bone mineral density
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Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 323
Yuri Battaglia ◽  
Antonio Bellasi ◽  
Alessandra Bortoluzzi ◽  
Francesco Tondolo ◽  
Pasquale Esposito ◽  

Vitamin D insufficiency has been associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in kidney transplant patients (KTRs). However, the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation on BMD remains poorly defined, especially for long-term KTRs. We aimed to investigate the effect of native vitamin D supplementation on the BMD of KTRs during a 2-year follow-up. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected. BMD was evaluated with standard DEXA that was performed at baseline (before vitamin D supplementation) and at the end of study period. BMD was assessed at lumbar vertebral bodies (LV) and right femoral neck (FN) by a single operator. According to WHO criteria, results were expressed as the T-score (standard deviation (SD) relative to young healthy adults) and Z-score (SD relative to age-matched controls). Osteoporosis and osteopenia were defined as a T-score ≤ −2.5 SD and a T-score < −1 and a > −2.5 SD, respectively. Based on plasma levels, 25-OH-vitamin D (25-OH-D) was supplemented as recommended for the general population. Data from 100 KTRs were analyzed. The mean study period was 27.7 ± 3.4 months. At study inception, 25-OH-D insufficiency and deficiency were recorded in 65 and 35 patients. At the basal DEXA, the percentage of osteopenia and osteoporosis was 43.3% and 18.6% at LV and 54.1% and 12.2% at FN, respectively. At the end of the study, no differences in the Z-score and T-score gains were observed. During linear mixed model analysis, native vitamin D supplementation was found to have a negative nitration with Z-score changes at the right femoral neck in KTRs (p < 0.05). The mean dose of administered cholecalciferol was 13.396 ± 7.537 UI per week; increased 25-OH-D levels were found (p < 0.0001). Either low BMD or 25-OH-vitamin D concentration was observed in long-term KTRs. Prolonged supplementation with 25-OH-D did not modify BMD, Z-score, or T-score.

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
Khalid Aligail ◽  
Joel A. Dave ◽  
Ian Louis Ross

Abstract Background Tumor-induced osteomalacia is a rare, acquired paraneoplastic syndrome, including hypophosphatemia, high serum alkaline phosphatase, reduced active vitamin D, suboptimal bone mineral density, bone pain, fragility fractures, and muscle weakness. Case presentation We report a case of 74–year–old male of mixed ancestry with hypophosphatemia resistant to treatment despite optimal compliance, associated with profound reduction of bone mineral density and multiple nontraumatic fractures, including bilateral rib fractures, lower-thoracic (T11, T12) vertebrae, and two fractures involving the surgical and anatomical neck of the right humerus. We discuss an approach to identifying the underlying cause of hypophosphatemia associated with fragility fractures, and options for management of this rare condition. Conclusion Although rare, tumor-induced osteomalacia can be diagnosed if a logical stepwise approach is implemented. Surgery could be curative if the tumor is properly located and is resectable.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 330
Alicia R. Jones ◽  
Koen Simons ◽  
Susan Harvey ◽  
Vivian Grill

Individuals with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) have reduced bone mineral density (BMD) according to dual X-ray absorptiometry at cortical sites, with relative sparing of trabecular BMD. However, fracture risk is increased at all sites. Trabecular bone score (TBS) may more accurately describe their bone quality and fracture risk. This study compared how BMD and TBS describe bone quality in PHPT. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study with a longitudinal component, of adults with PHPT, admitted to a tertiary hospital in Australia over ten years. The primary outcome was the TBS at the lumbar spine, compared to BMD, to describe bone quality and predict fractures. Secondary outcomes compared changes in TBS after parathyroidectomy. Of 68 included individuals, the mean age was 65.3 years, and 79% were female. Mean ± SD T-scores were −1.51 ± 1.63 at lumbar spine and mean TBS was 1.19 ± 0.12. Only 20.6% of individuals had lumbar spine BMD indicative of osteoporosis, while 57.4% of TBS were ≤1.20, indicating degraded architecture. There was a trend towards improved fracture prediction using TBS compared to BMD which did not reach statistical significance. Comparison of 15 individuals following parathyroidectomy showed no improvement in TBS.

2022 ◽  
Vol 63 (4) ◽  
pp. 171-175
May fawzi Saleh ◽  
Jawad Aldiwan ◽  
Ammar H. Ahmed

Background: Osteoporosis is a global health problem which is estimated to affect more than 200 million people worldwide, especially postmenopausal women. It is characterized by decreased bone mineral density leading to fragility and increased risk of fractures.  Objective: This study was conducted to explore the consumption of inappropriate foods related to osteoporosis among a group of Iraqi women. JFac Med Baghdad 2021; Vol.63, No. 4 Received: Sep., 2021 Accepted: Nov., 2021 Published: Jan., 2021   Patients and methods: A cross sectional study of 140 females aged ≥ 40 years attending polyclinics in Al-Dora sector in Baghdad city from 18th January to 24th April 2021. The bone mineral density was measured by portable quantitative calcaneal ultrasound machine (osteosystem) and the bone was assessed for osteoporosis by T-score. Food frequency questionnaire was used for collecting data related to food consumption. Results: Out of the total sample, 74 (52.9%) were found to be osteoporotic. There was a significant association with high salt and coffee consumption with the occurrence of osteoporosis (77.3% and 83.3%, respectively, p = 0.001), compared to those who did not consume caffeinated drinks. Participants with daily consumption of caffeinated drinks had a highly significant association with osteoporosis (21.8% vs 100%, p = 0.001). Conclusion: Excessive consumption of salty foods and caffeinated beverages appears to exert a negative effect on bone mineral density and the occurrence of osteoporosis among the studied group of Iraqi women.

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