clinical prediction
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BJGP Open ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. BJGPO.2021.0171
Hanne Ann Boon ◽  
Jan Y Verbakel ◽  
Tine De Burghgraeve ◽  
Ann Van den Bruel

BackgroundDiagnosing childhood urinary tract infections (UTI) is challenging.AimValidate clinical prediction rules (UTIcalc, DUTY, Gorelick) for paediatric UTIs in primary care.Design & settingPost-hoc analysis of a cross-sectional study in 39 general practices and 2 emergency departments (Belgium, March 2019 to March 2020).MethodPhysicians recruited acutely ill children ≤18 years and sampled urine systematically for culture. Per rule, we performed an apparent validation; calculated sensitivities and specificities with 95%CI per threshold in the target group. For the DUTY coefficient-based algorithm, we performed a logistic calibration and calculated the Area Under the Curve with 95%CI.ResultsOf 834 children ≤18 years recruited, there were 297 children <5 years. The UTIcalc and Gorelick score had high to moderate sensitivity and low specificity (UTIcalc ≥2%) 75%; and 16% respectively; Gorelick (≥2 variables) 91%; and 8%. In contrast, the DUTY score ≥5 points had low sensitivity (8%), but high specificity (99%). Urine samples would be obtained in 72% vs 38% (UTIcalc), 92% vs 38% (Gorelick) or 1% vs 32% (DUTY) of children, compared to routine care. The number of missed infections per score was 1/4 (UTIcalc), 2/23 (Gorelick) and 24/26 (DUTY). The UTIcalc+ dipstick model had high sensitivity and specificity (100%; and 91%); resulting in no missed cases and 59% (95%CI 49%–68%) of antibiotics prescribed inappropriately.ConclusionIn this study, the UTIcalc and Gorelick score were useful for ruling out UTI but resulted in high urine sampling rates. The DUTY score had low sensitivity, meaning that 92% of UTIs would be missed.

2022 ◽  
Nallammai Muthiah ◽  
Arka Mallela ◽  
Lena Vodovotz ◽  
Nikhil Sharma ◽  
Emefa Akwayena ◽  

Introduction Epilepsy impacts 470,000 children in the United States, and children with epilepsy are estimated to expend 6 times more on healthcare than those without epilepsy. For patients with antiseizure medication (ASM)-resistant epilepsy and unresectable seizure foci, vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a treatment option. Predicting response to VNS has been historically challenging. We aimed to create a clinical prediction score which could be utilized in a routine outpatient clinical setting. Methods We performed an 11-year, single-center retrospective analysis of patients <21 years old with ASM-resistant epilepsy who underwent VNS. The primary outcome was >50% seizure frequency reduction after one year. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to assess clinical factors associated with VNS response; 70% and 30% of the sample were used to train and validate the multivariate model, respectively. A prediction score was developed based on the multivariate regression. Sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) were calculated. Results This analysis included 365 patients. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that variables associated with VNS response were: <4 years of epilepsy duration before VNS (p=0.008) and focal motor seizures (p=0.037). The variables included in the clinical prediction score were: epilepsy duration before VNS, age at seizure onset, number of pre-VNS ASMs, if VNS was the patient's first therapeutic epilepsy surgery, and predominant seizure semiology. The final AUC was 0.7013 for the "fitted" sample and 0.6159 for the "validation" sample. Conclusions We developed a clinical model to predict VNS response in one of the largest samples of pediatric VNS patients to date. While the presented clinical prediction model demonstrated an acceptable AUC in the training cohort, clinical variables alone likely do not accurately predict VNS response. This score may be useful upon further validation, though its predictive ability underscores the need for more robust biomarkers of treatment response.

2022 ◽  
Mark Ebell ◽  
Roya Hamadani ◽  
Autumn Kieber-Emmons

Importance Outpatient physicians need guidance to support their clinical decisions regarding management of patients with COVID-19, in particular whether to hospitalize a patient and if managed as an outpatient, how closely to follow them. Objective To develop and prospectively validate a clinical prediction rule to predict the likelihood of hospitalization for outpatients with COVID-19 that does not require laboratory testing or imaging. Design Derivation and temporal validation of a clinical prediction rule, and prospective validation of two externally derived clinical prediction rules. Setting Primary and Express care clinics in a Pennsylvania health system. Participants Patients 12 years and older presenting to outpatient clinics who had a positive polymerase chain reaction test for COVID-19. Main outcomes and measures Classification accuracy (percentage in each risk group hospitalized) and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results Overall, 7.4% of outpatients in the early derivation cohort (5843 patients presenting before 3/1/21) and 5.5% in the late validation cohort (3806 patients presenting 3/1/21 or later) were ultimately hospitalized. We developed and temporally validated three risk scores that all included age, dyspnea, and the presence of comorbidities, adding respiratory rate for the second score and oxygen saturation for the third. All had very good overall accuracy (AUC 0.77 to 0.78) and classified over half of patients in the validation cohort as very low risk with a 1.7% or lower likelihood of hospitalization. Two externally derived risk scores identified more low risk patients, but with a higher overall risk of hospitalization (2.8%). Conclusions and relevance Simple risk scores applicable to outpatient and telehealth settings can identify patients with very low (1.6% to 1.7%), low (5.2% to 5.9%), moderate (14.7% to 15.6%), and high risk (32.0% to 34.2%) of hospitalization. The Lehigh Outpatient COVID Hospitalization (LOCH) risk score is available online as a free app:

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Wenle Li ◽  
Shengtao Dong ◽  
Bing Wang ◽  
Haosheng Wang ◽  
Chan Xu ◽  

Background: This study aimed to construct a clinical prediction model for osteosarcoma patients to evaluate the influence factors for the occurrence of lymph node metastasis (LNM).Methods: In our retrospective study, a total of 1,256 patients diagnosed with chondrosarcoma were enrolled from the SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results) database (training cohort, n = 1,144) and multicenter dataset (validation cohort, n = 112). Both the univariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis were performed to identify the potential risk factors of LNM in osteosarcoma patients. According to the results of multivariable logistic regression analysis, A nomogram were established and the predictive ability was assessed by calibration plots, receiver operating characteristics (ROCs) curve, and decision curve analysis (DCA). Moreover, Kaplan-Meier plot of overall survival (OS) was plot and a web calculator visualized the nomogram.Results: Five independent risk factors [chemotherapy, surgery, lung metastases, lymphatic metastases (M-stage) and tumor size (T-stage)] were identified by multivariable logistic regression analysis. What's more, calibration plots displayed great power both in training and validation group. DCA presented great clinical utility. ROCs curve provided the predictive ability in the training cohort (AUC = 0.805) and the validation cohort (AUC = 0.808). Moreover, patients in LNN group had significantly better survival than that in LNP group both in training and validation group.Conclusion: In this study, we constructed and developed a nomogram with risk factors, which performed well in predicting risk factors of LNM in osteosarcoma patients. It may give a guide for surgeons and oncologists to optimize individual treatment and make a better clinical decision.

2022 ◽  
Vol 104-B (1) ◽  
pp. 97-102
Yasukazu Hijikata ◽  
Tsukasa Kamitani ◽  
Masayuki Nakahara ◽  
Shinji Kumamoto ◽  
Tsubasa Sakai ◽  

Aims To develop and internally validate a preoperative clinical prediction model for acute adjacent vertebral fracture (AVF) after vertebral augmentation to support preoperative decision-making, named the after vertebral augmentation (AVA) score. Methods In this prognostic study, a multicentre, retrospective single-level vertebral augmentation cohort of 377 patients from six Japanese hospitals was used to derive an AVF prediction model. Backward stepwise selection (p < 0.05) was used to select preoperative clinical and imaging predictors for acute AVF after vertebral augmentation for up to one month, from 14 predictors. We assigned a score to each selected variable based on the regression coefficient and developed the AVA scoring system. We evaluated sensitivity and specificity for each cut-off, area under the curve (AUC), and calibration as diagnostic performance. Internal validation was conducted using bootstrapping to correct the optimism. Results Of the 377 patients used for model derivation, 58 (15%) had an acute AVF postoperatively. The following preoperative measures on multivariable analysis were summarized in the five-point AVA score: intravertebral instability (≥ 5 mm), focal kyphosis (≥ 10°), duration of symptoms (≥ 30 days), intravertebral cleft, and previous history of vertebral fracture. Internal validation showed a mean optimism of 0.019 with a corrected AUC of 0.77. A cut-off of ≤ one point was chosen to classify a low risk of AVF, for which only four of 137 patients (3%) had AVF with 92.5% sensitivity and 45.6% specificity. A cut-off of ≥ four points was chosen to classify a high risk of AVF, for which 22 of 38 (58%) had AVF with 41.5% sensitivity and 94.5% specificity. Conclusion In this study, the AVA score was found to be a simple preoperative method for the identification of patients at low and high risk of postoperative acute AVF. This model could be applied to individual patients and could aid in the decision-making before vertebral augmentation. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2022;104-B(1):97–102.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 314-324
Yun Seong Park ◽  
Jin Hee Lee ◽  
Young Ho Kwak ◽  
Jae Yun Jung ◽  
Hyuksool Kwon ◽  

Objective Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a significant issue in young febrile patients due to potential long-term complications. Early detection of UTI is crucial in pediatric emergency departments (PEDs). We developed a tool to predict UTIs in children.Methods Clinical data of patients <24 months of age with a fever and UTI or viral infection were extracted from the fever registry collected in two PEDs. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression was performed to establish predictors of identified eligible clinical variables for the derivation of the prediction model.Results A total of 1,351 patients were included in the analysis, 643 patients from A hospital (derivation set) and 708 patients from B hospital (validation set). In the derivation set, there were more girls and a lower incidence of a past history of UTI, older age, less fever without source, and more family members with upper respiratory symptoms in the viral infection group. The stepwise regression analysis identified sex (uncircumcised male), age (≤12 months), a past history of UTI, and family members with upper respiratory symptoms as significant variables.Conclusion Young febrile patients in the PED were more likely to have UTIs if they were uncircumcised boys, were younger than 12 months of age, had a past history of UTIs, or did not have families with respiratory infections. This clinical prediction model may help determine whether to perform urinalysis in the PED.

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 198
Chia-Cheng Tseng ◽  
Chih-Yen Tu ◽  
Chia-Hung Chen ◽  
Yao-Tung Wang ◽  
Wei-Chih Chen ◽  

Nutritional status could affect clinical outcomes in critical patients. We aimed to determine the prognostic accuracy of the modified Nutrition Risk in Critically Ill (mNUTRIC) score for hospital mortality and treatment outcomes in patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia (SCAP) compared to other clinical prediction rules. We enrolled SCAP patients in a multi-center setting retrospectively. The mNUTRIC score and clinical prediction rules for pneumonia, as well as clinical factors, were calculated and recorded. Clinical outcomes, including mortality status and treatment outcome, were assessed after the patient was discharged. We used the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve method and multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine the prognostic accuracy of the mNUTRIC score for predicting clinical outcomes compared to clinical prediction rules, while 815 SCAP patients were enrolled. ROC curve analysis showed that the mNUTRIC score was the most effective at predicting each clinical outcome and had the highest area under the ROC curve value. The cut-off value for predicting clinical outcomes was 5.5. By multivariate logistic regression analysis, the mNUTRIC score was also an independent predictor of both clinical outcomes in SCAP patients. We concluded that the mNUTRIC score is a better prognostic factor for predicting clinical outcomes in SCAP patients compared to other clinical prediction rules.

2021 ◽  
Pui San Tan ◽  
Ashley Clift ◽  
Weiqi Liao ◽  
Martina Patone ◽  
Carol Coupland ◽  

Background Pancreatic cancer continues to have an extremely poor prognosis in part due to late diagnosis. 25% of pancreatic cancer patients have a prior diagnosis of diabetes, and hence identifying individuals at risk of pancreatic cancer in those with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes may be a useful opportunity to identify candidates for screening and early detection. In this study, we will comparatively evaluate regression and machine learning-based clinical prediction models for estimating individual risk of developing pancreatic cancer two years after type 2 diabetes diagnosis. Methods In the development dataset, we will include adults aged 30-84 years with incident type-2 diabetes registered with QResearch primary care database. Patients will be followed up from type-2 diabetes diagnosis to first diagnosis of pancreatic cancer as recorded in any one of primary care records, hospital episode statistics, cancer registry data, or death records. Cox-proportional hazards models will be used to develop a risk prediction model for estimating individual risk of developing pancreatic cancer during up to 2 years of follow-up. We will perform variable selection using a combination of clinical and statistical significance approach i.e. HR <0.9 or >1.1 and p<0.01. Linear predictors and baseline survivor function at 2 years will be used to compute absolute risk predictions. Internal-external cross-validation (IECV) framework across geographical regions within England will be used to assess performance and pooled using random effects meta-analysis using: (i) model fit in terms of variation explained by the model Royston & Sauerbrei's R2D, (ii) calibration slope and calibration-in-the-large, and (iii) discrimination measured in terms of Harrell's C and Royston & Sauerbrei's D-statistic. Further, we will evaluate machine learning (ML) approaches for the clinical prediction model using neural networks (NN) and XGBoost. The model predictors and performance of these will be compared with the results of those derived from the regression-based strategy. Discussion The proposed study will develop and validate a novel risk prediction model to aid early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer in patients with new-onset diabetes in primary care. With an enhanced decision-risk tool for use at point-of care by general practitioners to assess pancreatic cancer risk, it may improve decision-making so that at-risk patients are rapidly prioritised to aid early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer in patients with newly diagnosed diabetes.

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