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2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (3) ◽  
pp. 592-598
Johannes Jacobus Pretorius ◽  
Juliane Hiesgen ◽  
Michael Myburgh ◽  
Farhana E Suleman

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (4) ◽  
pp. 63-78
A. A. Zakirov

Farid Esack is a modern Islamic scholar of South African origin who suggests original Qur’anic hermeneutics in the scope of theology of liberation. The characteristics of his theology considered in this article are: the praxis of liberation, contextualism, scrupulous textual analysis, hermeneutics oriented at struggle with institutions of oppression. It is noted that his hermeneutics diff ers from the hermeneutics of other theologians of liberation — he represents the praxis of liberation as a main task of theology of liberation. His method is not only theoretical scholarly speculative exercise on textual interpretation, at the same it inspires and encourages people for changes in society, for enhancement the lives of people where justice comes as its necessary fundamental stipulation. His refl ective theology is an intellectual response to the challenges of postmodern world aimed at establishing such virtues in society as justice, freedom, mercy and setting up more egalitarian Islamic society.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Jean Pascal Demba Diop ◽  
Andréa Régina Gnilane Sène ◽  
Yacouba Dia ◽  
Seydi Abdoul Ba ◽  
Serigne Saliou Mbacke ◽  

Founder mutations have been reported in BRCA1 and BCRA2 in different ethnic groups with inherited breast cancer. Testing of targeted mutations in specific populations is important for cancer prevention in mutation carriers. In Sub-Saharan Africa, only a few studies have reported specific founder mutations in inherited breast cancer. The pathogenic variant c.815_824dup of BRCA1 has been reported as the most frequent among African American populations with inherited breast cancer and was supposed to have a West African origin. Recent report from Senegal identified this variant in women with inherited breast cancer at the highest frequency ever reported. The variant was linked to a common haplotype confirming its founder effect in West Africa. In this article, we review the mutation history of c.815_824dup and discuss how it spread out of Africa through the transatlantic slave trade.

2022 ◽  
pp. 019791832110465
Julia A. Behrman ◽  
Abigail Weitzman

A considerable literature explores whether the fertility of migrants from high-fertility contexts converges with that of women in lower fertility destinations. Nonetheless, much of this research compares migrants’ reproductive outcomes to those of native-born women in destination countries. Drawing on research emphasizing the importance of transnational perspectives, we standardize and integrate data collected in France (the destination) and in six high-fertility African countries (the senders). We show that African migrants in our sample had higher children ever born (CEB) than native French women but lower CEB than women in corresponding origin countries. These findings suggest that socialization into pronatalist norms is an incomplete explanation for migrant fertility in the first generation, an insight that is overlooked when analyzing destination settings only. Next, we conduct multivariate analyses that weight migrants’ background characteristics to resemble women in both origin and destination countries. Findings indicate that observed differences between African migrants in France and women in African origin countries help explain differences in CEB between the two groups, which supports selection. We also demonstrate that African migrants in France had delayed transitions into first, second, and third births and lower completed fertility compared to women in origin countries, thus disputing the disruption hypothesis. Finally, we show that observed differences between African migrants in France and native French women explain differences in CEB between the two groups, which supports adaptation. These multifaceted findings on selection, disruption, and adaptation would be obscured by analyzing destination settings only, thus validating a multisited approach to migrant fertility.

2021 ◽  
André R Greenidge ◽  
Kim R Quimby ◽  
Angela MC Rose ◽  
Amy Speede ◽  
Ian R Hambleton ◽  

Ousmane Berthe-Kone ◽  
María Isabel Ventura-Miranda ◽  
Sara María López-Saro ◽  
Jessica García-González ◽  
José Granero-Molina ◽  

Approximately 200 million women and girls have undergone female genital mutilation (FGM) worldwide. Migration has spread the practice of FGM around the world, thus making it a global public health issue. The objective of this descriptive qualitative study was to explore the perceptions of Sub-Saharan immigrant women in Spain in relation to the causes of the persistence of FGM. In-depth interviews were carried out with 13 female FGM survivors of African origin, followed by inductive data analysis using ATLAS.ti software. Two main themes emerged from the analysis: (1) A family ritual symbolic of purification and (2) a system of false beliefs and deception in favour of FGM. The FGM survivors living in Europe are aware that FGM is a practice that violates human rights yet persists due to a system of false beliefs rooted in family traditions and deception that hides the reality of FGM from young girls or forces them to undergo the practice. The ritualistic nature of FGM and the threat of social exclusion faced by women who have not had it performed on them contributes to its persistence nowadays.

Politeja ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (5(74)) ◽  
pp. 23-40
Karolina Golemo

African Lisbon. Difficult Heritage, Postcolonial Relations, and Crosscultural Challenges The aim of this article is to synthetically capture African cultural influences from former colonies and various manifestations of the „African presence” in today’s Lisbon. This „African presence”, in a broad sense, includes a number of phenomena such as the living conditions and customs of the African diaspora in Lisbon, African elements in the cultural and tourist offer of the city, the activities of afrodescendentes (people of African origin) in the area of postcolonial relations, African traces in the topography of the city, and others. African cultural heritage is presented as dissonant, ambivalent, subject to various interpretations, also through the practices of post-memory. To illustrate these issues, I refer to a few examples of artistic projects and initiatives dealing with the topic of postcolonial relations in the Portuguese context.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. e0260604
Syed Hani Abidi ◽  
Lazzat Aibekova ◽  
Salima Davlidova ◽  
Aidana Amangeldiyeva ◽  
Brian Foley ◽  

Background HIV outbreaks in the Former Soviet Union (FSU) countries were characterized by repeated transmission of the HIV variant AFSU, which is now classified as a distinct subtype A sub-subtype called A6. The current study used phylogenetic/phylodynamic and signature mutation analyses to determine likely evolutionary relationship between subtype A6 and other subtype A sub-subtypes. Methods For this study, an initial Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic analysis was performed using a total of 553 full-length, publicly available, reverse transcriptase sequences, from A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, and A6 sub-subtypes of subtype A. For phylogenetic clustering and signature mutation analysis, a total of 5961 and 3959 pol and env sequences, respectively, were used. Results Phylogenetic and signature mutation analysis showed that HIV-1 sub-subtype A6 likely originated from sub-subtype A1 of African origin. A6 and A1 pol and env genes shared several signature mutations that indicate genetic similarity between the two subtypes. For A6, tMRCA dated to 1975, 15 years later than that of A1. Conclusion The current study provides insights into the evolution and diversification of A6 in the backdrop of FSU countries and indicates that A6 in FSU countries evolved from A1 of African origin and is getting bridged outside the FSU region.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Valentina Marchese ◽  
Luca Rossi ◽  
Beatrice Formenti ◽  
Michele Magoni ◽  
Anna Caruana ◽  

AbstractTuberculosis (TB) incidence should decline by 20% in the Europe in 2015–2020, in line with End-TB milestones. We retrospectively evaluated TB notifications in the province of Brescia from 2004 to 2020. Cases were classified per patient origin and entitlement to Health Assistance for foreign born people: Italians (ITA), Foreigners permanently entitled (PEF) or Temporarily Entitled (TEF) to Health Regional Assistance. Poisson regression analysis was performed to assess associations between incidence and age, sex, continent of origin and year of notification. Overall 2279 TB cases were notified: 1290 (56.6%) in PEF, 700 (30.7%) in ITA and 289 (12.7%) in TEF. Notifications declined from 15.2/100,000 in 2004 to 6.9/100,000 in 2020 (54.6% reduction, temporary increase in 2013–2018 for TEF). Age (Incidence Risk Ratio, IRR, 1.02, 1.019–1.024 95%CI), sex (IRR 1.22, 1.12–1.34 95%CI), and continent of origin were positively associated with notifications (IRR 34.8, 30.8–39.2 95%CI for Asiatic, and IRR 20.6, 18.1–23.4 95%CI for African origin), p < 0.001. Notification decline was sharper in 2020, especially among TEF. End-TB milestone for 2020 was reached, but foreigners continue to represent a high risk group for the disease. Discontinuation of services due to the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a sharp decrease in TB notification in 2020.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
Abdelkhaleq Maaroufi ◽  
Naoufal Assoufi ◽  
Mohamed Amine Essaoudi ◽  
Jamal Fatihi

Abstract Background The association of inflammatory myopathy and myasthenia gravis is a rarely described entity whose clinical presentation has always been intriguing because of the great clinical similarity between these two pathologies. The presence of a thymic pathology often explains this combination, whose mechanisms are very complex. Case presentation A 56-year-old woman of North African origin, was hospitalized to explore the Raynaud phenomenon associated with proximal muscle weakness, pain, and arthralgia. There was no rash, and neuromuscular examination had revealed proximal tetraparesis and mild neck weakness. Tendon reflexes were normal. There was no abnormal nail fold capillaroscopy. A significant titer of muscle enzymes had been shown on blood tests, and autoimmune screening for myositis-specific and myositis-associated autoantibodies was negative. Electromyography had shown a myopathic pattern, and muscle biopsy confirmed an inflammatory myopathy. Although steroids were introduced, the clinical course was unsatisfactory; ophthalmic and bulbar symptomatology appeared. The association of myasthenia gravis was confirmed by an elevated level of serum acetylcholine receptor. A chest computed tomography scan had identified a thymoma. Treated with prednisone, pyridostigmine, and thymectomy, the patient’s clinical and biological evolution was favorable. Conclusion This case illustrates an exceptional association of two entities and the difficulty encountered during their diagnosis and treatment. The management of these two diseases is different, so it is essential to recognize this concomitant presentation.

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