peracetic acid
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2022 ◽  
Vol 45 ◽  
pp. 102507
Ravi Kumar Chhetri ◽  
Diego Francisco Sanchez ◽  
Sabine Lindholst ◽  
Alexander Valentin Hansen ◽  
Jesper Sanderbo ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 8-14
N. Eliza ◽  
R. Dewanti-Hariyadi ◽  
S. Nurjanah

Bacillus cereus is known to have the ability to adhere and form biofilms on the surface of stainless steel that causes problems in the food industries. Bacterial biofilms generally can increase resistance to sanitizer treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the ability of peracetic acid-based commercial sanitizer to inactivate B. cereus biofilm on stainless steel (SS) surfaces. Biofilm of B. cereus ATCC 10876 was developed on SS surfaces and treated with 7 commercial peracetic acid-based sanitizers at their recommended dosages. Two sanitizers, i.e. B (peracetic acid and QAC) and F (peracetic acid and acidified water) showing the ability to inactivate B. cereus on solid media at concentration of 200, 400, and 800 ppm were further tested on biofilms with contact times of 1, 3, and 5 minutes. The 48 hours biofilms B. cereus contained 2.78-3.78 CFU/cm2. Both sanitizers B and F had significant effects in inactivating B. cereus biofilm. In general, sanitizer B could reduce more biofilm bacteria at any contact time than sanitizer F. Use of 200 ppm of sanitizer B or F 5 minutes could inactivate 3.04 log CFU/cm2 and 2.68 log CFU/cm2 biofilm, respectively. Exposure of B. cereus biofilm to peracetic acid-based sanitizer resulted in the damage of the extracellular matrix of the biofilms. This study showed that commercial sanitizers containing peracetic acid and quaternary ammonium compounds were effective in inactivating B. cereus biofilms.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 160
Susana Fernandes ◽  
Inês B. Gomes ◽  
Sérgio F. Sousa ◽  
Manuel Simões

The present study evaluates the antimicrobial susceptibility of persister cells of Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas fluorescens after their regrowth in suspension and as biofilms. Two conventional (benzalkonium chloride—BAC and peracetic acid—PAA) and two emerging biocides (glycolic acid—GA and glyoxal—GO) were selected for this study. Persister cells resulted from biofilms subjected to a critical treatment using the selected biocides. All biocide treatments developed B. cereus persister cells, except PAA that effectively reduced the levels of vegetative cells and endospores. P. fluorescens persister cells comprise viable and viable but non-culturable cells. Afterwards, persister cells were regrown in suspension and in biofilms and were subjected to a second biocide treatment. In general, planktonic cultures of regrown persister cells in suspension lost their antimicrobial tolerance, for both bacteria. Regrown biofilms of persister cells had antimicrobial susceptibility close to those regrown biofilms of biocide-untreated cells, except for regrown biofilms of persister P. fluorescens after BAC treatment, which demonstrated increased antimicrobial tolerance. The most active biocide against persister cells was PAA, which did not promote changes in susceptibility after their regrowth. In conclusion, persister cells are ubiquitous within biofilms and survive after critical biocide treatment. The descendant planktonic and biofilms populations showed similar properties as the original ones.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Hiroshi Nozaki ◽  
Yoshihiro Tange ◽  
Yoji Inada ◽  
Takashi Uchino ◽  
Nakanobu Azuma

<b><i>Introduction:</i></b> Ultrapurification of dialysis fluid has enabled highly efficient dialysis treatments. Online hemodiafiltration is one such treatment that uses a purified dialysis fluid as a supplemental fluid. In this method, an endotoxin retentive filter (ETRF) is used in the final step of dialysis fluid purification, with the aim of preventing leakage of endotoxins. Sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid are used as disinfecting agents for the dialysis fluid pipes containing the ETRF; however, the effects of these agents on ETRF membrane pores have not been fully clarified. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> Water permeability (flux) and endotoxin permeability were assessed in 3 types of ETRFs made with different membrane materials: polyester polymer alloy (PEPA), polyether sulfone (PES), and polysulfone (PS). High-concentration sodium hypochlorite and 2 types of peracetic acid were used as disinfecting agents, and the changes in flux and the endotoxin sieving coefficient (SC) were measured. <b><i>Results:</i></b> After repeated use of high concentrations of sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid, the PEPA and PES ETRFs did not permit passage of endotoxins, regardless of their flux. However, in the PS ETRF, the flux and endotoxin SC increased with the number of cleaning cycles. No differences were observed according to the concentration of peracetic acid disinfecting agents. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> PEPA and PES ETRFs completely prevent endotoxin leakage and can be disinfected at concentrations higher than the conventionally recommended concentration without affecting pore expansion. Even new PS ETRFs have low levels of endotoxin leakage, which increase after disinfection cycles using sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid.

2022 ◽  
Isaiah Spencer‐Williams ◽  
Allister Theobald ◽  
Christopher C. Cypcar ◽  
Leonard W. Casson ◽  
Sarah‐Jane Haig

Afsaneh Farjami ◽  
Mohammad‐sadegh Hatami ◽  
Mohammadreza Siahi‐Shadbad ◽  
Farzaneh Lotfipour

BMC Zoology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
João Osório ◽  
Kevin T. Stiller ◽  
Britt-Kristin Reiten ◽  
Jelena Kolarevic ◽  
Lill-Heidi Johansen ◽  

Abstract Background Fish encounter oxidative stress several times during their lifetime, and it has a pervasive influence on their health and welfare. One of the triggers of oxidative stress in fish farming is the use of oxidative disinfectants to improve rearing conditions, especially in production systems employing recirculation technology. Here we report the physiological and morphological adaptive responses of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) post-smolts to intermittent exposure to a potent oxidative agent peracetic acid (PAA). Fish reared in semi-commercial scale brackish water recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) were exposed to 1 ppm PAA every 3 days over 6 weeks. Mucosal and systemic responses were profiled before exposure, 22 and 45 days during the intermittent PAA administration. Results Oxidative stress was likely triggered as plasma antioxidant capacity increased significantly during the exposure period. Adaptive stress response to the periodic oxidant challenge was likewise demonstrated in the changes in plasma glucose and lactate levels. PAA-induced alterations in the transcription of antioxidants, cytokines, heat shock proteins and mucin genes showed a tissue-specific pattern: downregulation was observed in the gills and olfactory rosette, upregulation occurred in the skin, and no substantial changes in the liver. Further, PAA exposure resulted in histological changes in key mucosal organs (i.e. olfactory rosette, skin and gills); pathological alterations were predominant in the gills where cases of epithelial lifting, hypertrophy and clubbing were prevalent. In addition, intermittent PAA administration resulted in an apparent overproduction of mucus in the nasal mucosa. Lastly, PAA did not dramatically alter the ability of salmon to mount a physiological stress response in the presence of a secondary stressor, though some subtle interference was documented in the kinetics and magnitude of plasma cortisol and glucose response post-stress. Conclusions The present study collectively demonstrated that intermittent oxidant exposure was a mild environmental stressor that salmon could mount strong adaptive responses at systemic and mucosal levels. The results will be valuable in optimising the rearing conditions of post-smolts in RAS, especially in adopting water treatment strategies that do not considerably interfere with fish health and welfare.

2022 ◽  
Bhagirath Ghimire ◽  
Endre J. Szili ◽  
Bethany L. Patenall ◽  
Dharmit Mistry ◽  
Adrian Fellows ◽  

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