Multivesicular Bodies
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2021 ◽  
Carolina Camelo ◽  
Anna Koerte ◽  
Thea Jacobs ◽  
Peter Robin Hiesinger ◽  
Stefan Luschnig

Fusion of endothelial or epithelial tubes is essential for the development of organs like the vertebrate vasculature or the insect tracheal system, but the mechanisms underlying the formation of tubular connections (anastomoses) are not well understood. Tracheal tube fusion in Drosophila is mediated by tip cells that transform into lumenized toroids to connect adjacent tubes. This process depends on the Munc13-4 orthologue Staccato (Stac), which localizes to tip-cell-specific lysosome-related organelles (LROs). We show that tracheal LROs display features of multivesicular bodies (MVBs) and that the tracheal lumen contains membranous extracellular vesicles (EVs), a subset of which carries Stac/Munc13-4 and is associated with tracheal anastomosis sites. The presence of LROs and luminal Stac-EVs depends on the tip-cell-specific GTPase Arl3, suggesting that Stac-EVs derive from fusion of MVBs with the luminal membrane in tip cells during anastomosis formation. The GTPases Rab27 and Rab35 cooperate downstream of Arl3 to promote Stac-MVB formation and tube fusion. We propose that Stac-MVBs act as membrane reservoirs that facilitate lumen fusion in tip cells, in a process regulated by Arl3, Rab27, Rab35, and Stac/Munc13-4.

2021 ◽  
Emily E Bonacquisti ◽  
Scott W Ferguson ◽  
Natalie E Jasiewicz ◽  
Jinli Wang ◽  
Adam D Brown ◽  

Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs), or exosomes, play important roles in physiological and pathological cellular communication. sEVs contain both short and long non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and epigenetic processes. Studying the intricacies of sEV function and RNA-based communication requires tools capable of labeling sEV RNA. Here we developed a novel genetically encodable reporter system for tracking sEV RNAs comprising an sEV-loading RNA sequence, termed the EXO-Code, fused to a fluorogenic RNA Mango aptamer for RNA imaging. This fusion construct allowed the visualization and tracking of RNA puncta and colocalization with markers of multivesicular bodies; imaging RNA puncta within sEVs; and quantification of sEVs. This technology represents a useful and versatile tool to interrogate the role of sEVs in cellular communication via RNA trafficking to sEVs, cellular sorting decisions, and sEV RNA cargo transfer to recipient cells.

Antioxidants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (8) ◽  
pp. 1269
Ramy K. A. Sayed ◽  
Marisol Fernández-Ortiz ◽  
Ibtissem Rahim ◽  
José Fernández-Martínez ◽  
Paula Aranda-Martínez ◽  

To investigate the role of NLRP3 inflammasome in cardiac aging, we evaluate here morphological and ultrastructural age-related changes of cardiac muscles fibers in wild-type and NLRP3-knockout mice, as well as studying the beneficial effect of melatonin therapy. The results clarified the beginning of the cardiac sarcopenia at the age of 12 months, with hypertrophy of cardiac myocytes, increased expression of β-MHC, appearance of small necrotic fibers, decline of cadiomyocyte number, destruction of mitochondrial cristae, appearance of small-sized residual bodies, and increased apoptotic nuclei ratio. These changes were progressed in the cardiac myocytes of 24 old mice, accompanied by excessive collagen deposition, higher expressions of IL-1α, IL-6, and TNFα, complete mitochondrial vacuolation and damage, myofibrils disorganization, multivesicular bodies formation, and nuclear fragmentation. Interestingly, cardiac myocytes of NLRP3−/− mice showed less detectable age-related changes compared with WT mice. Oral melatonin therapy preserved the normal cardiomyocytes structure, restored cardiomyocytes number, and reduced β-MHC expression of cardiac hypertrophy. In addition, melatonin recovered mitochondrial architecture, reduced apoptosis and multivesicular bodies’ formation, and decreased expressions of β-MHC, IL-1α, and IL-6. Fewer cardiac sarcopenic changes and highly remarkable protective effects of melatonin treatment detected in aged cardiomyocytes of NLRP3−/− mice compared with aged WT animals, confirming implication of the NLRP3 inflammasome in cardiac aging. Thus, NLRP3 suppression and melatonin therapy may be therapeutic approaches for age-related cardiac sarcopenia.

Adeline Kerviel ◽  
Mengyang Zhang ◽  
Nihal Altan-Bonnet

Viral egress and transmission have long been described to take place through single free virus particles. However, viruses can also shed into the environment and transmit as populations clustered inside extracellular vesicles (EVs), a process we had first called vesicle-mediated en bloc transmission. These membrane-cloaked virus clusters can originate from a variety of cellular organelles including autophagosomes, plasma membrane, and multivesicular bodies. Their viral cargo can be multiples of nonenveloped or enveloped virus particles or even naked infectious genomes, but egress is always nonlytic, with the cell remaining intact. Here we put forth the thesis that EV-cloaked viral clusters are a distinct form of infectious unit as compared to free single viruses (nonenveloped or enveloped) or even free virus aggregates. We discuss how efficient and prevalent these infectious EVs are in the context of virus-associated diseases and highlight the importance of their proper detection and disinfection for public health. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology, Volume 37 is October 2021. Please see for revised estimates.

Reflection ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 25-30
A.V. Eremina ◽  
D.V. Chernykh ◽  

Study of the lacrimal fluid (LF) as a constant microenvironment of the anterior part of the eye which is the only atraumatically accessible substrate for the diagnosis and research of ophthalmic diseases, such as vitreomacular traction syndrome (VMTS), diabetic retinopathy (DR), makes it possible to study it using electronic microscopy methods. All studied LF samples contain cells and cell fragments; exosomes which are vesicles (40–100 nm) localized in multivesicular bodies, transmitting signals between cells and carrying markers of many diseases. Analysis of the samples revealed changes in the occurrence of these structures in VMTS and DR in comparison with healthy subjects. In this work, the components of the LF were visualized and their changes were established in DR and VMTS, which proves the value of the LF as a diagnostic substrate and determines the need for further research in order to formulate clear criteria for the diagnosis of these diseases in the early stages. Key words: lacrimal fluid; electronic microscopy; vitreomacular traction syndrome; diabetic retinopathy.

2021 ◽  
Karina LA Saraiva ◽  
Luydson RS Vasconcelos ◽  
Matheus F Bezerra ◽  
Rodrigo ML Arcoverde ◽  
Sinval P Brandao-Filho ◽  

The nasal epithelium is an initial site for SARS-CoV-2 infection, responsible for the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. However, the pathogenicity and morphological impact of SARS-CoV-2 on the nasopharynx cells from symptomatic patients with different viral loads remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated the ultrastructure of nasal cells obtained from individuals at distinct disease days and with high and low SARS-CoV-2 loads. Squamous and ciliated cells were the main cells observed in SARS-CoV-2 negative samples. We identified virus-like particles (VLPs) and replication organelles (RO)-like structures in the squamous cells from high viral load samples after 3- and 4-days of symptoms. Ultrastructural changes were found in those cells, such as the loss of microvilli and primary cilium, the increase of multivesicular bodies and autophagosomes, and signs of cell death. No ciliated cells were found in those samples. Squamous cells from low viral load sample after 5 days of symptoms showed few microvilli and no primary cilium. VLPs and RO-like structures were found in the ciliated cells only. No ultrastructural alterations were seen in the cells from low viral load individuals after 10- and 14-days of symptoms. Our results shed light on the ultrastructural effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the human nasopharyngeal cells.

PLoS Biology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (7) ◽  
pp. e3001271
Ritankar Majumdar ◽  
Aidin Tavakoli Tameh ◽  
Subhash B. Arya ◽  
Carole A. Parent

Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is secreted by chemotactic neutrophils, forming a secondary gradient that amplifies the reach of primary chemoattractants. This strategy increases the recruitment range for neutrophils and is important during inflammation. Here, we show that LTB4 and its synthesizing enzymes localize to intracellular multivesicular bodies, which, upon stimulation, release their content as exosomes. Purified exosomes can activate resting neutrophils and elicit chemotactic activity in an LTB4 receptor-dependent manner. Inhibition of exosome release leads to loss of directional motility with concomitant loss of LTB4 release. Our findings establish that the exosomal pool of LTB4 acts in an autocrine fashion to sensitize neutrophils towards the primary chemoattractant, and in a paracrine fashion to mediate the recruitment of neighboring neutrophils in trans. We envision that this mechanism is used by other signals to foster communication between cells in harsh extracellular environments.

2021 ◽  
Katharina S Keuenhof ◽  
Lisa Larsson Berglund ◽  
Sandra Malmgren Hill ◽  
Kara L Schneider ◽  
Per O Widlund ◽  

When the temperature is increased, the heat shock response is activated to protect the cellular environment. The transcriptomics and proteomics of this process are intensively studied, while information about how the cell responds structurally to heat stress is mostly lacking. Here, Saccharomyces cerevisiae were subjected to a mild continuous heat shock (38°C) and intermittently cryo-immobilized for electron microscopy. Through measuring changes in all distinguishable organelle numbers, sizes, and morphologies in over 2100 electron micrographs a major restructuring of the cell's internal architecture during the progressive heat shock was revealed. The cell grew larger but most organelles within it expanded even more, shrinking the volume of the cytoplasm. Organelles responded to heat shock at different times, both in terms of size and number, and adaptations of certain organelles’ morphology (such as the vacuole), were observed. Multivesicular bodies grew to almost 170% in size, indicating a previously unknown involvement in the heat shock response. A previously undescribed electron translucent structure accumulated close to the plasma membrane. This all-encompassing approach provides a detailed chronological progression of organelle adaptation throughout the cellular heat-stress response.

2021 ◽  
Xiao-Man Liu ◽  
Liang Ma ◽  
Randy Schekman

Exosomes may mediate cell-to-cell communication by transporting various proteins and nucleic acids to neighboring cells. Some protein and RNA cargoes are significantly enriched in exosomes. How cells efficiently and selectively sort them into exosomes remains incompletely explored. Previously we reported that YBX1 is required in sorting of miR-223 into exosomes. Here we show that YBX1 undergoes liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) in vitro and in cells. YBX1 condensates selectively recruit miR-223 in vitro and into exosomes secreted by cultured cells. Point mutations that inhibit YBX1 phase separation impair the incorporation of YBX1 protein into biomolecular condensates formed in cells, and perturb miR-233 sorting into exosomes. We propose that phase separation-mediated local enrichment of cytosolic RNA binding proteins and their cognate RNAs enables their targeting and packaging by vesicles that bud into multivesicular bodies. This provides a possible mechanism for efficient and selective engulfment of cytosolic proteins and RNAs into intraluminal vesicles which are then secreted as exosomes from cells.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (8) ◽  
pp. e202101055
Francesc X Guix ◽  
Ana Marrero Capitán ◽  
Álvaro Casadomé-Perales ◽  
Irene Palomares-Pérez ◽  
Inés López del Castillo ◽  

As neurons age, they show a decrease in their ability to degrade proteins and membranes. Because undegraded material is a source of toxic products, defects in degradation are associated with reduced cell function and survival. However, there are very few dead neurons in the aging brain, suggesting the action of compensatory mechanisms. We show in this work that ageing neurons in culture show large multivesicular bodies (MVBs) filled with intralumenal vesicles (ILVs) and secrete more small extracellular vesicles than younger neurons. We also show that the high number of ILVs is the consequence of the accumulation of cholesterol in MVBs, which in turn is due to decreased levels of the cholesterol extruding protein NPC1. NPC1 down-regulation is the consequence of a combination of upregulation of the NPC1 repressor microRNA 33, and increased degradation, due to Akt-mTOR targeting of NPC1 to the phagosome. Although releasing more exosomes can be beneficial to old neurons, other cells, neighbouring and distant, can be negatively affected by the waste material they contain.

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