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2022 ◽  
Sourav Dakua

The aim of this ‘literature review’-based argumentative paper has been to find out the risks of developing psychotic and depressive disorders in patients having been treated with antidepressants. In order to reach a resounding supposition, this literature review-based argumentative study had taken an incisive look into previous research works and meta-analysis, which in effect had underscored the risks of antidepressant-induced psychotic and depressive disorders in patients with depression as well as psychosis even as the protagonists of antidepressant drug classes could not be undermined given their upscaled magnitude of benefits. While following a probing interpretation of past studies, this might be demystified that antidepressants could lead to psychotic events and depressive disorders in patients of all age groups with children and young adults being more susceptible to develop psychosis. The psychotic episodes could even be developed during initial phase of treatments in patients suffering from depressive and psychotic disorders such as bipolar mood disorder, unipolar depression, major depressive disorders, mania, OCD (Obsessive Compulsive Disorder), delusional depression (psychotic depression), schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorders alongside multiple somatic symptoms among others as well. Concomitantly, with efficaciousness of antidepressants in major depressive disorder still remaining a subject to utter dubitability, different antidepressant drug classes were found to be associated with a considerable scale of adverse effects after carrying out protracted arguments on findings of evidence-based past studies, meta-analysis of previous researches and relevant clinical cases. Therefore, following a systematized approach towards past studies, this argumentative research has reached a coherent conclusion that antidepressants are likely to cause psychotic events and exaggeration of depressive disorders up to some extent in several cases. Hence, there is a stipulation of individual risk-benefit assessment and intricate history taking in patients being contemplated for antidepressant drugs alongside a close observation and follow-up in patients of all age groups after introducing antidepressant medications.

2022 ◽  
Tudorita Gradinariu ◽  

Previous research has shown that teachers play an important role in preventing bullying in school. Nowadays, there is a growing interest in understanding the risk factors associated with school such as the teachers’ perception of the severity of bullying and their response to bullies and victims. This paper presents risk factors associated with bullying and teachers’ perceptions within Bronfenbrenner’s (1977) classic ecological theory.According to this paradigm, changes are required in the environments with which children interact as they develop (family, school, community and society). By exposing the factors that trigger and maintain bullying, we aim to highlight the importance of Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems model in designing bullying prevention strategies. We will focus on the risk factors associated with school, chief among which is the, teachers' perceptions of bullying in school. Not only does this view contribute to optimizing the understanding of the importance of ecosystem theory for effectiveness prevention, but it also suggests that both research and prevention should focus on individual risk factors that influence teachers' reactivity to bullying behaviors.

Marie Nakamura ◽  
Yasushi Yamamoto ◽  
Wataru Imaoka ◽  
Toshio Kuroshima ◽  
Ryoko Toragai ◽  

Background: Small dense low-density lipoprotein (sdLDL), a smaller and denser subfraction among whole LDL particles, is known to be highly atherogenic. The reference interval (RI) is not strictly defined for serum concentration of sdLDL-cholesterol (sdLDL-C) in Japan. The purpose of this study is to set the RI for sdLDL-C in healthy subjects. Methods: The population of this cross-sectional study were consisted of 40,862 individuals who had annual health checkups, and healthy subjects were extracted based on exclusion criteria such as medical history, social history, and blood sampling test results. Their serum sdLDL-C values were statistically analyzed and the RIs were set in men, premenopausal women, and postmenopausal women separately. Results: The mean values of serum sdLDL-C in healthy subjects were 23.9 mg/dL in men, 20.0 mg/dL in premenopausal women and 23.7 mg/dL in postmenopausal women, and the RIs were 12.6-45.3 mg/dL in men, 11.4-35.1 mg/dL in premenopausal women and 14.6-38.6 mg/dL in postmenopausal women. Serum sdLDL-C values were significantly higher in men than in women. Besides, sdLDL-C values were significantly higher in postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women. In both genders, sdLDL-C values tended to increase with age. Conclusion: These results suggest that the RIs for sdLDL-C are recommended as follows: 13-45 mg/dL in men, 11-35 mg/dL in premenopausal women, and 15-39 mg/dL in postmenopausal women, respectively. Aside from these RIs, it is also necessary to define clinical cutoff values graded according to individual risk levels for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases.

2022 ◽  
Lena Lagally ◽  
Julia Schorlemmer ◽  
Maximilian Edlinger ◽  
Julia Schoierer ◽  
Stephan Bose-O’Reilly

Abstract Background: Children are among the most vulnerable to suffer from health consequences due to climate change. Parents as caregivers play an important role in protecting them adequately. Pediatricians are regularly seen as highly-trusted health professionals, but it remains unclear whether they are an information source for parents regarding climate change and health. According to the Health Action Process Approach, parents’ risk perception is an important pre-intender for intention building. Methods: A sample of parents (N = 243) living in Germany completed an online, cross-sectional survey distributed in summer 2020. Regarding climate change and health, we asked about information sources, relevance estimation, and risk perception of parents. Multiple linear regression with general and individual risk perception as outcomes were used to analyze the effect of knowledge and personal relevance. Results: Parents seek information about climate change and health primarily via internet and social media. Pediatricians are rarely considered as suitable information source. Parents see the highest risk for their child through increasing air pollutants and stronger UV-radiation. Relevance (β = .52, t = 5.79, p < .001) and knowledge (β = .02, t = .36, p = .72) explain 18.2% of general risk perception (F(5, 208) = 9.25, p < .001, ΔR2 = .13). The effect is lower (13%) for individual risk perception (F(5, 189) = 5.67, p < .001, ΔR2 = .07). Conclusions: Pediatricians can play a valuable role in informing parents about climate change and health; nevertheless, they are not yet seen as suitable information sources by parents. Results demonstrate that knowledge about climate change and health is not sufficient to increase risk perception of parents, but strengthening risk perception is possible through rising relevance estimation. When informing parents about the expected health impact of climate change, this should be considered.

2022 ◽  
Sebastian Bjørkheim ◽  
Bjørn Sætrevik

To handle an infectious outbreak, the public must be informed about the infection risk and be motivated to comply with infection control measures. Perceiving the situation as threatening and seeing public benefits to complying may increase the public’s motivation to comply. The current study used a preregistered survey experiment to investigate if emphasizing high infection risk and appealing to societal benefits impacted intention to comply with infection control measures. The results show main effects of risk and of appeals to societal benefits. There was no interaction between risk scenario and motivational emphasis. The results suggest that to maximize compliance, information about disease outbreak should emphasize the individual risk of contracting the disease, and could also underline the public value of limiting infection spread. These findings can inform communication strategies during an infectious disease outbreak and help health authorities limit transmission.

Metabolites ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 67
Stefan-Sebastian Busnatu ◽  
Teodor Salmen ◽  
Maria-Alexandra Pana ◽  
Manfredi Rizzo ◽  
Tiziana Stallone ◽  

There is increasing presence of fructose in food and drinks, and some evidence suggests that its higher consumption increases cardiovascular risk, although the mechanisms still remain not fully elucidated. Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are still responsible for one-third of deaths worldwide, and therefore, their prevention should be assessed and managed comprehensively and not by the evaluation of individual risk factor components. Lifestyle risk factors for CVD include low degree of physical activity, high body mass index, alcohol consumption, smoking, and nutritional factors. Indeed, nutritional risk factors for CVD include unhealthy dietary behaviors, such as high intake of refined foods, unhealthy fats, added sugars, and sodium and a low intake of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, fiber, fish, and nuts. Even though there is no definitive association between CVD incidence and high consumption of total sugar, such as sucrose and fructose, there is, however, evidence that total sugars, added sugars, and fructose are harmfully associated with CVD mortality. Since high fructose intake is associated with elevated plasma triglyceride levels, as well as insulin resistance, diabetes hyperuricemia, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, further longitudinal studies should be conducted to fully elucidate the potential association between certain sugars and CVD.

Manuel F. Struck ◽  
Benjamin Ondruschka ◽  
André Beilicke ◽  
Sebastian Krämer

Abstract Objective: Iatrogenic tracheal rupture is an unusual and severe complication that can be caused by tracheal intubation. The frequency, management, and outcome of iatrogenic tracheal rupture due to prehospital emergency intubation in adults by emergency response physicians has not yet been sufficiently explored. Methods: Adult patients with iatrogenic tracheal ruptures due to prehospital emergency intubation admitted to an academic referral center over a 15-year period (2004-2018) with consideration of individual risk factors were analyzed. Results: Thirteen patients (eight female) with a mean age of 67 years met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Of these, eight tracheal ruptures (62%) were caused during the airway management of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Stylet use and difficult laryngoscopy requiring multiple attempts were documented in eight cases (62%) and four cases (30%), respectively. Seven patients (54%) underwent surgery, while six patients (46%) were treated conservatively. The overall 30-day mortality was 46%; five patients died due to their underlying emergencies and one patient died of tracheal rupture. Three survivors (23%) recovered with severe neurological sequelae and four (30%) were discharged in good neurological condition. Survivors had significantly smaller mean rupture sizes (2.7cm versus 6.3cm; P <.001) and less cutaneous emphysema (n = 2 versus n = 6; P = .021) than nonsurvivors. Conclusions: Iatrogenic tracheal rupture due to prehospital emergency intubation is a rare complication. Published risk factors are not consistently present and may not be applicable to identify patients at high risk, especially not in rescue situations. Treatment options depend on individual patient condition, whereas outcome largely depends on the underlying disease and rupture extension.

BMC Neurology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Tiange Chen ◽  
Siming Chen ◽  
Yun Wu ◽  
Yilei Chen ◽  
Lei Wang ◽  

Abstract Background Progressive haemorrhagic injury after surgery in patients with traumatic brain injury often results in poor patient outcomes. This study aimed to develop and validate a practical predictive tool that can reliably estimate the risk of postoperative progressive haemorrhagic injury (PHI) in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods Data from 645 patients who underwent surgery for TBI between March 2018 and December 2020 were collected. The outcome was postoperative intracranial PHI, which was assessed on postoperative computed tomography. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression model, univariate analysis, and Delphi method were applied to select the most relevant prognostic predictors. We combined conventional coagulation test (CCT) data, thromboelastography (TEG) variables, and several predictors to develop a predictive model using binary logistic regression and then presented the results as a nomogram. The predictive performance of the model was assessed with calibration and discrimination. Internal validation was assessed. Results The signature, which consisted of 11 selected features, was significantly associated with intracranial PHI (p < 0.05, for both primary and validation cohorts). Predictors in the prediction nomogram included age, S-pressure, D-pressure, pulse, temperature, reaction time, PLT, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, FIB, and kinetics values. The model showed good discrimination, with an area under the curve of 0.8694 (95% CI, 0.8083–0.9304), and good calibration. Conclusion This model is based on a nomogram incorporating CCT and TEG variables, which can be conveniently derived at hospital admission. It allows determination of this individual risk for postoperative intracranial PHI and will facilitate a timely intervention to improve outcomes.

2022 ◽  
Jason Wilbur ◽  
Gerald Jogerst ◽  
Nicholas Butler ◽  
Yinghui Xu

Abstract Background: Older patients are at increased risk of falling and of serious morbidity and mortality resulting from falls. The ability to accurately identify older patients at increased fall risk affords the opportunity to implement interventions to reduce morbidity and mortality. Geriatricians are trained to assess older patients for fall risk. If geriatricians can accurately predict fallers (as opposed to evaluating for individual risk factors for falling), more aggressive and earlier interventions could be employed to reduce falls in older adult fallers. However, there is paucity of knowledge regarding the accuracy of geriatrician fall risk predictions. This study aims to determine the accuracy of geriatricians in predicting falls. Methods: Between October 2018 and November 2019, a convenience sample of 100 subjects was recruited from an academic geriatric clinic population seeking routine medical care. Subjects performed a series of gait and balance assessments, answered the Stay Independent Brochure and were surveyed about fall incidence 6-12 months after study entry. Five geriatricians, blinded to subjects and fall outcomes, were provided the subjects’ data and asked to categorize each as a faller or non-faller. No requirements were imposed on the geriatricians’ use of the available data. These predictions were compared to predictions of an examining geriatrician who performed the assessments and to fall outcomes reported by subjects. Results: Kappa values for the 5 geriatricians who used all the available data to classify participants as fallers or non-fallers compared with the examining geriatrician were 0.42 to 0.59, indicating moderate agreement. Compared to screening tools’ mean accuracy of 66.6% (59.6-73.0%), the 5 geriatricians had a mean accuracy for fall prediction of 67.4% (57.3-71.9%).Conclusions: This study adds to the scant knowledge available in the medical literature regarding the abilities of geriatricians to accurately predict falls in older patients. Studies are needed to characterize how geriatrician assessments of fall risk compare to standardized assessment tools.

2022 ◽  
pp. 10.1212/CPJ.0000000000001148
Miranda Mengyuan Wan ◽  
Angela Lee ◽  
Ronak Kapadia ◽  
Christopher Hahn

AbstractPurposeof Review: Vaccination has been associated with Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS). Amidst a global vaccination campaign to stop the spread of COVID-19, fears of GBS can contribute to vaccine-hesitancy. We describe three cases of GBS in Calgary, Canada presenting within 2 weeks of receiving the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (COVISHIELD) Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccination and review the available literature.Recent Findings:All three patients presented to hospital in Calgary, Alberta, Canada within a one-month time frame with GBS. Their clinical courses ranged from mild to severe impairment, all requiring immunomodulatory treatment.Summary:There is currently little evidence to support a causal relationship between vaccination and GBS. Furthermore, there is limited evidence to support recurrent GBS in patients with GBS temporally associated with vaccination. Neurologists should approach discussions with patients regarding GBS after vaccination carefully, so as not to misrepresent this relationship, and to educate patients that the risk of COVID-19 infection outweighs the small individual risk of a vaccine-associated adverse event.

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