environmental safety
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2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 921
Author(s):  
Pol Camps-Aragó ◽  
Laura Temmerman ◽  
Wim Vanobberghen ◽  
Simon Delaere

Several mobility-related issues persist in and around urban areas. Autonomous vehicles promise substantial environmental, safety, and economic benefits but may also cause unintended adverse effects that stem from single-passenger mobility becoming more affordable and accessible. While using them for public transport (i.e., autonomous shuttles) can help avoid such downsides, there are many challenges to their adoption, particularly ones that are related to citizen acceptance and economic aspects. Based on a novel survey of Brussels’ citizens, we provide insights from user opinions on last-mile autonomous shuttle services and analyze the effect of various attitudinal and socio-demographic factors affecting such acceptance. Our respondents exhibit an overall positive acceptance albeit with a limited willingness to pay for it. In addition, based on expert interviews, we provide a discussion on appropriate business models and policy recommendations to help ensure the timely adoption of AVs in Belgium that adapts to mobility needs and policy goals.


Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 242
Author(s):  
Idrees Khan ◽  
Khalid Saeed ◽  
Ivar Zekker ◽  
Baoliang Zhang ◽  
Abdulmajeed H. Hendi ◽  
...  

The unavailability of clean drinking water is one of the significant health issues in modern times. Industrial dyes are one of the dominant chemicals that make water unfit for drinking. Among these dyes, methylene blue (MB) is toxic, carcinogenic, and non-biodegradable and can cause a severe threat to human health and environmental safety. It is usually released in natural water sources, which becomes a health threat to human beings and living organisms. Hence, there is a need to develop an environmentally friendly, efficient technology for removing MB from wastewater. Photodegradation is an advanced oxidation process widely used for MB removal. It has the advantages of complete mineralization of dye into simple and nontoxic species with the potential to decrease the processing cost. This review provides a tutorial basis for the readers working in the dye degradation research area. We not only covered the basic principles of the process but also provided a wide range of previously published work on advanced photocatalytic systems (single-component and multi-component photocatalysts). Our study has focused on critical parameters that can affect the photodegradation rate of MB, such as photocatalyst type and loading, irradiation reaction time, pH of reaction media, initial concentration of dye, radical scavengers and oxidising agents. The photodegradation mechanism, reaction pathways, intermediate products, and final products of MB are also summarized. An overview of the future perspectives to utilize MB at an industrial scale is also provided. This paper identifies strategies for the development of effective MB photodegradation systems.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Vitaliy V. Chelnokov ◽  
Elena Zabolotnaya ◽  
Aleksey V. Matasov ◽  
Andrey N. Glushko ◽  
Stanyslav V. Michailin

The aim of this research was to examine the combustion process of the magnetic-electric activation of hydrocarbon-containing waste gases for heat generation. A method for analyzing the composition of the gases was also developed. Keywords: industrial gas combustion, magnetic-electric activation, heat generation


Author(s):  
Eric M. Hallerman ◽  
Justin P. Bredlau ◽  
Luiz Sergio A. Camargo ◽  
Maria Lucia Zaidan Dagli ◽  
Margaret Karembu ◽  
...  

AbstractTraditional breeding techniques, applied incrementally over thousands of years, have yielded huge benefits in the characteristics of agricultural animals. This is a result of significant, measurable changes to the genomes of those animal species and breeds. Genome editing techniques may now be applied to achieve targeted DNA sequence alterations, with the potential to affect traits of interest to production of agricultural animals in just one generation. New opportunities arise to improve characteristics difficult to achieve or not amenable to traditional breeding, including disease resistance, and traits that can improve animal welfare, reduce environmental impact, or mitigate impacts of climate change. Countries and supranational institutions are in the process of defining regulatory approaches for genome edited animals and can benefit from sharing approaches and experiences to institute progressive policies in which regulatory oversight is scaled to the particular level of risk involved. To facilitate information sharing and discussion on animal biotechnology, an international community of researchers, developers, breeders, regulators, and communicators recently held a series of seven virtual workshop sessions on applications of biotechnology for animal agriculture, food and environmental safety assessment, regulatory approaches, and market and consumer acceptance. In this report, we summarize the topics presented in the workshop sessions, as well as discussions coming out of the breakout sessions. This is framed within the context of past and recent scientific and regulatory developments. This is a pivotal moment for determination of regulatory approaches and establishment of trust across the innovation through-chain, from researchers, developers, regulators, breeders, farmers through to consumers.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Nazirhan Gadzhiev ◽  
Sergey Konovalenko ◽  
Mihail Trofimov

The monograph is devoted to the place and role of ecology and environmental safety in ensuring sustainable socio-economic development of society. In the conditions of the forced transition of the economies of the leading countries of the world from an industrial type to a new formation of a green economy aimed at ensuring the preservation of ecological systems and the maximum reduction of damage to the biodiversity of ecological systems, the Russian Federation faces the task of forming a new course of socio-economic development of society focused on the preservation of natural potential and ecology at a level normal for the maintenance of the vital activity of society, flora and fauna in the foreseeable future and in the long term. The role and importance of environmental safety in the system of ensuring the economic security of the state are outlined, the concept of the ideology of "Global Commons" in ensuring sustainable socio-economic development of society is considered, the problems and prospects of the implementation of the program "Green Course of Russia" are analyzed, special aspects of environmental audit, accounting and control, damage assessment in the field of ecology are investigated. Special attention is paid to the forecast of the dynamics of key environmental indicators for the medium term. The main directions of increasing the effectiveness of the mechanism for ensuring environmental safety in a market economy are proposed. For a wide range of readers interested in environmental economics. It will be useful for students, postgraduates and teachers of economic universities.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Author(s):  
Dimitrios Lytras ◽  
Evaggelos Sykaras ◽  
Paris Iakovidis ◽  
Konstantinos Kasimis ◽  
Ioannis Myrogiannis ◽  
...  

Background. Elderly falls constitute a global problem with huge social and economic aspects. Fall risk factors are both intrinsic (physical and psychological) and extrinsic (related with environmental safety). Aim. To record both intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors and their correlation in elderly fallers in order to suggest specific guidelines for their medical care and environmental modification inside and outside the home. Method. The study involved 150 elderly fallers (median age 70 (67-74)), who completed a record containing information on known risk factors related to their health status, as well as information on the conditions and causes that led to the fall. Each fall was considered an independent event, while measurements were performed regarding balance, strength, their functional ability, and the fear of a possible fall. Descriptive analysis and frequency analysis were used to record the health and activity status of the participants as well as the fall-related environmental factors. Severity of each fall event across a variety of locations was examined using the Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance. Multiple linear regression was applied to examine the effect of the mean values of functional tests and medical records on the number of fall events. Results. In the span of 12 months, a total of 304 fall events were recorded. Regarding location, 77.6% occurred indoors; more frequent were the bedroom (28.6%) and the bathroom (28%). The interior stairs (10.5%), the kitchen (4.9%), and the living room (3.3%) were the less frequent locations. Concerning danger, falling on the interior stairs caused the longest hospitalization, followed by the kitchen and the bathroom. Extrinsic factors that led to both indoor and outdoor falls were the administration of psychotropic medication, poor space ergonomics, lack of basic safety standards, and poor lighting conditions. Vision problems and dizziness resulted in more falls than other intrinsic factors. Furthermore, reduced performance in the FICSIT-4 test and the 30-Second Chair Stand Test, as well as high scores in the CONFbal–GREEK questionnaire and the Short FES-I, shows a linear relationship with an increased number of falls. Conclusions. Ergonomic interventions can help prevent indoor elderly falls. Poor construction and lack of adequate lighting mainly cause outdoor falls. Regular eye examinations, management of vertigo, improvement of the balance and strength of the lower limbs, and reduction of fear of impending falls are the intrinsic factors that help prevent falls the most.


Author(s):  
Ch. R. Gaitov ◽  
M. G. Chabaev ◽  
V. S. Gappoeva ◽  
A. A. Baeva ◽  
A. S. Dzhaboeva ◽  
...  

   Phospholipids are a kind of “solvents” of cholesterol and show a hepatoprotective effect. Also, phospholipids regulate fat and carbohydrate metabolism, improve the functional activity of the liver and its detoxification function. The study aims to study the impact of different doses of phos-pholipid lecithin preparation on economically useful indicators, meat productivity, nutritional value and environmental safety of quail meat at a subtoxic dose of nitrates in their compound feed. This article presents materials that indicate the feasibility of introducing phospholipid preparation of lecithin in the amount of 1.0 % by weight of feed under the presence of a sub-toxic dose of nitrates in the compound feed quail grown for meat. This introduction of phospholipid preparation of lecithin increases the preservation of livestock, body weight gain and reduces the cost of feed per unit gain. Poultry of the 2nd experimental group had an advantage over their control counterparts in preservation rate by 4.0 % and average daily growth by 9.50 % (P<0.05). The authors observed the benefit over the control samples in the concentration of dry substances by 0.98 and 0.99 %, protein by 0.98 and 0.97 % (P<0.05) in the examples of thigh and breast muscles of the poultry of the 2nd experimental group. The value of the protein-quality index (PQI) was higher by 13,55 % (P<0,05) in the samples of white meat from poultry carcasses of the 2nd experimental group as compared with the control counterparts. Also, the examples of poultry meat of the 2nd experimental group had better sanitary and hygienic characteristics. For instance, they had 36.83 % lower nitrate content (P<0.05) and 40.91 % lower nitrites content (P<0.05). This content indicates high denitrifying properties of phospholipid lecithin.


2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (4) ◽  
pp. 330-339
Author(s):  
R. A. Galiakberov

In the destruction of chemical weapons initiated in the Russian Federation in 1996, environmental safety issues played a key role in the creation of facilities for storing and destroying chemical weapons. The process of destroying chemical weapons is at the stage of eliminating consequences of activities and involving former destruction facilities in the economic turnover. The issue of development of safety systems is relevant. The purpose of the article is to study problems in the system of environmental safety insurance at chemical weapons destruction facilities and to identify possible ways of further development. The main methods used are analysis of information, induction, analogies, and generalization. The following conclusions were drawn: the environmental safety system fits into the system of safety insurance; the key subsystem is highly accurate and prompt environmental monitoring. Responding to the principles of the construction of head systems, complex monitoring systems were created at chemical weapons destruction facilities. The improvement of this subsystem can improve the environmental safety at these facilities; further development of the integrated environmental monitoring system requires the methods of data analysis and processing tools. Since the result of the monitoring system is information, its processing and interpretation is the most complex and time-consuming process. The use of modern information processing tools can reduce the time for an analysis, improve the quality, and create an information base for decision support systems in the environmental safety system. The research made it possible to outline further ways to improve the environmental safety systems at chemical weapons destruction facilities, which will further ensure the environmental safety and sustainability of chemical weapons destruction facilities and other potentially dangerous facilities that affect the environment.


Author(s):  
Abdullah A Alomar ◽  
Barry W Alto ◽  
Edward D Walker

Abstract Sugar is an essential source of nutrition for adult mosquitoes to acquire energy. Toxic sugar bait (TSB) provides a promising method for mosquito control by incorporating toxins into artificial sources of sugar (i.e., toxic baits) presented to wild populations. Spinosyns comprise a family of bacterial secondary metabolites with a unique mode of action against the insect nervous system, an appealing environmental safety profile, and potential for incorporation into sugar baits. This research evaluated acute and subacute effects of spinosad (spinosyns A and D) and spinetoram (spinosyns J and L) in sugar meals on survival, fecundity, and fertility of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Acute toxicity of spinosyns doubled from 24 to 48 h of assessment, revealing a relatively slow and cumulative action of the formulated spinosyns. Median lethal concentrations at 48 h were lower for spinetoram than for spinosad, lower for Ae. albopictus than Ae. aegypti, and lower for males than females. When exposed to subacute LC50 concentrations of spinosad and spinetoram for 24 h, survival of males and females of both species was diminished compared with controls, fecundity of females was increased, but fertility as measured by hatch rate of eggs was decreased. The formulations may have increased the nutritive value of the sugar meals thereby boosting fecundity, while toxifying embryos, reducing fertility. The inclusion of subacute effects of spinosyns allows assessment of the broader consequences of TSB for adult mosquito control.


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