Boric Acid
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Funda Karabağ Çoban ◽  
Sinan İnce ◽  
Hasan Hüseyin Demirel ◽  
İzzet İslam ◽  
Hande Aytuğ

2022 ◽  
Ola E Salama ◽  
Aleeza C Gerstein

Candida albicans is the most prevalent cause of vulvovaginal candidiasis ('yeast infection') and recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, though the incidence of non-albicans yeast species is increasing. The azole fluconazole is the primary antifungal drug used to treat R/VVC yet isolates from some species have intrinsic resistance to fluconazole, and recurrent infection can occur even with fluconazole-susceptible populations. The second-line broad-spectrum antimicrobial drug, boric acid, is an alternative treatment that has been found to successfully treat complicated VVC infections. Far less is known about how boric acid inhibits growth of yeast isolates in different morphologies compared to fluconazole. We found significant differences in drug resistance and drug tolerance (the ability of a subpopulation to grow slowly in high levels of drug) between C. albicans, C. glabrata, and C. parapsilosis isolates, with the specific relationships dependent on both drug and phenotype. Population-level variation for both susceptibility and tolerance was broader for fluconazole than boric acid in all species. Unlike fluconazole, which neither prevented hyphal formation nor disrupted mature biofilms, boric acid inhibited C. albicans hyphal formation and reduced mature biofilm biomass and metabolic activity in all isolates in a dose-dependent manner. Variation in planktonic response did not generally predict biofilm phenotypes. Overall, our findings illustrate that boric acid is broadly effective at inhibiting growth across many isolates and morphologies, which could explain why it is an effective treatment for R/VVC.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-6
Hakan Kızıltaş

Energy and exergy analysis of systems are of great importance to enhance the energy and exergy efficiency of industrial production facilities. With the energy and exergy analyses performed, the energy dependency of the production facilities and their energy consumption can be reduced, the price of the product can decrease, and the profit margin can increase. Additionally, it is ensured that the energy produced based on fossil fuels is used in a controlled way. In the present study, the analysis of energy and exergy has been performed for the production reactor unit of the Boric Acid from Colemanite. The first law of thermodynamics and ChemCAD simulation program was used for energy analysis calculations, and the calculations of exergy analysis were carried out by using the second law of thermodynamics. The total energy loss of the reactor unit and the calculated energy loss per 100 kcal input steam were calculated as 110880 kcal/h and 3.724%, and the losses of total exergy in the reactor units and the losses of exergy calculated per 100 kcal input steam were calculated as 225058.86 kcal/h and 30.095%, respectively. Exergy efficiency for the reactor unit has been determined as 3.3 %. Some suggestions were given for the reactor units of boric acid production plants to minimize system losses.

Umut Karaca ◽  
Sıla Gulbag Pinar ◽  
Mehtap Savran ◽  
Gulsah Usta ◽  
İlter İlhan ◽  

Suat Çolak ◽  
Kubra Koc ◽  
Serkan Yıldırım ◽  
Fatime Geyikoğlu

2022 ◽  
Vol 67 (4) ◽  
pp. 313-320
Hakan Tekeli ◽  
Gamze Sevri Ekren Asıcı ◽  
Aysegul Bildik

The increase in the rate of inflammation in the post-menopause period also leads to a significant increase in the use of anti-inflammatory agents. This study aimed to investigate the effect of BA supplementation on pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines in ovariectomy (OVX) induced rats. A total of 48 nonpregnant female Wistar albino rats (80-100 g) were used in the experiment. Forty-eight rats were divided into six equal groups (n=8): Control, OVX, OVX+5 mg/kg BA (OVX+BA5), OVX+10 mg/kg BA (OVX+BA10), 5 mg/kg BA (BA5), 10 mg/kg BA (BA10). Serum TNF-α cytokine levels of rats in the OVX group were higher than in control rats (P<0.05). TNF-α levels were significantly reduced in the OVX-induced rats with 5 mg/kg BA and 10 mg/kg BA supplementation (P<0.05). While serum IL-1α and IL-6 levels were not different between OVX and control rats, serum IL-3 levels were low (P<0.05) and not affected by 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg BA supplementation. Serum IL-11 levels increased significantly in the OVX rats with 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg BA supplementation (P<0.05). As far as we know, certain doses (5 and 10 mg/kg) of BA are the first study on the prevention of increased inflammation in rats induced by OVX. Results suggest that the supplementation of BA regulates the inflammatory changes associated with OVX and thus has beneficial for menopause management.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
Kazutaka Ushio ◽  
Erika Watanabe ◽  
Takehiro Kamiya ◽  
Ayumi Nagashima ◽  
Tadaomi Furuta ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 50 (4) ◽  
pp. 1041-1049
Ahmed A Moursy ◽  
MM Ismail

Effects of boron as an essential nutrient for sugar beet along with gamma irradiation was traced under field conditions. Data demonstrated that the fresh and dry root yields of sugar beet significantly increased with the increase either gamma dose or boron levels comparing to the non-irradiated and born-untreated plants. It seems that root dry weight tended to increase gradually with increasing gamma dose 0 to 100 Gy, then tended to decrease with 200 Gy dose but it still increased with gradual increases of boron levels. In this regard, the best value of root dry weight was achieved with 100 Gy dose interacted with 2.40 kg/ ha of boron addition. On the other hand, plants exposed to 50 Gy and treated with 2.40 kg/ ha reflected the highest shoot dry matter yield compared to other treatments. Relatively, this treatment increased shoot dry weight by about one fold, two folds and near to two folds for the same sequence. Behavior of NPK uptake by shoots has the same trend. Plants irradiated with 100 Gy together with 2.40 kg boric acid ha-1 yielded the highest total soluble solids (TSS%) and produced the best per cent of sucrose. Bangladesh J. Bot. 50(4): 1041-1049, 2021 (December)

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