered separately. Substance use was not significantly associated with oral or cervicogenital HPV infection. Many studies report substantially higher oral HPV infection prevalence in men than in women. That difference may not be uniform across populations in the US.

Virulence ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 174-190
M. Filippa Addis ◽  
Salvatore Pisanu ◽  
Valentina Monistero ◽  
Alessandra Gazzola ◽  
Martina Penati ◽  

2022 ◽  
Alexis Carpenter ◽  
Rollie J Clem

Arboviruses continue to threaten a significant portion of the human population, and a better understanding is needed of the determinants of successful arbovirus infection of arthropod vectors. Avoiding apoptosis has been shown to be one such determinant. Previous work showed that a Sindbis virus (SINV) construct called MRE/rpr that expresses the pro-apoptotic protein Reaper via a duplicated subgenomic promoter had a reduced ability to orally infect Aedes aegypti mosquitoes at 3 days post-blood meal (PBM), but this difference diminished over time as virus variants containing deletions in the inserted reaper gene rapidly predominated. The goal of this study was to generate a SINV construct that more stably expressed Reaper, in order to further clarify the effect of midgut apoptosis on disseminated infection in Ae. aegypti. We did this by inserting reaper as an in-frame fusion into the structural open reading frame (ORF) of SINV. This construct, MRE/rprORF, successfully expressed Reaper, replicated similarly to MRE/rpr in cell lines, and induced apoptosis in cultured cells and in mosquito midgut tissue. Mosquitoes that fed on blood containing MRE/rprORF developed less midgut and disseminated infection when compared to MRE/rpr or a control virus up to at least 7 days PBM, when less than 50% of mosquitoes that ingested MRE/rprORF had detectable disseminated infection, compared with around 80% or more of mosquitoes fed with MRE/rpr or control virus. However, virus titer in mosquitoes infected with MRE/rprORF was not significantly different from control virus, suggesting that induction of apoptosis by expression of Reaper by this method can reduce infection prevalence, but if infection is established then apoptosis induced by this method has limited ability to continue to suppress replication.

2022 ◽  
Vol 289 (1966) ◽  
Matthieu Domenech de Cellès ◽  
Elizabeth Goult ◽  
Jean-Sebastien Casalegno ◽  
Sarah C. Kramer

There is growing experimental evidence that many respiratory viruses—including influenza and SARS-CoV-2—can interact, such that their epidemiological dynamics may not be independent. To assess these interactions, standard statistical tests of independence suggest that the prevalence ratio—defined as the ratio of co-infection prevalence to the product of single-infection prevalences—should equal unity for non-interacting pathogens. As a result, earlier epidemiological studies aimed to estimate the prevalence ratio from co-detection prevalence data, under the assumption that deviations from unity implied interaction. To examine the validity of this assumption, we designed a simulation study that built on a broadly applicable epidemiological model of co-circulation of two emerging or seasonal respiratory viruses. By focusing on the pair influenza–SARS-CoV-2, we first demonstrate that the prevalence ratio systematically underestimates the strength of interaction, and can even misclassify antagonistic or synergistic interactions that persist after clearance of infection. In a global sensitivity analysis, we further identify properties of viral infection—such as a high reproduction number or a short infectious period—that blur the interaction inferred from the prevalence ratio. Altogether, our results suggest that ecological or epidemiological studies based on co-detection prevalence data provide a poor guide to assess interactions among respiratory viruses.

2022 ◽  
Himal Shrestha ◽  
Karen McCulloch ◽  
Shannon M Hedtke ◽  
Warwick N Grant

Background Onchocerciasis is a neglected tropical and filarial disease transmitted by the bites of blackflies, causing blindness and severe skin lesions. The change in focus for onchocerciasis management from control to elimination requires thorough mapping of pre-control endemicity to identify areas requiring interventions and to monitor progress. Onchocerca volvulus infection prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa is spatially continuous and heterogeneous, and highly endemic areas may contribute to transmission in areas of low endemicity or vice-versa. Ethiopia is one such onchocerciasis-endemic country with heterogeneous O. volvulus infection prevalence, and many districts are still unmapped despite their potential for O. volvulus infection transmission. Methodology/Principle findings A Bayesian geostatistical model was fitted for retrospective pre-intervention nodule prevalence data collected from 916 unique sites and 35,077 people across Ethiopia. We used multiple environmental, socio-demographic, and climate variables to estimate the pre-intervention prevalence of O. volvulus infection across Ethiopia and to explore their relationship with prevalence. Prevalence was high in southern and northwestern Ethiopia and low in Ethiopia's central and eastern parts. Distance to the nearest river (-0.015, 95% BCI: -0.025 - -0.005), precipitation seasonality (-0.017, 95% BCI: -0.032 - -0.001), and flow accumulation (-0.042, 95% BCI: -0.07 - -0.019) were negatively associated with O. volvulus infection prevalence, while soil moisture (0.0216, 95% BCI: 0.014 - 0.03) was positively associated. Conclusions/Significance Infection distribution was correlated with habitat suitability for vector breeding and associated biting behavior. The modeled pre-intervention prevalence can be used as a guide for determining priority for intervention in regions of Ethiopia that are currently unmapped, most of which have comparatively low infection prevalence.

2022 ◽  
Collince Jared Omondi ◽  
Otambo O Wilfred ◽  
David Odongo ◽  
Kevin O. Ochwedo ◽  
Antony Otieno ◽  

Abstract Background Long lasting insecticidal bednets (LLINs) have been the primary vector control strategy until indoor residual spraying (IRS) was added in Homa Bay and Migori Counties in western Kenya. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of LLINs integrated with organophosphate-based (Actellic 300 CS) IRS on the prevalence of asymptomatic and submicroscopic Plasmodium species infections in Homa Bay County. Methods Four consecutive community cross-sectional surveys for Plasmodium species infection were conducted in residents of Homa Bay County, Kenya commencing immediately before and 2 years after introduction of annual IRS. Finger-prick blood samples were obtained to prepare thick and thin smears for microscopic determination and qPCR diagnosis of Plasmodium genus, P. falciparum, P. malariae and P. ovale infection. Results Plasmodium spp. infection prevalence by microscopy was 18.5% before IRS and 14.2%, 3.3% and 1.3% after two annual rounds of IRS (χ²= 186.9, df = 3, p < 0.0001). Submicroscopic (blood smear negative, qPCR positive) parasitemia was 50.4% before IRS and 43.2%, 68.0% and 80.7% after IRS (χ²= 31.98, df = 3, p < 0.0001). Geometric mean density of P. falciparum parasitemia decreased over the 2-year study period (ANOVA, F = 28.95, df = 3, 243, p < 0.0001). The proportion of blood smear positive asymptomatic infections that included P. falciparum did not significantly change over the study period. In contrast, the proportion of asymptomatic submicroscopic P. falciparum infections trended upward following introduction of IRS (pre-IRS 48.2% versus post-IRS 41.6%, 61.3% and 75.4%; (χ²= 24.00, df = 3, p = 0.0002). Conclusions These data suggest that two annual rounds of IRS integrated with LLIN significantly reduced the prevalence of Plasmodium parasitemia, whereas the proportion of submicroscopic infections that included P. falciparum parasite increases. Strategies that aim at reducing the number of asymptomatic submicroscopic infections should be considered to diminish cryptic P. falciparum transmission and enhance malaria control.

2022 ◽  
Vol 45 (2) ◽  
pp. 21-25
Shaymaa A Majeed ◽  
Amer M Al-Amery

The prevalence of house mice (Mus musculus) Hymenolepiasis was determined in Baghdad, Iraq to study the effects of location, sex, and months on the infection rate of Hymenolepis spp. in house mice. Fifty house mice were captured from Abu Ghraib and Al-Ameriya, Baghdad, Iraq and examined for detecting parasites in laboratory in College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Baghdad. The total infection prevalence of intestinal parasites was 11 (22%) out of 50 samples, the higher prevalence was 28.57% and found in Abu Ghraib area, while lower was (13.63%) and recorded in Al-Ameriya area. The study revealed that the house mice were infected with two species of Hymenolepis: Hymenolepis nana 4 (8%) and Hymenolepis diminuta 7(14%). The intestinal parasites revealed a significance prevalence value (P<0.05). There was statistical difference in between males and females in parasites infection, in which the higher rate was 8 (27.58%) and recorded in males and the lower was 3 (14.28%) and observed in females. The monthly distribution of confirmed cases over a 9-month period revealed that reported cases of house mice and Hymenolepiasis increased significantly (P<0.01) in autumn (65.44%), followed by winter (15.38%), and summer (13.33%). The findings showed that house mice play an important role in the spread of zoonotic parasitic illnesses to people, as well as attention must pay to public health.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Andrea Chaves ◽  
Gaby Dolz ◽  
Carlos N. Ibarra-Cerdeña ◽  
Genuar Núñez ◽  
Edgar Ortiz-Malavasi E ◽  

Abstract Background In South and Central America, Plasmodium malariae/Plasmodium brasilianum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium simium, and Plasmodium falciparum has been reported in New World primates (NWP). Specifically in Costa Rica, the presence of monkeys positive to P. malariae/P brasilianum has been identified in both captivity and in the wild. The aim of the present study was to determine the presence of P. brasilianum, P. falciparum, and P. vivax, and the potential distribution of these parasites-infecting NWP from Costa Rica. Methods The locations with PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) positive results and bioclimatic predictors were used to construct ecological niche models based on a modelling environment that uses the Maxent algorithm, named kuenm, capable to manage diverse settings to better estimate the potential distributions and uncertainty indices of the potential distribution. Results PCR analysis for the Plasmodium presence was conducted in 384 samples of four primates (Howler monkey [n = 130], White-face monkey [n = 132], Squirrel monkey [n = 50], and red spider monkey [n = 72]), from across Costa Rica. Three Plasmodium species were detected in all primate species (P. falciparum, P. malariae/P. brasilianum, and P. vivax). Overall, the infection prevalence was 8.9%, but each Plasmodium species ranged 2.1–3.4%. The niche model approach showed that the Pacific and the Atlantic coastal regions of Costa Rica presented suitable climatic conditions for parasite infections. However, the central pacific coast has a more trustable prediction for malaria in primates. Conclusions The results indicate that the regions with higher suitability for Plasmodium transmission in NWP coincide with regions where most human cases have been reported. These regions were also previously identified as areas with high suitability for vector species, suggesting that enzootic and epizootic cycles occur.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Isabel Damas-Moreira ◽  
João P. Maia ◽  
Beatriz Tomé ◽  
Daniele Salvi ◽  
Ana Perera ◽  

Abstract Assessment of parasites and their pathogenicity is essential for studying the ecology of populations and understanding their dynamics. In this study, we investigate the prevalence and intensity of infection of haemogregarines (phylum Apicomplexa) in two sympatric lizard species, Podarcis vaucheri and Scelarcis perspicillata, across three localities in Morocco, and their effect on host immune response. We used the Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) skin testing technique to relate the level of immune response with parasite infection. Prevalence and intensity levels were estimated with microscopy, and 18S rRNA gene sequences were used to confirm parasite identity. All parasites belong to the haemogregarine lineage found in other North African reptiles. There were differences in prevalence between localities and sexes. Overall, infected lizards were larger than uninfected ones, although we did not detect differences in parasitaemia across species, sex or locality. The swelling response was not related to the presence or number of haemogregarines, or to host body size, body condition, sex or species. We found no evidence of impact for these parasites on the circulating blood cells or the hosts’ immune system, but more data is needed to assess the potential impact of mixed infections, and the possibility of cryptic parasite species.

2022 ◽  
Bigyan Thapa ◽  
Rajendra Prasad Parajuli ◽  
Pitambar Dhakal

Abstract Gastrointestinal parasites (GIPs) are ubiquitous among cattle resulting severe infection. Prevalence of GIPs in stray street cattle may pose risk of dissemination of parasites of zoonotic importance. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of GIPs in stray cattle of Kathmandu valley. Hundred (n=100) freshly voided dung samples were collected from eight places. The samples were processed using concentration method for microscopic examination, and modified McMaster technique for quantification of mean eggs/oocysts per gram of feces (EPG/OPG). Results revealed that 72% of the cattle were found positive for one or more species of GIPs and nine genera of GIPs were recorded (Eimeria, Ostertagia, Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Capillaria, Trichuris, Toxocara, Fasciola and Paramphistomum). The prevalence of parasitic infection was higher in male (73.68%) than in female (69.76%). The prevalence was found to be highest in adults (63.89%) followed by heifers (27.78%) and calves (8.33%). Approximately 76% of the cross breed and 65% local breed of cattle were positive for parasitic infection. The parasites differed both in prevalence and intensity, Eimeria sp. being the most prevalent (27%) with highest intensity (858.02 OPG ±63.46 SD). To our information, this is the first research of its kind in relation to stray cattle in Nepal. Our findings reveal that there is burden of helminth infections of zoonotic and socioeconomic importance in the straycattle. Therefore, it warrants regular inspection, relevant preventive measures and molecular detection of parasites.

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