Protective Factors
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2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Yang Xia ◽  
Qijun Wu ◽  
Huixu Dai ◽  
Jiale Lv ◽  
Yashu Liu ◽  

Background & Aims: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver injury. We performed this umbrella review of meta-analyses to summarize the evidence on the associations of nutritional, lifestyle, and metabolic factors with NAFLD.Methods: We searched the PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases from inception until July 2, 2020, to identify meta-analyses of observational studies which explored the associations of nutritional, lifestyle, and metabolic factors with NAFLD. Evidence levels were assessed using summary effect sizes, 95% prediction intervals, between-study heterogeneity, evidence of small-study effects, and evidence of excess significance bias for each meta-analysis. (No. of PROSPERO, CRD42020200124).Results: Twenty two risk or protective factors from 10 published meta-analyses were included and studied. Three risk factors (sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, serum fetuin-A, and waist circumference) with highly suggestive levels of evidence and three risk factors (soft drink consumption, former smoking, and body mass index) with suggestive levels of evidence were identified. Only two protective factors (physical activity and serum vitamin D level [among adults in Western countries]) with suggestive levels of evidence were identified. Furthermore, other six risk factors and two protective factors with weak levels of evidence were identified.Conclusions: We found varying levels of evidence of associations of nutritional, lifestyle, and metabolic factors and NAFLD. The results suggest that nutritional and lifestyle management should be considered as a major primary preventive strategy for NAFLD. Moreover, considering the low quality of included meta-analyses and limited area of research topics, future high-quality original studies and meta-analyses should be performed to study these associations.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Martha Frías Armenta ◽  
Ana M. Martín ◽  
Nadia Saraí Corral-Frías

2021 ◽  
pp. 002076402110272
José Eduardo Rodríguez-Otero ◽  
Xiana Campos-Mouriño ◽  
David Meilán-Fernández ◽  
Sarai Pintos-Bailón ◽  
Graciela Cabo-Escribano

Background: Each year, around 800,000 people die by suicide. The prevalence of suicidal behaviors is much higher when suicidal attempts and persistent self-injurious ideation are included. Therefore, suicide is a public health concern. Research has been sensitive to this problem, deepening the study of risk factors and the development of theoretical frameworks of suicidal behavior, with the aim of generating effective suicide prevention policies around the biopsychosocial model. Aim: We aimed to explore the role of relational, community, and social factors in current suicide prevention strategies. Method: Studies of risk and protective factors for suicidal behavior and the consequent development of theoretical frameworks were reviewed to verify if this knowledge was really used in suicide prevention policies. Results: Studies of risk and protective factors focus mainly on the individual, while theoretical frameworks emphasize the role of the relational, community, and social. Suicide prevention strategies more closely follow individual models derived from studies of risk factors. Conclusions: Suicide prevention strategies should broaden their individual narrative to include relational, community, and social interventions as anti-suicide measures.

2021 ◽  
Le T. Trang ◽  
Nguyen T. Huong ◽  
Nguyen D. Khoi ◽  
Hoang T. T. Huong ◽  
Nguyen K. Hang ◽  

A better understanding of the factors that mitigate the consequences of nutrition-related hazards and encourage resilience is required to prevent against or improve poor development outcomes. This study included a review of the literature. Dietary adequacy is essential for growth and development, but current data suggests that nutrition supplements alone is insufficient to generate resilience to defend against, alleviate, and recover from nutritional stressors, as well as to promote healthy development. It is vital to combine nutrition therapy with stimulation and responsive care. Combined nutrition and psychosocial stimulation treatments may be successful in promoting protective factors and mitigating risks for impaired cognitive, motor, social, and affective functioning, hence assisting children in adapting to adversity.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Marija Janković ◽  
Geert van Boxtel ◽  
Erik Masthoff ◽  
Elien De Caluwé ◽  
Stefan Bogaerts

The long-term changes of dynamic risk and protective factors have rarely been studied in forensic psychiatric patients. We utilized a latent growth curve analysis to investigate trajectories of risk and protective factors over time in all 722 male forensic psychiatric patients who were unconditionally released between 2004 and 2014 from any of 12 Dutch forensic psychiatric centers (FPCs). The study covered the period from juridical observation until unconditional release. Moreover, we investigated whether these trajectories differ between patients depending on their psychiatric diagnosis namely substance use disorders (SUD), psychotic disorders, and cluster B personality disorders (PDs). In addition, we also investigated whether SUD may influence changes in risk and protective factors in a group of psychotic and cluster B PDs patients, respectively. Overall, findings suggest that all changes in dynamic risk and protective factors could be depicted by two phases of patients' stay in the FPCs. Specifically, most changes on dynamic risk and protective factors occurred at the beginning of treatment, that is, from the time of juridical assessment up to the time of unguided leave. Moreover, the moment of unguided leave could be considered the ‘turning point’ in the treatment of offenders. We also found that SUD and psychotic patients changed the most in the first phase of their stay, while cluster B PDs patients changed the most in the second phase. However, SUD did not modify changes in risk and protective factors in psychotic and cluster B PDs patients. These findings may help improve offender treatment and crime prevention strategies.

Alessio Gori ◽  
Eleonora Topino ◽  
Mark D. Griffiths

For a minority of individuals, exercise may become excessive and lead to an addictive behaviour. To better understand the processes by which exercise could become an addiction, the present study examined the risk and protective factors of exercise addiction among regular exercisers, by investigating the role of drive for thinness, bulimia, body dissatisfaction, body image concerns, and self-esteem. A sample of 319 Italian regular exercisers (Mage = 30.78 years, SD = 11.98) completed the Italian versions of the Exercise Addiction Inventory, Eating Disorder Inventory-3 Referral Form, Body Image Concern Inventory, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Data were analyzed by implementing a series of moderated mediations. Drive for thinness, bulimia, and body dissatisfaction were positively associated with exercise addiction. An indirect path was found in each of these relationships, which included the mediation of body image concerns, as well as a significant moderation of self-esteem in the associations between drive for thinness, bulimia, body dissatisfaction, and the mediator. High self-esteem appeared to be a protective factor. The higher the level of self-esteem, the less indirect the effects of thinness drive, bulimia, body dissatisfaction, and body image concerns were on exercise addiction. Such findings contribute to a better understanding concerning the risk and protective factors of excessive exercise, and may have important practical implications in structuring interventions to reduce risk of developing exercise addiction, as well as orienting future research.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Ting Jiang ◽  
Gulijianati Wumaier ◽  
Xue Li ◽  
Xu Yang ◽  
Jiwen Liu

Background: This study investigated the relationship between occupational stress and the mental health of people working in oil fields in the arid desert environment of Xinjiang, and revealed the causal relationship between occupational stress and psychological disorders, while furthermore exploring the relationship between psychological disorders and genetic levels.Methods: The participants of this study included oil field company workers from the Xinjiang Petroleum Administration of Karamay City, Xinjiang, who underwent occupational health examinations. The Occupational Stress Inventory Revised Edition (OSI-R) was used to measure the occupational stress of the oil workers. The mental health status of oil workers was evaluated using the Symptoms Checklist-90.Results: Occupational tasks: The total scores of the personal strain and mental health questionnaires were positively correlated with somatization, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, terror, paranoia, and psychosis (P < 0.05). Individual coping resources and the mental health total score was negatively correlated with somatization, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, interpersonal sensitivity, anxiety, hostility, terror, paranoia, and psychosis. The following factors were identified as mental health risk factors: female gender; age 45 and above (relative to ≤30 years old); high scores on the personal strain questionnaire; occupational stress; external effort; internal investment; and high effort-low return. The following factors were identified as protective factors for mental health: Han nationality; oil transportation (relative to drilling); individual resilience; and work returns. In respect to the abnormal psychological group and the normal psychological group, statistically significant differences were found in the distribution of genotypes and allele frequencies at the rs1800497 locus (P < 0.05). The depression and paranoia scores observed between different genotype groups at the rs1800497 locus were statistically significant (P < 0.05).Conclusions: This study shows that occupational stress and the D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2) gene have an impact on the mental health of oil field workers in the arid desert environment of Xinjiang. Effort-reward imbalance and occupational stress were identified as risk factors for mental health, while rewards for work were protective factors. Higher levels of occupational stress may lead to depression and other psychological disorders, adversely affecting mental health. In oil field operators in the arid desert environment of Xinjiang, the AA genotype of the DRD2 gene in the rs1800497 locus was identified as a genotype specific to susceptibility to mental health problems, and a correlation was found between the A allele and an increased risk of psychological problems. Therefore, it is necessary to devise relevant measures to alleviate occupational stress among oil workers and increase their job rewards, so as to improve their mental health.

2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (3) ◽  
pp. 417-436
Celso Arango ◽  
Elena Dragioti ◽  
Marco Solmi ◽  
Samuele Cortese ◽  
Katharina Domschke ◽  

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