evolutionary process
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Micromachines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 119
Farid Sayar Irani ◽  
Ali Hosseinpour Shafaghi ◽  
Melih Can Tasdelen ◽  
Tugce Delipinar ◽  
Ceyda Elcin Kaya ◽  

High accuracy measurement of mechanical strain is critical and broadly practiced in several application areas including structural health monitoring, industrial process control, manufacturing, avionics and the automotive industry, to name a few. Strain sensors, otherwise known as strain gauges, are fueled by various nanomaterials, among which graphene has attracted great interest in recent years, due to its unique electro-mechanical characteristics. Graphene shows not only exceptional physical properties but also has remarkable mechanical properties, such as piezoresistivity, which makes it a perfect candidate for strain sensing applications. In the present review, we provide an in-depth overview of the latest studies focusing on graphene and its strain sensing mechanism along with various applications. We start by providing a description of the fundamental properties, synthesis techniques and characterization methods of graphene, and then build forward to the discussion of numerous types of graphene-based strain sensors with side-by-side tabular comparison in terms of figures-of-merit, including strain range and sensitivity, otherwise referred to as the gauge factor. We demonstrate the material synthesis, device fabrication and integration challenges for researchers to achieve both wide strain range and high sensitivity in graphene-based strain sensors. Last of all, several applications of graphene-based strain sensors for different purposes are described. All in all, the evolutionary process of graphene-based strain sensors in recent years, as well as the upcoming challenges and future directions for emerging studies are highlighted.

2022 ◽  
Jeffrey Thompson

Molecular paleobiology provides a promising avenue to merge data from deep time, molecular biology and genomics, gaining insights into the evolutionary process at multiple levels. The echinoderm skeleton is a model for molecular paleobioloogical studies. I begin with an overview of the skeletogenic process in echinoderms, as well as a discussion of what gene regulatory networks are, and why they are of interest to paleobiologists. I then highlight recent advances in the evolution of the echinoderm skeleton from both paleobiological and molecular/functional genomic perspectives, highlighting examples where diverse approaches provide complementary insight and discussing potential of this field of research.

BMC Genomics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Nosheen Kabir ◽  
Xin Zhang ◽  
Le Liu ◽  
Ghulam Qanmber ◽  
Lian Zhang ◽  

Abstract Background RADIALIS (RAD), belongs to the MYB gene family and regulates a variety of functions including floral dorsoventral asymmetry in Antirrhinum majus and development of fruit proteins in Solanum lycopersicum. RAD genes contain an SNF2_N superfamily domain. Here, we comprehensively identified 68 RAD genes from six different species including Arabidopsis and five species of cotton. Results Phylogenetic analysis classified RAD genes into five groups. Gene structure, protein motifs and conserved amino acid residues indicated that GhRAD genes were highly conserved during the evolutionary process. Chromosomal location information showed that GhRAD genes were distributed unevenly on different chromosomes. Collinearity and selection pressure analysis indicated RAD gene family expansion in G. hirsutum and G. barbadense with purifying selection pressure. Further, various growth and stress related promotor cis-acting elements were observed. Tissue specific expression level indicated that most GhRAD genes were highly expressed in roots and flowers (GhRAD2, GhRAD3, GhRAD4 and GhRAD11). Next, GhRAD genes were regulated by phytohormonal stresses (JA, BL and IAA). Moreover, Ghi-miRN1496, Ghi-miR1440, Ghi-miR2111b, Ghi-miR2950a, Ghi-miR390a, Ghi-miR390b and Ghi-miR7495 were the miRNAs targeting most of GhRAD genes. Conclusions Our study revealed that RAD genes are evolutionary conserved and might be involved in different developmental processes and hormonal stress response. Data presented in our study could be used as the basis for future studies of RAD genes in cotton.

Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 148
Watcharaporn Thapana ◽  
Nattakan Ariyaraphong ◽  
Parinya Wongtienchai ◽  
Nararat Laopichienpong ◽  
Worapong Singchat ◽  

Duplicate control regions (CRs) have been observed in the mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) of most varanids. Duplicate CRs have evolved in either concerted or independent evolution in vertebrates, but whether an evolutionary pattern exists in varanids remains unknown. Therefore, we conducted this study to analyze the evolutionary patterns and phylogenetic utilities of duplicate CRs in 72 individuals of Varanus salvator macromaculatus and other varanids. Sequence analyses and phylogenetic relationships revealed that divergence between orthologous copies from different individuals was lower than in paralogous copies from the same individual, suggesting an independent evolution of the two CRs. Distinct trees and recombination testing derived from CR1 and CR2 suggested that recombination events occurred between CRs during the evolutionary process. A comparison of substitution saturation showed the potential of CR2 as a phylogenetic marker. By contrast, duplicate CRs of the four examined varanids had similar sequences within species, suggesting typical characteristics of concerted evolution. The results provide a better understanding of the molecular evolutionary processes related to the mitogenomes of the varanid lineage.

2022 ◽  
Vol 27 ◽  
pp. 798-801
Fan Gao ◽  
Thawascha Dechsubha

This paper offers a comprehensive survey of translation ethics within the theoretical frame of Lady Welby’s meaning triad concerning the relationship between ethics and translation in the meaning process of sign activities. The paper mainly discusses such aspects as: (1) the relationship between meaning triad and translation ethics, (2) upward translation as a method to maximize ethical value and (3) enhancement of translation ethics as a goal of upward translation. The results of the paper can be found as the following: 1. the evolutionary process of meaning from sense to meaning and then to significance is the path for the improvement of translators’ cognitive ability and the sublimation of translator or interpreter’s ethics and morality. 2. Upward translation serves as a key to enhancing translators’ ethical consciousness.3. translation, meaning and ethics are correlated and interrelated mechanism. Therefore, the implications of the dynamic and dialogic view of translation and meaning will provide an interdisciplinary theoretical vision for the construction of translation ethics.   Keywords: meaning triad; upward translation; translation ethics

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Zhechun Hu ◽  
Yunxing Wang

Aiming at the problems of low optimization accuracy, poor optimization effect, and long running time in current teaching optimization algorithms, a multiclass interactive martial arts teaching optimization method based on the Euclidean distance is proposed. Using the K-means algorithm, the initial population is divided into several subgroups based on the Euclidean distance, so as to effectively use the information of the population neighborhood and strengthen the local search ability of the algorithm. Imitating the school's selection of excellent teachers to guide students with poor performance, after the “teaching” stage, the worst individual in each subgroup will learn from the best individual in the population, and the information interaction in the evolutionary process will be enhanced, so that the poor individuals will quickly move closer to the best individuals. According to different learning levels and situations of students, different teaching stages and contents are divided, mainly by grade, supplemented by different types of learning groups in the form of random matching, so as to improve the learning ability of members with weak learning ability in each group, which effectively guarantees the diversity of the population and realizes multiclass interactive martial arts teaching optimization. Experimental results show that the optimization effect of the proposed method is better, which can effectively improve the accuracy of algorithm optimization and shorten the running time of the algorithm.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 383
Andrzej Bożek

The stick-slip is one of negative phenomena caused by friction in servo systems. It is a consequence of complicated nonlinear friction characteristics, especially the so-called Stribeck effect. Much research has been done on control algorithms suppressing the stick-slip, but no simple solution has been found. In this work, a new approach is proposed based on genetic programming. The genetic programming is a machine learning technique constructing symbolic representation of programs or expressions by evolutionary process. In this way, the servo control algorithm optimally suppressing the stick-slip is discovered. The GP training is conducted on a simulated servo system, as the experiments would last too long in real-time. The feedback for the control algorithm is based on the sensors of position, velocity and acceleration. Variants with full and reduced sensor sets are considered. Ideal and quantized position measurements are also analyzed. The results reveal that the genetic programming can successfully discover a control algorithm effectively suppressing the stick-slip. However, it is not an easy task and relatively large size of population and a big number of generations are required. Real measurement results in worse control quality. Acceleration feedback has no apparent impact on the algorithms performance, while velocity feedback is important.

Y. A. Bury ◽  
D. I. Samal

The article presents the results of combining 4 different types of neural network learning: evolutionary, reinforcing, deep and extrapolating. The last two are used as the primary method for reducing the dimension of the input signal of the system and simplifying the process of its training in terms of computational complexity.In the presented work, the neural network structure of the control device of the modeled system is formed in the course of the evolutionary process, taking into account the currently known structural and developmental features of self-learning systems that take place in living nature. This method of constructing it makes it possible to bypass the specific limitations of models created on the basis of recombination of already known topologies of neural networks.

PeerJ ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. e12733
Meijun Ji ◽  
Kangtai Sun ◽  
Hui Fang ◽  
Zhimin Zhuang ◽  
Haodong Chen ◽  

Background Cytoplasmic linker–associated proteins (CLASPs) are tubule proteins that can bind to microtubules and participate in regulating the structure and function of microtubules, which significantly affects the development and growth of plants. These proteins have been identified in Arabidopsis; however, little research has been performed in upland cotton. Methods In this study, the whole genome of the CLASP_N family was analyzed to provide theoretical support for the function of this gene family in the development of upland cotton fiber. Bioinformatics was used to analyze the family characteristics of CLASP_N in upland cotton, such as member identification, sequence characteristics, conserved domain structure and coevolutionary relationships. Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to clarify the expression pattern of the upland cotton CLASP_N gene family in cotton fiber. Results At the genome-wide level, we identified 16 upland cotton CLASP_N genes. A chromosomal localization analysis revealed that these 16 genes were located on 13 chromosomes. The motif results showed that all CLASP_N proteins have the CLASP_N domain. Gene structure analysis showed that the structure and length of exons and introns were consistent in the subgroups. In the evolutionary analysis with other species, the gene family clearly diverged from the other species in the evolutionary process. A promoter sequence analysis showed that this gene family contains a large number of cis-acting elements related to a variety of plant hormones. qRT-PCR was used to clarify the expression pattern of the upland cotton CLASP_N gene family in cotton fiber and leaves, and Gh210800 was found to be highly expressed in the later stages of fiber development. The results of this study provide a foundation for further research on the molecular role of the CLASP_N genes in cotton fiber development.

2022 ◽  
Linyi Zhang ◽  
Glen Ray Hood ◽  
Jim R Ott ◽  
Scott P Egan

Reinforcement is an evolutionary process whereby increased prezygotic reproductive isolation evolves in response to the cost of hybridization. Despite theory predicting that multiple prezygotic barriers can evolve via reinforcement, most empirical studies examine a single barrier. We test novel predictions for the reinforcement of both habitat isolation and sexual isolation between ecologically divergent lineages under asymmetric migration: the lineage that emigrates more should evolve stronger habitat isolation due to the lower fitness of immigrants in the alternative habitat, while the lineage that receives more immigrants should exhibit stronger sexual isolation due to the lower fitness of hybrids. We found both signatures of reinforcement in two sympatric sister species of gall wasps that are host specific to the southern live oaks, Quercus virginiana and Q. geminata, respectively. Specifically, we observed stronger habitat isolation in the species with higher emigration rates, Belonocnema treatae, and stronger sexual isolation in the species facing more immigrants, B. fossoria. In contrast, comparisons of both species to a third, allopatric, species showed that B. kinseyi exhibited both lower habitat isolation and sexual isolation than the sympatric species, consistent with the classic predictions of reinforcement. Our study provides a rare examination of the interplay of ecology and geography in the evolution of multiple reproductive barriers to gene flow. Given that asymmetric migration between ecologically divergent lineages increasingly appears to be the rule rather than the exception, concomitant asymmetries in the strength of habitat and sexual isolation could be more widespread than currently understood.

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