apoptotic cell
Recently Published Documents





Dan Wang ◽  
Dazhi Long ◽  
Jiegang Zhou ◽  
Ziqiang Dong ◽  
Guiming Huang

Background: Dexmedetomidine has been reported to induce anti-apoptotic effects and metastatic progression in lung cancer. In the current investigation, the effect of β-Caryophyllene on dexmedetomidine induced cell proliferation and apoptosis of lung cancer cells and tumor growth in mice was studied. Methods: A549 cell line was cultured with either dexmedetomidine alone or together with β-Caryophyllene for 24 h and analysed for cell proliferation with MTT assay. ELISA based kit was used to determine apoptotic DNA fragmentation. Western blotting was used to determine expression levels of target proteins. The induction of experimental lung tumor in rat model was achieved through the injection of A549 tumor cells subcutaneously into the middle left side of the mice after anesthetization with pentobarbital (35 mg/kg) at 2.8 × 106 cells in 400 μl of PBS. Result: We found that β-Caryophyllene exerts the anti-proliferative effects on A549 cells. Furthermore, β-Caryophyllene significantly prevents apoptotic cell death and causes up-regulation of PGC-1α and TFAM compared to dexmedetomidine treated cells. We observed that β-Caryophyllene suppressed tumor development in mice significantly compared to dexmedetomidine treated group without changing body weight.

Bazhena Bahatyrevich-Kharitonik ◽  
Rafael Medina-Guzman ◽  
Alicia Flores-Cortes ◽  
Marta García-Cruzado ◽  
Edel Kavanagh ◽  

Cell death related (CDR) proteins are a diverse group of proteins whose original function was ascribed to apoptotic cell death signaling. Recently, descriptions of non-apoptotic functions for CDR proteins have increased. In this minireview, we comment on recent studies of CDR proteins outside the field of apoptosis in the CNS, encompassing areas such as the inflammasome and non-apoptotic cell death, cytoskeleton reorganization, synaptic plasticity, mitophagy, neurodegeneration and calcium signaling among others. Furthermore, we discuss the evolution of proteomic techniques used to predict caspase substrates that could potentially explain their non-apoptotic roles. Finally, we address new concepts in the field of non-apoptotic functions of CDR proteins that require further research such the effect of sexual dimorphism on non-apoptotic CDR protein function and the emergence of zymogen-specific caspase functions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Dan He ◽  
Qiangdongzi Mao ◽  
Jialin Jia ◽  
Zhiyu Wang ◽  
Yu Liu ◽  

The efficient removal of apoptotic cells (ACs), a process termed as efferocytosis, is essential for immune homeostasis. While recent work has established an important interplay between efferocytosis and cellular metabolic changing, underlying mechanisms remain poorly known. Here, we discovered that pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) regulates tolerogenic ACs clearance and immune tolerance. ACs decreased levels of PPP-related genes and metabolites in macrophages. AG1, the agonist of PPP, increased the activity of PPP but greatly reduced macrophage phagocytosis of ACs and enhanced the inflammatory response during efferocytosis. miR-323-5p regulated the expression of PPP-related genes and its levels increased during efferocytosis. miR-323-5p inhibitor greatly promoted levels of PPP-related genes, reduced the macrophage phagocytosis of ACs, and increased inflammatory response during efferocytosis, suggesting that miR-323-5p was essential in regulating PPP activity and ACs clearance in macrophages. Correspondingly, the PPP agonist AG1 exacerbated the lupus-like symptoms in the AC-induced systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) model. Our study reveals that regulating PPP-dependent metabolic reprogramming is critical for tolerogenic ACs phagocytosis and immune tolerance.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 329
Kaoru Shibata ◽  
Nozomi Nishijima ◽  
Kaho Hirai ◽  
Saiichiro Watanabe ◽  
Tsuyoshi Yamanaka ◽  

Background: Despite recent advances in the early detection and treatment of TSCC patients, recurrence rates and survival rates have not improved. The high frequency of lymph node metastasis is one of the causes, and the drug development of new therapeutic mechanisms such as metastasis control is desired. Choline transporter-like protein 1 (CTL1) has attracted attention as a target molecule in cancer therapy. In this study, we examined the antitumor effects of Amb544925, a plant-derived CTL1 inhibitor. Methods: The TSCC cell line HSC-3 was used to measure [3H]choline uptake, cell survival, caspase activity, and cell migration. Xenograft model mice were prepared to verify the antitumor effect of Amb544925. Results: Amb544925 inhibited cell viability and increased caspase-3/7 activity at concentrations that inhibited choline uptake. Amb544925 and ceramide increased SMPD4 expression and suppressed surivivin expression. Furthermore, Amb544925 and ceramide inhibited the migration of HSC-3 cells. In the xenograft model mice, Amb544925 suppressed tumor growth and CTL1 mRNA expression. Conclusions: The plant-derived CTL1 inhibitor Amb544925 is a lead compound of a new anticancer agent exhibiting antitumor effects and inhibition of cell migration through the ceramide/survivin pathway.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Junqiu Jia ◽  
Lixuan Yang ◽  
Yan Chen ◽  
Lili Zheng ◽  
Yanting Chen ◽  

Microglia are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system that exert diverse roles in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke. During the past decades, microglial polarization and chemotactic properties have been well-studied, whereas less attention has been paid to phagocytic phenotypes of microglia in stroke. Generally, whether phagocytosis mediated by microglia plays a beneficial or detrimental role in stroke remains controversial, which calls for further investigations. Most researchers are in favor of the former proposal currently since efficient clearance of tissue debris promotes tissue reconstruction and neuronal network reorganization in part. Other scholars propose that excessively activated microglia engulf live or stressed neuronal cells, which results in neurological deficits and brain atrophy. Upon ischemia challenge, the microglia infiltrate injured brain tissue and engulf live/dead neurons, myelin debris, apoptotic cell debris, endothelial cells, and leukocytes. Cell phagocytosis is provoked by the exposure of “eat-me” signals or the loss of “don’t eat-me” signals. We supposed that microglial phagocytosis could be initiated by the specific “eat-me” signal and its corresponding receptor on the specific cell type under pathological circumstances. In this review, we will summarize phagocytic characterizations of microglia after stroke and the potential receptors responsible for this programmed biological progress. Understanding these questions precisely may help to develop appropriate phagocytic regulatory molecules, which are promoting self-limiting inflammation without damaging functional cells.

Metabolites ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 54
Wei Li ◽  
Nargis Sultana ◽  
Linda Yuan ◽  
Claes Forssell ◽  
Xi-Ming Yuan

The aim of this study was to investigate whether CD74 levels in atherosclerotic lesions are associated with inflammation, apoptosis, plaque severity, and clinical symptoms among patients with carotid atherosclerosis. We further studied whether CD74 expression is associated with apoptosis in macrophages induced by 7ketocholesterol (7keto). Sixty-one carotid samples (39 males and 22 females) were immunostained with macrophages, smooth muscle cells, CD74, ferritin, TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling), and thrombin receptors. Double immunocytochemistry of CD74 and caspase 3 or CD74 and Annexin V was performed on THP-1 macrophages exposed to 7keto. In human carotid plaques, CD74 expression is lesion-dependently increased and is associated with necrotic core formation and plaque rupture, clinical symptoms, macrophage apoptosis, ferritin, and thrombin receptors. CD74 levels were inversely correlated to high-density lipoproteins and statin treatment, and positively correlated to triglycerides. In THP-1 macrophages, 7keto induced a significant increase in levels of CD74, ferritin, and apoptotic cell death. This study suggests that CD74 in apoptotic macrophages is linked to inflammation and thrombosis in progression of human atherosclerotic plaques, lipid metabolism, and clinical manifestation in atherosclerosis. Surface CD74 in apoptotic macrophages and ferritin production induced by oxidized lipids may contribute to inflammation and plaque vulnerability in atherosclerosis.

Antioxidants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 128
Grazia Maugeri ◽  
Agata Grazia D’Amico ◽  
Salvatore Giunta ◽  
Cesarina Giallongo ◽  
Daniele Tibullo ◽  

The corneal epithelium, the outermost layer of the cornea, acts as a dynamic barrier preventing access to harmful agents into the intraocular space. It is subjected daily to different insults, and ultraviolet B (UV-B) irradiation represents one of the main causes of injury. In our previous study, we demonstrated the beneficial effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) against UV-B radiation damage in the human corneal endothelium. Some of its effects are mediated through the activation of the intracellular factor, known as the activity-dependent protein (ADNP). In the present paper, we have investigated the role of ADNP and the small peptide derived from ADNP, known as NAP, in the corneal epithelium. Here, we have demonstrated, for the first time, ADNP expression in human and rabbit corneal epithelium as well as its protective effect by treating the corneal epithelial cells exposed to UV-B radiations with NAP. Our results showed that NAP treatment prevents ROS formation by reducing UV-B-irradiation-induced apoptotic cell death and JNK signalling pathway activation. Further investigations are needed to deeply investigate the possible therapeutic use of NAP to counteract corneal UV-B damage.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Mei Ying Xuan ◽  
Shang Guo Piao ◽  
Jun Ding ◽  
Qi Yan Nan ◽  
Mei Hua Piao ◽  

Dapagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor, offers renoprotection in diabetes. However, potential for use in nondiabetic kidney disease remains unknown. Herein, we assessed whether dapagliflozin alleviates renal fibrosis by interfering with necroinflammation in a rat model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) and in vitro. After induction of UUO, rats were administered dapagliflozin daily for seven consecutive days. UUO induced significant renal tubular necrosis and overexpression of RIP1-RIP3-MLKL axis proteins; these coincided with NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and subsequent development of renal fibrosis. Oxidative stress caused by UUO is tightly associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to apoptotic cell death through Wnt3α/β-catenin/GSK-3β signaling; all of which were abolished by both dapagliflozin and specific RIP inhibitors (necrostatin-1 and GSK872). In H2O2-treated HK-2 cells, dapagliflozin and RIP inhibitors suppressed overexpression of RIP1-RIP3-MLKL proteins and pyroptosis-related cytokines, decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species production and apoptotic cell death, whereas cell viability was improved. Moreover, activated Wnt3α/β-catenin/GSK-3β signaling was inhibited by dapagliflozin and Wnt/β-catenin inhibitor ICG-001. Our findings suggest that dapagliflozin ameliorates renal fibrosis by inhibiting RIP1-RIP3-MLKL-mediated necroinflammation via Wnt3α/β-catenin/GSK-3β signaling in UUO.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 579
Cheng-Yi Chang ◽  
Chih-Cheng Wu ◽  
Jiaan-Der Wang ◽  
Su-Lan Liao ◽  
Wen-Ying Chen ◽  

Elevation of intracellular cAMP levels has been implicated in glioma cell proliferation inhibition, differentiation, and apoptosis. Inhibition of phosphodiesterase is a way to elevate intracellular cAMP levels. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-glioma potential of dipyridamole, an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase. Upon treatment with dipyridamole, human U87 glioma cells decreased cell viability, clonogenic colonization, migration, and invasion, along with Noxa upregulation, Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) stress, impaired autophagic flux, Yes-associated Protein 1 (YAP1) phosphorylation, and YAP1 reduction. Pharmacological and genetic studies revealed the ability of dipyridamole to initiate Noxa-guided apoptosis through ER stress. Additionally, the current study further identified the biochemical role of YAP1 in communicating with ER stress and autophagy under situations of dipyridamole treatment. YAP1 promoted autophagy and protected glioma cells from dipyridamole-induced apoptotic cell death. Dipyridamole impaired autophagic flux and rendered glioma cells more vulnerable to apoptotic cell death through ER stress-inhibitable YAP1/autophagy axis. The overall cellular changes caused by dipyridamole appeared to ensure a successful completion of apoptosis. Dipyridamole also duplicated the biochemical changes and apoptosis in glioma T98G cells. Since dipyridamole has additional biochemical and pharmacological properties, further research centered on the anti-glioma mechanisms of dipyridamole is still needed.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document