risk behaviours
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2022 ◽  
Vol 187 ◽  
pp. 111411
Sarah Callinan ◽  
Geoff Leggat ◽  
Kelly Van Egmond ◽  
Annukka Lindell

Amir Sadighpour ◽  
Neda Dolatkhah ◽  
Shokoufeh Khanzadeh ◽  
Maryam Baradaran Binazir ◽  
Fariba Heidari

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (5) ◽  
pp. 15-24
Justina Kwaskebe ◽  
James E. Atolagbe ◽  
Bode Kayode

Introduction: The use of psychoactive drugs among ladies is engaged in on an alarming increase in the postmodern Nigerian society, as it remains one of the public health and social vices that affects the contemporary human community. Purpose: The objectives of this study were to identify the drugs mostly abused and to determine the risk behaviours they engage in when under the influence of psychoactive drugs. Methodology: This study adopted a cross-sectional approach involving the use of oral interview and a semi- structured questionnaire as the instrument of data collection. This involved 20 interviewees in simple random selection. The data collected were analyzed using a descriptive statistics and statistical test of significance and results presented in charts. Findings: Major findings in this study attest to the fact that the mostly abused psychoactive drugs are Cigarette, Indian hemp, tramadol and codeine, cocaine. The use of psychoactive drugs is precursory to mental health challenges, depression, and behavioural abnormalities among younger women. The risk behaviours engaged when under the influence of these psychoactive drugs are aggressiveness/ ready to fight, unrestricted sexual activities, desire for more drug use. Consequently, the study findings maintain that the perpetration of heinous crimes that are carried out in the society cannot be independent of the influence of drugs, since the abused psychoactive drugs alter the normal function of the brain thus affecting the mental health of the user. Contribution to theory, practice and policy: Therefore, public health education and promotion with a focus on dissuading the unrestricted circulation and abuse of psychoactive drugs, especially among Aba young ladies is perceived profitable. Conclusion and Recommendation: Community awareness regarding drug and substance among women and constant checkmating of the activities of street girls should be carried out.

2021 ◽  
pp. 135910452110618
Naomi Liang ◽  
Timothy D Becker ◽  
Timothy Rice

To promote clinician preparedness for working with children and adolescents who lost or will lose a parent or caretaker to COVID-19, findings from a review of the literature concerning youth reactions to parent and caretaker death and incapacitation were integrated with recent and emergent data concerning the COVID-19 pandemic. Children and adolescents who lose a parent or caretaker are at an increased risk of anxiety and depressive reactions and disorders, externalizing and health-risk behaviours, and substance use disorders. Particular aspects of the COVID-19 pandemic may influence these presentations and the risk of complicated grief. Youth with prior histories of adverse childhood experiences as well as boys and young men may require special considerations in formulation and planning. Tailored paediatric care based on the evidence advances accurate formulations and effective interventions for children and adolescents who suffer such a loss.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Elanor Lucy Webb ◽  
Deborah Morris ◽  
Abbey Hamer ◽  
Jessica Davies

Purpose Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are highly prevalent in people with developmental disorders who engage in offending behaviour. Many violence-based risk assessment tools include items pertaining to ACEs, and may inflate risk scores in trauma-exposed groups. This paper aims to explore the relationships between ACEs, risk assessment scores, incidents of risk and restrictive practices, in adolescents with developmental disorders in a forensic inpatient setting. Design/methodology/approach Secondary analysis was conducted on clinical data for 34 adolescents detained to a developmental disorder service. Data were extracted for Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY) risk scores and risk behaviours and restrictive practices, as measures of observed risk. Findings Participants exposed to more ACEs had higher SAVRY risk scores (p < 0.001, two-tailed), with elevations specifically on the historical subscale (p < 0.001, two-tailed). Neither ACEs nor risk scores were associated with the frequency of risk behaviours. Nevertheless, participants exposed to four or more ACEs were secluded more frequently (p = 0.015, two-tailed), indicating a potential association between trauma and risk severity. Those with more complex developmental disorders experienced fewer ACEs (p = 0.02, two-tailed) and engaged in self-harm behaviours less frequently (p = 0.04, two-tailed). Research limitations/implications The inclusion of ACEs in risk assessment tools may lead to the inadvertent stigmatization of trauma-exposed individuals. Further investigation is necessary to offer clarity on the impact of early adversity on risk assessment accuracy and levels of institutional risk, and the role of developmental disorders in this relationship. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to explore the relative associations between ACEs, risk assessment scores and observed institutional risk and does so in a highly marginalized population.

2021 ◽  
Peter Bai James ◽  
Augustus Osborne ◽  
Abdulai Jawo Bah ◽  
Emmanuel Kamanda Margao ◽  
Mohamed Conteh-Barat

Abstract Background: There is very little information on sexual risk behaviour among Sierra Leone and Liberia school-going adolescents. The present study assessed the prevalence and determinants of sexual risk behaviours among school-aged adolescents in Sierra Leone and Liberia. Method: We used publicly available nationally representative cross-sectional datasets of the 2017 Sierra Leone and Liberia Global school health survey. The sample consisted of 2798 and 2744 school-going adolescents from Sierra Leone and Liberia, respectively. Results: The majority of adolescents in the two countries were involved in multiple sexual risk behaviour (80.2%), with higher prevalence observed in Sierra Leone (85.2%) than in Liberia (75.3%), Liberian adolescents showed lesser odds of indulging in multiple sexual risk behaviours than their Sierra Leonean counterparts (AOR=0.572; 95%CI: 0.345-0.946). Male compared to females were more likely to engage in multiple sexual risk behaviour (AOR=2.310;95%CI:1.543-3.458), with a similar pattern observed in both countries. Alcohol use was associated with multiple sexual risk behaviour (AOR=3.064; 95%CI: 2.137-4.392). Also, in Sierra Leone and Liberia, adolescents with one and two or more forms of psychological distress were more likely to have ever had sex than those who do show any form of psychological distress. Missing class/school was associated with multiple sexual risk behaviour (AOR=1.655; 95%CI:1.133-2.418). Peer support was only found to be a protective factor against no condom use among Liberian adolescents (AOR=0.608; 95%CI: 0.435-0.850). Less parental support was only associated with ever had sex more likely to have ever had sex as seen among adolescents in Sierra Leone (AOR=2.027; 95%CI: 1.322-3.107) but not Liberia (1.034(0.650-1.644). Conclusion: Our study found a high sexual risk behaviour among school-going adolescents in Sierra Leone and Liberia. Our finding highlights the need to strengthen sexual and reproductive health education in schools and communities that incorporate mental health promotion activities tailored to this group.

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