normal function
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2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 001-006
Abdulrazzaq Abdulhameed Al-Rawi

Food availability is the most important issue that takes the priority places in the policies of all countries all over the world. Recently, more attention has been paid to livestock because of their ability to produce meat and milk, as well as it has a significant source of income for small holders and an economic contributor to the gross domestic product. Climate changes induced physiological stress, which is one of the complex factors making livestock management and husbandry challenging in many geographical locations in the world. Increased body temperature or heat stress will cause production losses in livestock and impact on their ability to maintain normal function. There is considerable research evidence that showed significant decline in animal performance when subjected to heat stress. Heat stress inflicts heavy economic losses on livestock production. The effects of heat stress is evident in feed consumption, production efficiency in terms of milk yield or weight gain per unit of feed energy, growth rate, and reproductive efficiency. The aim of this article is to discuss increasing food production to ensure food security for nearly 8 billion people, without causing further environmental damage that can be achieved by transforming systems and adopting sustainable livestock practices within a changing climate.

Antioxidants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 152
Chia-Chu Liu ◽  
Chia-Fang Wu ◽  
Yung-Chin Lee ◽  
Tsung-Yi Huang ◽  
Shih-Ting Huang ◽  

Environmental melamine exposure increases the risks of oxidative stress and early kidney injury. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), glutathione peroxidase, and catalase can protect the kidneys against oxidative stress and maintain normal function. We evaluated whether their single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) could modify melamine’s effects. A total of 302 patients diagnosed with calcium urolithiasis were enrolled. All patients provided one-spot overnight urine samples to measure their melamine levels, urinary biomarkers of oxidative stress and renal tubular injury. Median values were used to dichotomize levels into high and low. Subjects carrying the T allele of rs4880 and high melamine levels had 3.60 times greater risk of high malondialdehyde levels than those carrying the C allele of rs4880 and low melamine levels after adjustment. Subjects carrying the G allele of rs5746136 and high melamine levels had 1.73 times greater risk of high N-Acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase levels than those carrying the A allele of rs5746136 and low melamine levels. In conclusion, the SNPs of MnSOD, rs4880 and rs5746136, influence the risk of oxidative stress and renal tubular injury, respectively, in calcium urolithiasis patients. In the context of high urinary melamine levels, their effects on oxidative stress and renal tubular injury were further increased.

2022 ◽  
Xinrui Wang ◽  
Zhihong Yin ◽  
Lingli Chen ◽  
Liushuai Hua ◽  
Fei Ren ◽  

Abstract Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the typical environmental endocrine disruptors. BPA was leached from polycarbonate containers into food and water, and it has been detected in collective samples from humans. Microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and Tau maintain microtubule normal function and promote the normal development of the nervous system. Synaptophysin (SYP) and drebrin (Dbn) proteins are involved in regulating synaptic plasticity. This study aimed to determine the adverse effects of BPA on Neuro-2a cells by investigating the synaptic and cytoskeletal damage. Cells were exposed to 0 (Minimum Essential Medium, MEM), 0.01% (v/v) DMSO and 150 µM BPA for 12, 24, or 36 h. Morphological analysis revealed that the cells in the BPA-treated groups shrank, collapsed, and had a reduced number of synapses compared with those in the control groups. CCK-8 and LDH assays showed that the mortality of Neuro-2a cells increased as the BPA treatment time was prolonged. Transmission electron microscopic analysis further revealed that cells demonstrated nucleolar swelling and nuclear membrane and partial mitochondrial dissolution or condensation following BPA exposure. BPA also significantly decreased the relative protein expression levels of MAP2, Tau, and Dbn (P < 0.01). Interestingly, the relative protein expression levels of SYP increased (P < 0.01). These results indicated that BPA damaged the development and proliferation of Neuro-2a cells by disrupting cytoskeleton and synaptic integrity.

2022 ◽  
Bruce Campbell ◽  
Sandra Engle ◽  
Patricia Bourassa ◽  
Robert Aiello

Pathological retention of LDL in the intima is involved in atherosclerosis, although the retention mechanisms are not well-understood. Previously, we reported Sterile Alpha Motif Domain Containing 1 (SAMD1), a protein secreted by intimal smooth muscle cells in atherosclerotic lesions, appears to bind LDL in extracellular matrix around intimal cells. Fab-fragment inhibitors of apparently irreversible SAMD1/LDL binding reduced LDL retention in carotid injury models, but did not have a significant effect on early spontaneous lesion initiation. The normal function of SAMD1 is unknown, but it may have multiple epigenetic roles; our histology of mouse atherosclerosis models revealed extensive SAMD1 expression, possibly related to cell phenotype modulation and antigen presentation. For this report, we generated SAMD1-/-, SAMD1-/+, and SAMD1-/+ apoE-/- mice to further explore SAMD1's role in atherosclerosis. SAMD1 was found in tissues throughout the SAMD1+/+ and SAMD1-/+embryos. Homozygous loss of SAMD1 was embryonic lethal: at embryonic day 14, organs were partially developed and/or degraded; heads and brains were malformed; no blood vessels were observed; red blood cells were scattered and pooled, primarily near the embryo surface; and cell death was occurring. Development appeared normal in heterozygous SAMD1 embryos, but postnatal genotyping showed a reduced ability to thrive. Growth of atherosclerotic lesions in SAMD1-/+ apoE-/- after 35 weeks was not significantly less than in mice SAMD1+/+ apoE-/- mice.

2022 ◽  
Thomas J Smith ◽  
Michael Erdek ◽  
Tyler Murphy

Abstract Purpose: Schwannomatosis patients (SP) suffer from chronic nerve pain that is often inadequately relieved. Scrambler Therapy (ST) can relieve neuropathic pain quickly, safely, and inexpensively. We successfully treated a patient with Scrambler Therapy, adding another tool to the methods used to treat SP pain.Methods: We treated her with 5 daily sessions of ST, each for 40 minutes.Results: Complete relief of pain and hyperalgesia, with return to normal function, by day 5, that has persisted.Conclusion: Scrambler Therapy may be an effective way to treat schwannomatosis pain, and deserves further research.

Adrianna Westbrook ◽  
Ruiyuan Zhang ◽  
Mengyao Shi ◽  
Alexander C Razavi ◽  
Zhijie Huang ◽  

Abstract We aimed to evaluate associations of baseline telomere length with overall and annual change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and trajectory of kidney function during an 8-year follow-up. A total of 3,964 participants of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) were included. We identified three trajectory groups of kidney function: consistently normal (n=1,163 or 29.3%), normal to impaired (n=2,306 or 58.2%), and consistently impaired groups (n=495 or 12.5%). After controlling for age, sex, race, education, smoking, drinking, diabetes, heart disease, blood pressure, body mass index, total cholesterol, and hemoglobin A1c, participants with longer telomere length were 20% less likely (odds ratio [OR]=0.80, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.69-0.93, P=0.003) to have a normal to impaired kidney function trajectory than a consistently normal function trajectory. Telomere length was not associated with changing rate of eGFR over 8 years (P=0.45). Participants with longer telomere length were more likely to have consistently normal kidney function.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
Erica Rehnblom ◽  
Wanda J. Gordon-Evans

PICO question In large breed juvenile dogs with hip dysplasia and radiographic bilateral osteoarthritis, is a total hip replacement superior/inferior/or equivalent to bilateral femoral head ostectomy at reducing the severity of long-term hip pain?   Clinical bottom line Category of research question Treatment The number and type of study designs reviewed Twelve papers were critically appraised. One paper was a systematic review. Six papers were prospective case series. Five papers were retrospective case series Strength of evidence Weak Outcomes reported Besides one systematic review, there are no other studies available that directly compare pain reduction with total hip replacement and femoral head ostectomy for the treatment of hip dysplasia in large breed juvenile dogs with radiographic evidence of secondary osteoarthritis. In one study, 12/12 (100%)of owners that responded to an owner outcome questionnaire reported no hip pain with femoral head and neck ostectomy. In this study, owners assessed pain based on activity level of the dog (running, playing, jumping, using stairs normally), gait abnormalities (only when running or after strenuous exercise), and duration of postoperative medications. In eight studies, 91–100% of cases had no hip pain with total hip replacement reported via clinical examination and/or owner outcome questionnaire Conclusion There is evidence suggesting that both total hip replacement and femoral head ostectomy may be capable of reducing long-term pain as a result of osteoarthritis, secondary to hip dysplasia, however, based on the current literature, it is challenging to say whether total hip replacement is superior to femoral head and neck ostectomy at reducing long-term hip pain. It is important to recognise that other factors considered as outcomes (i.e. range of motion, ground reaction forces, force-plate analysis, etc.) may contribute to differing outcomes overall for total hip replacement vs femoral head ostectomy, but this paper focused specifically on pain. While there is a systematic review that provides evidence supporting that total hip replacement is superior at returning dogs to normal function, evaluating return to normal function was not the focus of this Knowledge Summary   How to apply this evidence in practice The application of evidence into practice should take into account multiple factors, not limited to: individual clinical expertise, patient’s circumstances and owners’ values, country, location or clinic where you work, the individual case in front of you, the availability of therapies and resources. Knowledge Summaries are a resource to help reinforce or inform decision making. They do not override the responsibility or judgement of the practitioner to do what is best for the animal in their care.  

2022 ◽  
Vol 905 ◽  
pp. 277-281
Lan Lei Wang ◽  
Jian Xin Zhang ◽  
Yuan Li ◽  
Sai Nan Zhao

The research is to analyse the immunohistochemical reaction of orthodontic force on the periodontium reformed by nanobiphasic calcium phosphate ceramics (nBCP). Two third incisors were selected randomly and operated as experimental groups in 2 Beagle dogs. In the labial aspects of the third incisors, alveolar bone defects were surgically made and implanted with NBCP. The contralateral teeth in the same jaw did not receive any treatment as control. After 24 weeks, all the third incisors were moved labially. The dogs were euthanized 4 weeks later. The expression levels of osteocalcin were detected by immunohistochemical staining. Positive osteocalcin expressions in regenerated periodontium were observed and compared with the normal periodontium in the control groups. There were no significant differences within and between them. It means the periodontium regenerated by nBCP can bear orthodontic forces with a normal function. Based on these findings, we concluded that nBCP may offer a new bone graft choice for periodontic disease patients who have demands for orthodontic treatment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 04 (01) ◽  
pp. 447-453
Abdul Razzaq Jabr AL MAJIDI ◽  
Rafia S. FATHI ◽  

Background: multiple factors can affect athletic performance including nutrition, environmental, ‎physiological, physical fitness, and genetic factors. Hormonal factors such as testosterone, and ‎myostatin (MSTN) or GDF8 can be named to show significant effect on muscle growth and ‎recovery after intensive training. Illustrating the combined relationship between the latest factors ‎may help in developing efficient program for athletic care and exceled performance.‎ Methods: participation in this work came from 67 male divided into two groups of 35 endurance ‎and sprinters and 32 power athletes, with 36 females fall into two groups of 20 sprinters and 16 ‎power athletes. Testosterone and MSTN levels were measured in both genders before, and after ‎intensive training program followed by third measurement after 5 hours rest and recovery. The ‎MSTN gene was analyzed for the presence of genetic polymorphism using specific PCR ‎amplification.‎ Results: data obtained showed the presence of negative relationship between testosterone and ‎MSTN, whereas genetic analysis showed presence of three genotypes with different frequencies ‎each one of them affected MSTN with different rate ranging from normal production levels with ‎normal function to lack of function found in power athletes showing speedup muscle recovery and ‎higher muscle mass.‎ Conclusions: higher levels of testosterone reduced MSTN levels significantly showing negative ‎correlation between them. Low expression or production of nonfunctional MSTN protein enhanced ‎muscle recovery, higher muscle mass, and improved athletic performance.‎

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 1-3
Yehonatan Zur ◽  
Tzila Davidov ◽  
Limor Baruch ◽  
Marcelle Machluf ◽  

Aiming to restore the normal function of diseased or injured tissues, regenerative therapy approaches are generally based on the engineering of complex tissue-mimicking grafts, encompassing biomaterial scaffolds, stem cells, or their combinations [1-4]. Due to the major role of stem cells in physiological regenerative mechanisms, regenerative therapies normally rely on either stem cells transplantation or stem cell recruitment from the neighboring tissue into the implanted scaffold

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