Atlantic Salmon
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Alexandra Leeper ◽  
Ricardo Ekmay ◽  
Stephen Knobloch ◽  
Sigurlaug Skírnisdóttir ◽  
Madhushri Varunjikar ◽  

AbstractAtlantic salmon aquaculture is expanding, and with it, the need to find suitable replacements for conventional protein sources used in formulated feeds. Torula yeast (Cyberlindnera jadinii), has been identified as a promising alternative protein for feed and can be sustainably cultivated on lignocellulosic biomasses. The present study investigated the impact of torula yeast on the growth performance and gut microbiome of freshwater Atlantic salmon. A marine protein base diet and a mixed marine and plant protein base diet were tested, where conventional proteins were replaced with increasing inclusion levels of torula yeast, (0%, 10%, 20%). This study demonstrated that 20% torula yeast can replace fish meal without alteration to growth performance while leading to potential benefits for the gut microbiome by increasing the presence of bacteria positively associated with the host. However, when torula yeast replaced plant meal in a mixed protein diet, results suggested that 10% inclusion of yeast produced the best growth performance results but at the 20% inclusion level of yeast, potentially negative changes were observed in the gut microbial community, such as a decrease in lactic acid bacteria. This study supports the continued investigation of torula yeast for Atlantic salmon as a partial replacement for conventional proteins.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Yanxian Li ◽  
Karina Gajardo ◽  
Alexander Jaramillo-Torres ◽  
Trond M. Kortner ◽  
Åshild Krogdahl

Abstract Background Being part of fish's natural diets, insects have become a practical alternative feed ingredient for aquaculture. While nutritional values of insects have been extensively studied in various fish species, their impact on the fish microbiota remains to be fully explored. In an 8-week freshwater feeding trial, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were fed either a commercially relevant reference diet or an insect meal diet wherein black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal comprised 60% of total ingredients. Microbiota of digesta and mucosa origin from the proximal and distal intestine were collected and profiled along with feed and water samples. Results The insect meal diet markedly modulated the salmon intestinal microbiota. Salmon fed the insect meal diet showed similar or lower alpha-diversity indices in the digesta but higher alpha-diversity indices in the mucosa. A group of bacterial genera, dominated by members of the Bacillaceae family, was enriched in salmon fed the insect meal diet, which confirms our previous findings in a seawater feeding trial. We also found that microbiota in the intestine closely resembled that of the feeds but was distinct from the water microbiota. Notably, bacterial genera associated with the diet effects were also present in the feeds. Conclusions We conclude that salmon fed the insect meal diets show consistent changes in the intestinal microbiota. The next challenge is to evaluate the extent to which these alterations are attributable to feed microbiota and dietary nutrients, and what these changes mean for fish physiology and health.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Alfonso Prado-Cabrero ◽  
Rafael Herena-Garcia ◽  
John M. Nolan

AbstractAquaculture is looking for substitutes for fishmeal and fish oil to maintain its continued growth. Zooplankton is the most nutritious option, but its controlled mass production has not yet been achieved. In this context, we have developed a monoalgal ‘green water’ closed-loop bioreactor with the microalgae Tetraselmis chui that continuously produced the harpacticoid copepod Tigriopus californicus. During 145 days of operation, the 2.2 m3 bioreactor produced 3.9 kg (wet weight) of Tigriopus with (dry weight) 0.79 ± 0.29% eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), 0.82 ± 0.26% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), 1.89 ± 0,60% 3S,3’S-astaxanthin and an essential amino acid index (EAAI) of 97% for juvenile Atlantic salmon. The reactor kept the pH stable over the operation time (pH 8.81 ± 0.40 in the algae phase and pH 8.22 ± 2.96 in the zooplankton phase), while constantly removed nitrate (322.6 mg L−1) and phosphate (20.4 mg L−1) from the water. As a result of the stable pH and nutrient removal, the bioreactor achieved zero effluent discharges. The upscaling of monoalgal, closed-loop ‘green water’ bioreactors could help standardize zooplankton mass production to supply the aquafeeds industry.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Xi Xue ◽  
Albert Caballero-Solares ◽  
Jennifer R. Hall ◽  
Navaneethaiyer Umasuthan ◽  
Surendra Kumar ◽  

Salmonid rickettsial septicemia (SRS), caused by Piscirickettsia salmonis, is one of the most devastating diseases of salmonids. However, the transcriptomic responses of Atlantic salmon (Salmon salar) in freshwater to an EM-90-like isolate have not been explored. Here, we infected Atlantic salmon parr with an EM-90-like isolate and conducted time-course qPCR analyses of pathogen load and four biomarkers (campb, hampa, il8a, tlr5a) of innate immunity on the head kidney samples. Transcript expression of three of these genes (except hampa), as well as pathogen level, peaked at 21 days post-injection (DPI). Multivariate analyses of infected individuals at 21 DPI revealed two infection phenotypes [lower (L-SRS) and higher (H-SRS) infection level]. Five fish from each group (Control, L-SRS, and H-SRS) were selected for transcriptome profiling using a 44K salmonid microarray platform. We identified 1,636 and 3,076 differentially expressed probes (DEPs) in the L-SRS and H-SRS groups compared with the control group, respectively (FDR = 1%). Gene ontology term enrichment analyses of SRS-responsive genes revealed the activation of a large number of innate (e.g. “phagocytosis”, “defense response to bacterium”, “inflammatory response”) and adaptive (e.g. “regulation of T cell activation”, “antigen processing and presentation of exogenous antigen”) immune processes, while a small number of general physiological processes (e.g. “apoptotic process”, development and metabolism relevant) was enriched. Transcriptome results were confirmed by qPCR analyses of 42 microarray-identified transcripts. Furthermore, the comparison of individuals with differing levels of infection (H-SRS vs. L-SRS) generated insights into the biological processes possibly involved in disease resistance or susceptibility. This study demonstrated a low mortality (~30%) EM-90-like infection model and broadened the current understanding of molecular pathways underlying P. salmonis-triggered responses of Atlantic salmon, identifying biomarkers that may assist to diagnose and combat this pathogen.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 ◽  
Vadivel Parthsarathy ◽  
Chris M. McLaughlin ◽  
Shaun J. Sharkey ◽  
Pádraigín A. Harnedy-Rothwell ◽  
Ryan A. Lafferty ◽  

There is increasing interest in dietary protein for management of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity. The effects of twice-daily oral administration of a salmon skin gelatin hydrolysate (SSGH, 50 mg/kg), boarfish protein hydrolysate (BPH, (50 mg/kg), metformin (200 mg/kg), or saline control, were investigated in ob/ob mice. Non-fasting blood glucose was significantly reduced with SSGH (p<0.01), BPH (p<0.001) and metformin (p<0.001), which were reflected in reductions in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) (p<0.001, p<0.01 and p<0.01, respectively). Responses to oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance were improved (p<0.05-0.01), as well as circulating plasma lipid profiles (p<0.05-0.001). Chronic BPH treatment increased circulating plasma insulin (p<0.01), whereas SSGH improved insulin sensitivity (p<0.05), versus respective controls. All treatments significantly reduced energy intake (p<0.05-<0.001) versus (ob/ob) controls, without affecting overall bodyweight. These findings suggest that fish hydrolysates mediate potent anti-diabetic actions similar to metformin and might be suitable for the management and prevention of T2DM.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (52) ◽  
Geir H. Bolstad ◽  
Sten Karlsson ◽  
Ingerid J. Hagen ◽  
Peder Fiske ◽  
Kurt Urdal ◽  

Vaccines ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 16
Haitham Tartor ◽  
Marius Karlsen ◽  
Rasmus Skern-Mauritzen ◽  
Adérito Luis Monjane ◽  
Charles McLean Press ◽  

Vaccination against salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) is a means of control that averts the negative effects of chemical approaches. Here, we studied the immunogenicity and protective effect of a vaccine formulation (based on a salmon lice-gut recombinant protein [P33]) against Lepeophtheirus salmonis infestation in Atlantic salmon in a laboratory-based trial. Our findings revealed that P33 vaccine can provide a measure of protection against immature and adult salmon lice infestation. This protection seemed to be vaccine dose-dependent, where higher doses resulted in lower parasitic infestation rates. We also provide immunological evidence confirming that P33-specific immune response can be triggered in Atlantic salmon after P33 vaccination, and that production of P33-specific antibodies in blood can be detected in vaccinated fish. The negative correlation between P33-specific IgM in salmon plasma and salmon lice numbers on vaccinated fish suggests that protection against lice can be mediated by the specific antibody in salmon plasma. The success of P33 vaccination in protecting salmon against lice confirms the possibility of employing the hematophagous nature of the parasite to deliver salmon-specific antibodies against lice-gut proteins.

Biology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 1
Valentina Valenzuela-Muñoz ◽  
Cristian Gallardo-Escárate ◽  
Bárbara P. Benavente ◽  
Diego Valenzuela-Miranda ◽  
Gustavo Núñez-Acuña ◽  

The growing amount of genome information and transcriptomes data available allows for a better understanding of biological processes. However, analysis of complex transcriptomic experimental designs involving different conditions, tissues, or times is relevant. This study proposes a novel approach to analyze complex data sets combining transcriptomes and miRNAs at the chromosome-level genome. Atlantic salmon smolts were transferred to seawater under two strategies: (i) fish group exposed to gradual salinity changes (GSC) and (ii) fish group exposed to a salinity shock (SS). Gills, intestine, and head kidney samples were used for total RNA extraction, followed by mRNA and small RNA illumina sequencing. Different expression patterns among the tissues and treatments were observed through a whole-genome transcriptomic approach. Chromosome regions highly expressed between experimental conditions included a great abundance of transposable elements. In addition, differential expression analysis showed a greater number of transcripts modulated in response to SS in gills and head kidney. miRNA expression analysis suggested a small number of miRNAs involved in the smoltification process. However, target analysis of these miRNAs showed a regulatory role in growth, stress response, and immunity. This study is the first to evidence the interplaying among mRNAs and miRNAs and the structural relationship at the genome level during Atlantic salmon smoltification.

Malthe Hvas ◽  
Samantha Bui

Parasites are widespread in nature where they affect energy budgets of hosts, and depending on the imposed pathogenic severity, this may reduce host fitness. However, the energetic costs of parasite infections are rarely quantified. In this study, we measured metabolic rates in recently seawater adapted Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) infected with the ectoparasitic copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis and used an aerobic scope framework to assess the potential ecological impact of this parasite-host interaction. The early chalimus stages of L. salmonis did not affect either standard or maximum metabolic rates. However, the later mobile pre-adult stages caused an increase in both standard and maximum metabolic rate yielding a preserved aerobic scope. Notably, standard metabolic rates were elevated by 26%, presumably caused by increased osmoregulatory burdens and costs of mobilizing immune responses. The positive impact on maximum metabolic rates was unexpected and suggests that fish are able to transiently overcompensate energy production to endure the burden of parasites and thus allow for continuation of normal activities. However, infected fish are known to suffer reduced growth, and this suggests that a trade-off exists in acquisition and assimilation of resources despite of an uncompromised aerobic scope. As such, when assessing impacts of environmental or biotic factors, we suggest that elevated routine costs may be a stronger predictor of reduced fitness than the available aerobic scope. Furthermore, studying effects on parasitized fish in an ecophysiological context deserves more attention, especially considering interacting effects of other stressors in the Anthropocene.

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