legacy effects
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Shuling Chen ◽  
Thimo Klotzbücher ◽  
Oliver J. Lechtenfeld ◽  
Hanlie Hong ◽  
Chongxuan Liu ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 ◽  
Joachim Zhu ◽  
Anne Thimonier ◽  
Sophia Etzold ◽  
Katrin Meusburger ◽  
Peter Waldner ◽  

Leaf morphological traits (LMTs) of forest trees have been observed to vary across space and species. However, long-term records of LMTs are scarce, due to a lack of measurements and systematic leaf archives. This leaves a large gap in our understanding of the temporal dynamics and drivers of LMT variations, which may help us understand tree acclimation strategies. In our study, we used long-term LMT measurements from foliar material collections of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies), performed every second year from 1995 to 2019 on the same trees within the Swiss Long-term Forest Ecosystem Research Program LWF. The 11 study plots (6 beech, 4 spruce, and 1 mixed) are distributed along gradients of elevation (485–1,650 m a.s.l.), mean annual precipitation (935–2142 mm), and mean annual temperature (3.2–9.8°C). The investigated LMTs were (i) leaf or needle mass, (ii) leaf area or needle length, and (iii) leaf mass per area or needle mass per length. We combined this unique data set with plot variables and long-term data on potential temporal drivers of LMT variations, including meteorological and tree trait data. We used univariate linear regressions and linear mixed-effects models to identify the main spatial and temporal drivers of LMT variations, respectively. For beech LMTs, our temporal analysis revealed effects of mast year and crown defoliation, and legacy effects of vapor pressure deficit and temperature in summer and autumn of the preceding year, but no clear long-term trend was observed. In contrast, spruce LMTs were mainly driven by current-year spring conditions, and only needle mass per length showed a decreasing long-term trend over the study period. In temporal models, we observed that LMTs of both species were influenced by elevation and foliar nutrient concentrations, and this finding was partly confirmed by our spatial analyses. Our results demonstrate the importance of temporal analysis for determining less recognized drivers and legacy effects that influence LMTs, which are difficult to determine across space and species. The observed differences in the temporal drivers of beech and spruce LMTs suggest differences in the adaptation and acclimation potential of the two species.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-20
Xihong Lian ◽  
Limin Jiao ◽  
Zejin Liu ◽  
Qiqi Jia ◽  
Jing Zhong ◽  

2021 ◽  
Moritz Marbach

Social scientists have long been interested in the persistent effects of history on contemporary behavior and attitudes. To estimate legacy effects, studies typically compare people living in places that were historically exposed to some event and those that were not. Using principal stratification, we provide a formal framework to analyze how migration limits our ability to learn about the persistent effects of history from observed differences between historically exposed and unexposed places. We state the necessary assumptions about movement behavior to causally identify legacy effects. We highlight that these assumptions are strong; therefore, we recommend that legacy studies circumvent bias by collecting data on people's place of residence at the exposure time. Reexamining a study on the persistent effects of US civil-rights protests, we show that observed attitudinal differences between residents and non-residents of historic protest sites are more likely due to migration rather than attitudinal change.

2021 ◽  
Ya-ni Meng ◽  
Tianpeng Li ◽  
Heyong Liu ◽  
Shao-peng Li ◽  
Zhuwen Xu ◽  

Abstract Nitrogen (N) deposition and increased precipitation induced by anthropogenic activities were widely reported to promote plant productivity in terrestrial ecosystems. However, few studies have explored the effects of historical resource supplement on plant communities although N deposition was predicted to decrease in the near future and the directional change of precipitation would shift among years. Here, we examined the legacy effects of N deposition and increased precipitation on plant productivity in a semi-arid steppe after cessation of a 13-year N and water addition experiment. We found historical N and water addition generally had positive effects on plant productivity even after the treatments were ceased. However, such legacy effects showed strong inter-annual variation, and the positive effect of N and water addition on productivity were stronger in a wet year (i.e., 2019) than an extremely drought year (i.e., 2018). Although N and water availability decreased rapidly, the independently positive effects of historical N and water input persisted after 2 years of cessation largely due to the stable community composition. The increased plant stature of dominant functional groups largely contributed to the increased current productivity after the historical N and water addition. Together, these findings will facilitate the projection of the primary productivity and carbon cycling under the scenarios of predicted reduce in N deposition and changeable precipitation.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-20
Margarita León ◽  
Marco Arlotti ◽  
David Palomera ◽  
Costanzo Ranci

This article investigates the delay in implementation and inadequacy of specific policy actions in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic in nursing homes. The analysis focuses on Lombardy and Madrid, the two wealthiest regions in Italy and Spain. These were the most severely affected by the onset of the pandemic, both country-wise and at the European level. We compare the chronology of policy decisions that affected nursing homes against the broader policy responses related to the health crisis. We look at structural factors that reveal policy legacy effects. Our analysis shows that key emergency interventions arrived late, especially when compared to similar actions taken by the national health services. Weak institutional embedding of nursing homes within the welfare state in terms of ownership, allocation of resources, regulation and coordination hindered a swift response to the onset of the crisis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 310 ◽  
pp. 108630
Zhaoqi Zeng ◽  
Wenxiang Wu ◽  
Quansheng Ge ◽  
Zhaolei Li ◽  
Xiaoyue Wang ◽  

Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 2199
Kelly Ulcuango ◽  
Mariela Navas ◽  
Nelly Centurión ◽  
Miguel Á. Ibañez ◽  
Chiquinquirá Hontoria ◽  

Cover crops (CC) provide important ecosystem services that are demanded to achieve more sustainable agrosystems. However, the legacy effects of CC on the microbial community structure and its interactions with the subsequent cash crops (CaC) are still poorly understood, especially when CC mixtures are involved. In this work, five CC (3 monocultures and 2 mixtures) were selected in an experiment under semi-controlled conditions to investigate if CC monocultures and mixtures differed in their effects on soil and crop variables and if the identity of the subsequent crop modulates these effects. The two most consumed crops worldwide, wheat and maize, were sown separately after CC. The legacy effects of CC on the studied microbial variables largely depended on the interaction with the CaC. The vetch and the barley-vetch mixture stood out by providing the microbial conditions that enhanced the absorption of macro- and micronutrients, to finally seek the highest wheat biomass (>80% more than the control). In maize, the effects of CC on soil microbiota were more limited. The soil microbial responses for CC mixtures were complex and contrasting. In wheat, the barley-vetch mixture behaved like barley monoculture, whereas in maize, this mixture behaved like vetch monoculture. In both CaC, the barley-melilotus mixture differed completely from its monocultures, mainly through changes in archaea, Glomeromycota, and F:B ratio. Therefore, it is necessary to deepen the knowledge on the CC-CaC-microbial interactions to select the CC that most enhance the sustainability and yield of each agrosystem.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (4) ◽  
pp. 1015-1035
Ana Bastos ◽  
René Orth ◽  
Markus Reichstein ◽  
Philippe Ciais ◽  
Nicolas Viovy ◽  

Abstract. In 2018 and 2019, central Europe was affected by two consecutive extreme dry and hot summers (DH18 and DH19). The DH18 event had severe impacts on ecosystems and likely affected vegetation activity in the subsequent year, for example through depletion of carbon reserves or damage from drought. Such legacies from drought and heat stress can further increase vegetation susceptibility to additional hazards. Temporally compound extremes such as DH18 and DH19 can, therefore, result in an amplification of impacts due to preconditioning effects of past disturbance legacies. Here, we evaluate how these two consecutive extreme summers impacted ecosystems in central Europe and how the vegetation responses to the first compound event (DH18) modulated the impacts of the second (DH19). To quantify changes in vegetation vulnerability to each compound event, we first train a set of statistical models for the period 2001–2017, which are then used to predict the impacts of DH18 and DH19 on enhanced vegetation index (EVI) anomalies from MODIS. These estimates correspond to expected EVI anomalies in DH18 and DH19 based on past sensitivity to climate. Large departures from the predicted values can indicate changes in vulnerability to dry and hot conditions and be used to identify modulating effects by vegetation activity and composition or other environmental factors on observed impacts. We find two regions in which the impacts of the two compound dry and hot (DH) events were significantly stronger than those expected based on previous climate–vegetation relationships. One region, largely dominated by grasslands and crops, showed much stronger impacts than expected in both DH events due to an amplification of their sensitivity to heat and drought, possibly linked to changing background CO2 and temperature conditions. A second region, dominated by forests and grasslands, showed browning from DH18 to DH19, even though dry and hot conditions were partly alleviated in 2019. This browning trajectory was mainly explained by the preconditioning role of DH18 on the impacts of DH19 due to interannual legacy effects and possibly by increased susceptibility to biotic disturbances, which are also promoted by warm conditions. Dry and hot summers are expected to become more frequent in the coming decades, posing a major threat to the stability of European forests. We show that state-of-the-art process-based models could not represent the decline in response to DH19 because they missed the interannual legacy effects from DH18 impacts. These gaps may result in an overestimation of the resilience and stability of temperate ecosystems in future model projections.

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