error probability
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2022 ◽  
Vol 70 (1) ◽  
pp. 38-52
Frank Schiller ◽  
Dan Judd ◽  
Peerasan Supavatanakul ◽  
Tina Hardt ◽  
Felix Wieczorek

Abstract A fundamental measure of safety communication is the residual error probability, i. e., the probability of undetected errors. For the detection of data errors, typically a Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) is applied, and the resulting residual error probability is determined based on the Binary Symmetric Channel (BSC) model. The use of this model had been questioned since several error types cannot be sufficiently described. Especially the increasing introduction of security algorithms into underlying communication layers requires a more adequate channel model. This paper introduces an enhanced model that extends the list of considered data error types by combining the BSC model with a Uniformly Distributed Segments (UDS) model. Although models beyond BSC are applied, the hitherto method of the calculation of the residual error probability can be maintained.

Pablo Palacios Játiva ◽  
Cesar A. Azurdia-Meza ◽  
David Zabala-Blanco ◽  
Carlos A. Gutiérrez ◽  
Iván Sánchez ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (2) ◽  
pp. 147-156
Sri Zetli

Kesalahan kerja yang terjadi banyak diakibatkan oleh manusia itu sendiri yang disebut dengan human error. Human error yang sering terjadi dalam kegiatan produksi bisa merugikan perusahaan dalam mewujudkan efektivitas dan efisiensi produksi. Oleh karena itu maka perlu dilakukan perbaikan performansi pekerja untuk mengurangi seringnya terjadi kesalahan kerja. Beberapa metode dalam mengidentifikasi human error diantaranya metode SHERPA dan HEART. SHERPA suatu metode kualitatif dalam menganalisis human error yang menjadikan task level sebagai dasar inputnya. Sedangkan HEART adalah metode dalam menentukan resiko human error yang cepat, sederhana dan gampang dimengerti oleh para engineers dan juga human factors specialists. UKM Yasin merupakan salah satu UKM yang bergerak dalam produksi batu bata di Kota Batam. Proses pembuatan batu bata melalui beberapa tahapan yaitu proses pencetakan, proses pengeringan dan proses pembakaran. Permasalahan yang masih sering terjadi yaitu kesalahan saat melakukan pekerjaan yang berakibat terhadap kecelakaan kerja dan juga berpengaruh terhadap output produksi batu bata, hal ini disebabkan oleh human error. Hasil penelitian untuk rekomendasi yang akan diperlukan untuk mereduksi error pada proses produksi batu bata dengan metode SHERPA yaitu melakukan pemeriksaan secara teliti dan rutin terhadap masing-masing proses dan memberikan pelatihan secara berkala terhadap pekerja. Peluang terjadinya error dalam setiap aktivitas pekerjaan pada produksi batu bata dengan menggunakan metode HEART dimana nilai human error probability yang paling besar yaitu 0.16. Proses yang mungkin terjadinya human error dalam tahapan proses produksi batu bata di UKM Yasin melalui nilai Human Error Probability (HEP) tertinggi yaitu 0.544 yang terdapat pada proses pembakaran batu bata.

Entropy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
pp. 5
Francisco Revson Fernandes Pereira ◽  
Stefano Mancini

A general framework describing the statistical discrimination of an ensemble of quantum channels is given by the name quantum reading. Several tools can be applied in quantum reading to reduce the error probability in distinguishing the ensemble of channels. Classical and quantum codes can be envisioned for this goal. The aim of this paper is to present a simple but fruitful protocol for this task using classical error-correcting codes. Three families of codes are considered: Reed–Solomon codes, BCH codes, and Reed–Muller codes. In conjunction with the use of codes, we also analyze the role of the receiver. In particular, heterodyne and Dolinar receivers are taken into consideration. The encoding and measurement schemes are connected by the probing step. As probes, we consider coherent states. In such a simple manner, interesting results are obtained. As we show, there is a threshold below which using codes surpass optimal and sophisticated schemes for any fixed rate and code. BCH codes in conjunction with Dolinar receiver turn out to be the optimal strategy for error mitigation in quantum reading.

Electronics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (24) ◽  
pp. 3169
Khaled F. Hayajneh

The next-generation networks (5G and beyond) require robust channel codes to support their high specifications, such as low latency, low complexity, significant coding gain, and flexibility. In this paper, we propose using a fountain code as a promising solution to 5G and 6G networks, and then we propose using a modified version of the fountain codes (Luby transform codes) over a network topology (Y-network) that is relevant in the context of the 5G networks. In such a network, the user can be connected to two different cells at the same time. In addition, the paper presents the necessary techniques for analyzing the system and shows that the proposed scheme enhances the system performance in terms of decoding success probability, error probability, and code rate (or overhead). Furthermore, the analyses in this paper allow us to quantify the trade-off between overhead, on the one hand, and the decoding success probability and error probability, on the other hand. Finally, based on the analytical approach and numerical results, our simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme achieves better performance than the regular LT codes and the other schemes in the literature.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (23) ◽  
pp. 11438
Xiurong Zhang ◽  
Xinwei Yue ◽  
Shaoli Kang

Low latency and a massive connection have become the requirements of energy internet wireless communication. Effective capacity analysis of non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) networks with short packets is of vital importance in energy internet communication planning and design. Low-latency communications are one of the main application scenarios in next-generation wireless networks. This paper focuses on the effective capacity of NOMA networks, where the finite blocklength, delay exponent, and transmission error probability are taken into account. New exact and asymptotic expressions of effective capacities are derived for arbitrarily ordered users with a finite blocklength. Based on the analytical results, the high Signal-to-Noise Ratio slopes of effective capacity in NOMA networks are carefully attained. The numerical results validate that (a) non-orthogonal users are capable of obtaining a larger effective capacity when the blocklength decreases, and that (b), as the value of the error probability and delay exponent increases, the effective capacity of non-orthogonal users worsens.

2021 ◽  
Vol 18 ◽  
pp. 100105
Marcantonio Catelani ◽  
Lorenzo Ciani ◽  
Giulia Guidi ◽  
Gabriele Patrizi

2021 ◽  
Vol 2140 (1) ◽  
pp. 012009
E S Poznakharev ◽  
V V Belov ◽  
M V Tarasenkov ◽  
A V Fedosov ◽  
V N Abramochkin

Abstract The results of laboratory studies of an optical communication channel based on scattered radiation in the Big Aerosol Chamber of IAO SB RAS in a clean atmospheric environment, in the case of the chamber filled with vapor of the water-glycerin mixture, and in the presence of an noise laser source are analyzed. It is found that with the non-coplanar communication geometry in the chamber filled with the water-glycerin mixture, stable data transmission is possible with the azimuthal angle of orientation of the detector optical axis up to 5°. The error probability in the communication channel increases more slowly with an increase of the detector elevation angle in the chamber filled with the water-glycerin mixture than that in the chamber without this mixture does. The presence of an interfering laser radiation at a wavelength λ = 510 nm in the communication channel affects the communication quality. When the power of the noise laser source achieves 70 mW, the maximal error probability corresponds to 0.02.

Entropy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (12) ◽  
pp. 1577
Osamu Hirota

In recent years, remarkable progress has been achieved in the development of quantum computers. For further development, it is important to clarify properties of errors by quantum noise and environment noise. However, when the system scale of quantum processors is expanded, it has been pointed out that a new type of quantum error, such as nonlinear error, appears. It is not clear how to handle such new effects in information theory. First of all, one should make the characteristics of the error probability of qubits clear as communication channel error models in information theory. The purpose of this paper is to survey the progress for modeling the quantum noise effects that information theorists are likely to face in the future, to cope with such nontrivial errors mentioned above. This paper explains a channel error model to represent strange properties of error probability due to new quantum noise. By this model, specific examples on the features of error probability caused by, for example, quantum recurrence effects, collective relaxation, and external force, are given. As a result, it is possible to understand the meaning of strange features of error probability that do not exist in classical information theory without going through complex physical phenomena.

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