Trabecular Bone
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Nikolas K. Knowles ◽  
Jonathan Kusins ◽  
Melanie P. Columbus ◽  
George S. Athwal ◽  
Louis M. Ferreira

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (22) ◽  
pp. 12528
Ewa Tomaszewska ◽  
Halyna Rudyk ◽  
Izabela Świetlicka ◽  
Monika Hułas-Stasiak ◽  
Janine Donaldson ◽  

Fumonisins are protein serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitors and potent inhibitors of sphingosine N-acyltransferase (ceramide synthase) disrupting de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis. The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of fumonisins (FB) exposure from the 7th day of pregnancy to parturition on offspring bone development. The rats were randomly allocated to either a control group (n = 6), not treated with FBs, or to one of the two groups intoxicated with FBs (either at 60 mg FB/kg b.w. or at 90 mg FB/kg b.w. Numerous negative, offspring sex-dependent effects of maternal FB exposure were observed with regards to the histomorphometry of trabecular bone. These effects were due to FB-inducted alterations in bone metabolism, as indicated by changes in the expression of selected proteins involved in bone development: tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2 (TIMP-2), matrix metalloproteinase 8 (MMP-8), matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The immunolocalization of MMPs and TIMP-2 was performed in trabecular and compact bone, as well as articular and growth plate cartilages. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the exposure of pregnant dams to FB negatively affected the expression of certain proteins responsible for bone matrix degradation in newborns prenatally exposed to FB in a dose- and sex-dependent manner.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (22) ◽  
pp. 5373
Anna Nowakowska-Płaza ◽  
Jakub Wroński ◽  
Iwona Sudoł-Szopińska ◽  
Piotr Głuszko

Purpose: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) not only results in pathological ossification of the spine, but can also be associated with osteoporosis. Due to the presence of syndesmophytes and possible involvement of the hip joints, classical dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is of limited use in patients with advanced stages of AS. Trabecular bone score (TBS) is a method complementary to DXA, providing additional information about bone microarchitecture. There is a growing body of evidence for the usefulness of TBS in AS patients. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical utility of TBS in patients with AS. Methods: Patients with AS underwent DXA with additional TBS assessment. A cross-sectional analysis of the frequency of osteoporosis and bone microarchitecture deterioration and their association with patients’ characteristics was done. Results: A total of 51 male patients, mean age 40.7 years, were enrolled. Osteoporosis was diagnosed in seven patients (13.7%). Lumbar bone mineral density (BMD) was higher (p < 0.001) than femoral BMD, indicating abnormal BMD readings in the spine caused by syndesmophytes. Patients with DXA-diagnosed osteoporosis had lower TBS (p = 0.03) and TBS T-score (p = 0.043) values compared to patients without osteoporosis. However, disturbed bone microarchitecture (TBS < 1.23) was present in only three patients (5.9%). None of the patients had a history of an osteoporotic fracture. A lower TBS T-score (p = 0.032) was demonstrated in patients with sacroiliitis grade 4 than in patients with sacroiliitis grade 2, with no significant differences in BMD and T-score values. Conclusion: Among patients with early AS, the clinical utility of TBS is limited—it does not add value to DXA.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Yu Kang ◽  
Chao Liu ◽  
Ming Wang ◽  
Cheng Wang ◽  
Yi-Guo Yan ◽  

Abstract Background Rats have been widely used as experimental animals when performing fundamental research because they are economical, rapidly reproducing, and heal quickly. While the rat interbody fusion model has been applied in basic studies, existing rat models generally have shortcomings, such as insufficiently simulating clinical surgery. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel rat model of interbody fusion which more closely represents clinical surgery. Methods The internal fixation was designed based on physical measurements of the rats’ lumbar spine. Then, ten rats divided into two groups (A and B) underwent anterior lumbar corpectomy and fusion of the L5 vertebrae. Groups A and B were sacrificed four and 8 weeks post-surgery, respectively. Micro-CT and histological examination were used to evaluate the model. Fusion rate, bone volume fraction (BV/TV), trabecular bone number (Tb.N), trabecular bone thickness (Tb.Th), and the area ratio of newly formed bone (NB) were calculated for quantitative analysis. Results Based on the L5 body dimensions of individual rats, 3D-printed titanium cage of the appropriate size were printed. The operations were successfully completed in all ten rats, and X-ray confirmed that internal fixation was good without migration. Micro-CT suggested that fusion rates in group B (100%) were greater than group A (40%, P < 0.05). The BV/TV (B: 42.20 ± 10.50 vs. A: 29.02 ± 3.25, P < 0.05) and Tb.N (B: 4.66 ± 1.23 vs. A: 1.97 ± 0.40, P < 0.05) were greater in group B than A, and the Tb.Th in group B was lower than group A (B: 0.10 ± 0.04 vs. A: 0.15 ± 0.02, P < 0.05). Histomorphometry results demonstrated that the area ratio of NB in group B were greater than group A (B: 35.72 ± 12.80 vs. A: 12.36 ± 16.93, P < 0.05). Conclusion A rat interbody fusion model based on anterior lumbar corpectomy and fusion has successfully been constructed and verified. It could provide a new choice for fundamental research using animal models of spinal fusion.

2021 ◽  
Vol 29 (6) ◽  
pp. 331-340

ABSTRACT Objective: Heterotopic ossification is defined as the formation of trabecular bone in soft tissues. It is a common complication after surgical treatment of acetabular fractures. However, its prophylaxis and treatment are still controversial. The objective of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of actions to prevent the development of heterotopic ossification after surgical correction of acetabular fractures. Methods: A systematic review was carried out with research in the databases PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS and Cochrane until August 4, 2020, without restrictions on language and year of publication. Only randomized clinical studies carried out in humans without restrictions based on the dosage of treatments, use and duration of prophylaxis were included in this review. Results: Two studies compared the use of radiotherapy and indomethacin and three compared the use of indomethacin with a placebo or non-indomethacin group. The meta-analysis calculations did not indicate statistical differences between radiotherapy versus indomethacin (RR 1.45, IC 95% 0.97 to 2.17, p = 0,55) and indomethacin versus placebo or not indomethacin (RR 0.85, IC 95% 0.68 to 1.06, p = 0,59). Conclusion: There is insufficient evidence to affirm that the use of radiotherapy or indomethacin are effective to prevent the formation of heterotopic ossification after surgery for fractures of the acetabulum. In addition, the number of complications was higher in the indomethacin group when compared to placebo or no intervention. Level of Evidence I, Systematic Review.

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (22) ◽  
pp. 6869
Martina Alunni Cardinali ◽  
Assunta Morresi ◽  
Daniele Fioretto ◽  
Leonardo Vivarelli ◽  
Dante Dallari ◽  

Human bone is a specialized tissue with unique material properties, providing mechanical support and resistance to the skeleton and simultaneously assuring capability of adaptation and remodelling. Knowing the properties of such a structure down to the micro-scale is of utmost importance, not only for the design of effective biomimetic materials but also to be able to detect pathological alterations in material properties, such as micro-fractures or abnormal tissue remodelling. The Brillouin and Raman micro-spectroscopic (BRmS) approach has the potential to become a first-choice technique, as it is capable of simultaneously investigating samples’ mechanical and structural properties in a non-destructive and label-free way. Here, we perform a mapping of cortical and trabecular bone sections of a femoral epiphysis, demonstrating the capability of the technique for discovering the morpho-mechanics of cells, the extracellular matrix, and marrow constituents. Moreover, the interpretation of Brillouin and Raman spectra merged with an approach of data mining is used to compare the mechanical alterations in specimens excised from distinct anatomical areas and subjected to different sample processing. The results disclose in both cases specific alterations in the morphology and/or in the tissue chemical make-up, which strongly affects bone mechanical properties, providing a method potentially extendable to other important biomedical issues.

Endocrinology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Karim Sahbani ◽  
Christopher P Cardozo ◽  
William A Bauman ◽  
Hesham A Tawfeek

Abstract Bone loss is one of the most common complications of immobilization after spinal cord injury (SCI). Whether TGF-β signaling plays a role in SCI-induced disuse bone loss has not been determined. Thus, 16-week-old male mice underwent sham or spinal cord contusion injury to cause complete hindlimb paralysis. Five days later, 10 mg/kg/day control (IgG) or anti-TGF-β1,2,3 neutralizing antibody (1D11) was administered twice weekly for 4 weeks. Femurs were examined by micro-computed tomography scanning (micro-CT) and histology. Bone marrow (BM) supernatants were analyzed by ELISA for levels of procollagen type 1 intact N-terminal propeptide (P1NP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAcP-5b), receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Distal femoral micro-CT analysis showed that SCI-1D11 mice had significantly (P&lt;0.05) attenuated loss of trabecular fractional bone volume (123% SCI-1D11 vs 69% SCI-IgG), thickness (98% vs 81%), and connectivity (112% vs 69%) and improved the structure model index (2.1 vs 2.7). Histomorphometry analysis revealed that osteoclast numbers were lower in the SCI-IgG mice than sham-IgG sham control. Biochemically, SCI-IgG mice had higher levels of P1NP and PGE2 but similar TRAcP-5b and RANKL/OPG ratio to the sham-IgG group. SCI-1D11 group exhibited higher levels of P1NP and RANKL/OPG ratio but similar TRAcP-5b and PGE2 to the sham-1D11 group. Furthermore, 1D11 treatment prevented SCI-induced hyperphosphorylation of tau protein in osteocytes, an event that destabilizes the cytoskeleton. Together, inhibition of TGF-β signaling after SCI protects trabecular bone integrity, likely by balancing bone remodeling, inhibiting PGE2 elevation, and preserving the osteocyte cytoskeleton.

Tomography ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 767-782
Dan Jin ◽  
Han Zheng ◽  
Qingqing Zhao ◽  
Chunjie Wang ◽  
Mengze Zhang ◽  

This paper proposes a deep-learning-based image enhancement approach that can generate high-resolution micro-CT-like images from multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). A total of 12,500 MDCT and micro-CT image pairs were obtained from 25 vertebral specimens. Then, a pix2pixHD model was trained and evaluated using the structural similarity index measure (SSIM) and Fréchet inception distance (FID). We performed subjective assessments of the micro-CT-like images based on five aspects. Micro-CT and micro-CT-like image-derived trabecular bone microstructures were compared, and the underlying correlations were analyzed. The results showed that the pix2pixHD method (SSIM, 0.804 ± 0.037 and FID, 43.598 ± 9.108) outperformed the two control methods (pix2pix and CRN) in enhancing MDCT images (p < 0.05). According to the subjective assessment, the pix2pixHD-derived micro-CT-like images showed no significant difference from the micro-CT images in terms of contrast and shadow (p > 0.05) but demonstrated slightly lower noise, sharpness and trabecular bone texture (p < 0.05). Compared with the trabecular microstructure parameters of micro-CT images, those of pix2pixHD-derived micro-CT-like images showed no significant differences in bone volume fraction (BV/TV) (p > 0.05) and significant correlations in trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) and trabecular spacing (Tb.Sp) (Tb.Th, R = 0.90, p < 0.05; Tb.Sp, R = 0.88, p < 0.05). The proposed method can enhance the resolution of MDCT and obtain micro-CT-like images, which may provide new diagnostic criteria and a predictive basis for osteoporosis and related fractures.

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