Fruit And Vegetable Intake
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PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (7) ◽  
pp. e0255203
Ninoshka J. D’Souza ◽  
Katherine Downing ◽  
Gavin Abbott ◽  
Liliana Orellana ◽  
Sandrine Lioret ◽  

Background Behavioural patterns are typically derived using unsupervised multivariate methods such as principal component analysis (PCA), latent profile analysis (LPA) and cluster analysis (CA). Comparability and congruence between the patterns derived from these methods has not been previously investigated, thus it’s unclear whether patterns from studies using different methods are directly comparable. This study aimed to compare behavioural patterns derived across diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sleep domains, using PCA, LPA and CA in a single dataset. Methods Parent-report and accelerometry data from the second wave (2011/12; child age 6-8y, n = 432) of the HAPPY cohort study (Melbourne, Australia) were used to derive behavioural patterns using PCA, LPA and CA. Standardized variables assessing diet (intake of fruit, vegetable, sweet, and savoury discretionary items), physical activity (moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity [MVPA] from accelerometry, organised sport duration and outdoor playtime from parent report), sedentary behaviour (sedentary time from accelerometry, screen time, videogames and quiet playtime from parent report) and sleep (daily sleep duration) were included in the analyses. For each method, commonly used criteria for pattern retention were applied. Results PCA produced four patterns whereas LPA and CA each generated three patterns. Despite the number and characterisation of the behavioural patterns derived being non-identical, each method identified a healthy, unhealthy and a mixed pattern. Three common underlying themes emerged across the methods for each type of pattern: (i) High fruit and vegetable intake and high outdoor play (“healthy”); (ii) poor diet (either low fruit and vegetable intake or high discretionary food intake) and high sedentary behaviour (“unhealthy”); and (iii) high MVPA, poor diet (as defined above) and low sedentary time (“mixed”). Conclusion Within this sample, despite differences in the number of patterns derived by each method, a good degree of concordance across pattern characteristics was seen between the methods. Differences between patterns could be attributable to the underpinning statistical technique of each method. Therefore, acknowledging the differences between the methods and ensuring thorough documentation of the pattern derivation analyses is essential to inform comparison of patterns derived through a range of approaches across studies.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Elliot Smith ◽  
Richard Stevenson ◽  
Leah Dudley ◽  
Heather Francis

PurposeGreater fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake has been linked to more positive mood. Here, the purpose of this paper is to examine if this relationship is mediated by expectancies about their benefit to health/mental health.Design/methodology/approachParticipants completed a new questionnaire to assess expectancies related to F&V intake. This was administered alongside a validated food-frequency measure of F&V intake, an assessment of positive and negative mood state and other measures.FindingsParticipants held strongly positive expectations about the physical and mental health benefits of consuming F&V. The authors observed a significant relationship between self-reported F&V intake and positive mood (d = 0.52). Importantly, this effect was largely (but not completely) independent of expectancies. The authors also observed that expectancies about F&V intake were independently predictive of positive mood (d = 0.47).Originality/valueThis is the first study to explore expectancy effects in the mental health benefits of F&V intake. These data suggest that positive expectancies about F&V intake, and F&V intake itself, are both predictive of positive mood. The former finding is probably a placebo effect, whereby people believe they are consuming sufficient F&V (even if they are not) and so experience mood-related benefits due to their positive expectations. The latter finding is consistent with F&V exerting a biologically beneficial effect on the brain.

2021 ◽  
Ron Strochlic ◽  
Gail Woodward‐Lopez ◽  
Sridharshi Hewawitharana ◽  
Katharina Streng ◽  
Jackie Richardson ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Dalal Alkazemi ◽  
Younis Salmean

Data on fruit and vegetable (F/V) consumption and barriers to their intake by Kuwait college students are needed for health promotional activities to curtail obesity and related comorbidities prevalent in Kuwait. This study employed a cross-sectional survey aimed at assessing the median F/V intake in a sample of Kuwait University students to determine its relationship with gender, body weight, college affiliation, and family monthly income and to explore perceived barriers to eating F/V. The median total F/V intake was 2.06, and the median intake of F/V without fries was even lower. Significant gender differences were found in intakes of fruit juice and the percentage of juice from fruit intake, with males consuming more servings per day compared to females. Male students were found to consume proportionately more fried potatoes of total vegetable intake when compared to females, whereas female students were found to consume more vegetables without fries than males. Taste, inconvenience, and lack of knowledge on F/V intake recommendations and preparation methods were among the main barriers to consuming more F/V. College students require encouragement to consume more F/V through targeted campaigns to increase awareness of recommendations, health benefits, and ways to incorporate F/V in their daily diet.

Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (7) ◽  
pp. 1478
Marcelo D. Catarino ◽  
Sónia J. Amarante ◽  
Nuno Mateus ◽  
Artur M. S. Silva ◽  
Susana M. Cardoso

According to the WHO, cancer was responsible for an estimated 9.6 million deaths in 2018, making it the second global leading cause of death. The main risk factors that lead to the development of this disease include poor behavioral and dietary habits, such as tobacco use, alcohol use and lack of fruit and vegetable intake, or physical inactivity. In turn, it is well known that polyphenols are deeply implicated with the lower rates of cancer in populations that consume high levels of plant derived foods. In this field, phlorotannins have been under the spotlight in recent years since they have shown exceptional bioactive properties, with great interest for application in food and pharmaceutical industries. Among their multiple bioactive properties, phlorotannins have revealed the capacity to interfere with several biochemical mechanisms that regulate oxidative stress, inflammation and tumorigenesis, which are central aspects in the pathogenesis of cancer. This versatility and ability to act either directly or indirectly at different stages and mechanisms of cancer growth make these compounds highly appealing for the development of new therapeutical strategies to address this world scourge. The present manuscript revises relevant studies focusing the effects of phlorotannins to counteract the oxidative stress–inflammation network, emphasizing their potential for application in cancer prevention and/or treatment.

2021 ◽  
pp. 026010602110263
Velarie Ansu ◽  
Gregory Madden ◽  
Heidi Wengreen

Background: The FIT Game is a multicomponent school-based incentive program aimed at increasing children’s fruit and vegetable (FV) intake. There has been no previous report on how playing the game at school influences FV intake away from school. Aim: To examine children’s ( n=37) FV intake away from school while participating in the FIT Game program at school. Methods: FV intake away from school was assessed using the ASA24-Kids-2014 Dietary Assessment Tool. Paired samples t-tests and the generalized linear model repeated measures analysis of variance were used to examine the difference in children’s mean FV intake away from school. Results: During the final three days of the FIT Game intervention, we observed no change in FV consumption away from school (p=0.30). Similarly, no differences were observed between FV intake away from school before the implementation of the FIT Game and during the final three days (p=0.81). Conclusions: The FIT Game modestly decreased the children’s FV intake in a nonstatistically significant manner away from school. Our previous report showed an increase in children’s FV intake at school; thus, the net effect of the game was a significant increase in total daily FV intake.

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